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Table of Contents: Volume 16; Issue 05; May 2024

Life Sciences

  1. Prakash B. Jadhavar and Jadhavar, V. R.

    The Desmidiaceae is a family of green algae, commonly referred to as desmids. Desmids are characterized by their unique cell structure, which often appears symmetrical due to the presence of a median constriction. They are predominantly freshwater algae and are found in various aquatic habitats worldwide. Several genera within the family Desmidiaceae are notable for their diversity and ecological importance. Desmids have a single cell that is typically divided into two symmetrical halves, each containing a nucleus and chloroplasts. The two halves are joined by a narrow band known as an isthmus. They play a crucial role in freshwater ecosystems as primary producers, contributing to the food web by converting sunlight into organic matter through photosynthesis. They also serve as indicators of water quality, with certain species being sensitive to pollution and environmental changes.

  2. Sunil Kumar Dorga, Manpreet Kaur Saini and Dr. Jatinderpal Singh

    The present study was conducted on 10 vermicomposting units of the Gurdaspur and Amritsar districts of Punjab. Eisenia foetida dominated all vermi-composters mainly with cattle dung. This epigeic species is capable of better growth, multiplication, cocoon formation, and vermicomposting waste material efficiently and can withstand cold and heat environment conditions. Bacteria and multicellular organisms populate vermicomposting. Vermibin fungi include Aspergillus, Corynascus, Penicillium, Thermomyces, and Trichoderma where Aspergillus dominates all fungi. All ten vermicomposting units had Meloidogyne nematodes. Decomposer dung bugs were numerous in cattle-dung vermibeds. Fungal gnats eat vermibed waste, Dipteran larvae eat rotting produce and debris and Summer's grey slug moved centipedes. The predatory nature of red mites and decomposing nature of white and brown mites were also observed during the investigation. Spider webs near vermicomposting operations may indirectly contribute whereas Pseudoscorpions and pot worms aid composting. Fruit flies, which eat earthworms, were more abundant in vegetable and fruit waste vermibeds. Earthworms and primary decomposer springtails accelerate decomposition. Red ants harm vermicomposting by eating earthworms. Termites harmed earthworms by delving into decomposing waste. Vermibeds' upper millipedes digest waste without harming earthworms. Vermicomposting beds only have centipedes in summer. Sparrows, crows, birds, snakes, lizards, and toads frequently visited vermicomposting beds.

  3. Hiralal Jana and Debabrata Basu

    The agricultural sector employs nearly half of the workforce in India. However, its contribution to the GDP has been declining steadily in recent years from from 18.2 percent in 2014-15 to 16.5 percent in 2019-20 according to the Economic Survey 2019-20. As high as 61 percent of the farmers practice rainfed farming with 55 percent of the crop area in India being rain dependent, while the rest is irrigated using tubewells, canals, wells, tanks, and other sources. Fifty percent of agriculture depends on groundwater in India with 39 million hectares of land irrigated by groundwater, 22 million by canals with about 100 million hectares being rainfed. Agriculture consumes around 80 percent of India’s available water and 90 percent of the total production includes water-guzzling varieties like sugarcane, wheat, and rice. This inefficient use of water has led to a dip in India’s per capita water availability from 4000 m3 in 1947 to 1545 m3 in 2015 making India a water stressed country. Farm Pond is one such program initiated. The Farm Pond program has triggered a grassroots‐level movement for sustainable agriculture. It helps farmers engage in sustainable agricultural practices involving rainwater conservation and harvesting. Although the farm pond technology is well known in the country, its adoption has been quite low due to number of constraints like high initial cost, short life of the lining materials, lack of suitable lifting systems and above all low awareness among farmers about its utility and cost benefit analysis. There is also lack of authentic literature on the design and performance of farm ponds in different agro ecological zones and soil types. Several programs of the Government of India like RADP (Rainfed Area Development Program), NHM, MGNREGS and IWMP have farm pond as one of the important components. The field staff involved in the implementation of such schemes often face difficulties in designing these structures at a given site considering the rainfall, slope and soil characteristics.

  4. Monisha, M.N., Asima Banu and Raasiya Farooq

    Aim:To investigate the correlation between biofilm formation and its potential association with genes involved in biofilm production and antibiotic resistance mechanisms in MDR A. baumanniiclinical isolates. Through phenotypic assays and molecular analysis, we characterized biofilm production and determined antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Methods: A total of 50 isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from endotracheal aspirates of the ICU patients’ samples received at the Department of Microbiology, BMCRI were collected and identified by VITEK 2 automated system as per laboratory protocol.Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing was performed as per CLSI 2023 guidelines using Kirby bauer disc diffusion & vitek2 system. The biofilm production capability of the isolates was evaluated by qualitative tube method and bap gene &gyr A gene were detected by PCR. Result: Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were predominantly found in Endotracheal aspirates. A total of (41/50)82.5% isolates were MDR organisms.(39/50)78%isolates formed biofilms. (24/39) isolates (61.5%) were strong biofilm former, (9) weakly adherent, (6) non-biofilm producers.36 isolates (72%) showed the presence of bap gene of which 5 isolates were negative for biofilm producers and 30 isolates (60%) showed presence of gyr A gene of which 3 isolates were negative for biofilm producers and all were multi drug resistant. Discussion and Conclusion: The study concludes that there is a positive correlation between biofilm formation and associated genes in A. baumannii, the frequency of bap gene and gyrA gene were 72 % and 60% respectively. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between frequency of gyr A gene and biofilm formation (p=0.017) and significant correlation between bap gene and biofilm formation (p= <0.001). Biofilm production promotes increased colonization and persistence leading to higher rates of device related infections. Strict adherence to infection control practices, such as hand hygiene, environmental cleaning and patient isolation can help mitigate the spread of these resistant organisms.

  5. Anuraj, Satya Shandilya and Dr. Dharmshila Kumari

    Iron (Fe) is a heavy metal critical in trace amounts for the cellular functions of humans, plants, and animals, playing an important role in oxygen transport through hemoglobin protein. Nevertheless, excessive Fe intake can lead to toxicity in organisms. In this study, the mitigating effect of Tachyspermum ammi seeds against genotoxic damage induced by Iron on PCEs and NCEs in mice bone marrow cells was assessed using the Micronucleus test. The results revealed a significant increase in micronucleus formation in the FeSO4-treated group compared to the control. However, concurrent treatment with T. ammi leaf extract and FeSO4 resulted in significantly lower micronucleus formation compared to the FeSO4-treated group, nearly reaching levels equivalent to the control. Hence, while Fe is essential in trace amounts for maintaining metabolic activities in organisms, it is observed that excessive Fe exposure can induce toxicity, potentially affecting genetic integrity.

  6. Ardhendu Kumar Mandal and Sunit Kumar Chakraborty

    Cancer is one of the dreadful diseases having the highest mortality rate throughout the year worldwide. The treatments with conventional chemotherapeutics face the problems of drug resistance, insolubility, non-selectivity, toxicity and biological barriers that weaken the patient to cure effectively. To overcome these barriers, fluorophore-drug conjugates as imaging based targeted delivery and therapy systems have emerged as attractive platform against cancer to maximize their therapeutic efficacies to the specific site/s of interest, reducing the potential side effects. Anticancer drugs and other ligands anchored to fluorescein based chemosensors by various linkers have been investigated to monitor the real time fluorescent imaging in drug delivery followed by stimuli responsive therapies. The drug liberation triggered by bio and chemo hydrolytic environments is visualized based on ‘switch on’ fluorescence of the fluorophore-moiety of fluorescein-drug conjugates for non-invasive cancer imaging. The conjugation of free phenolic hydroxyl or carboxylic groups of fluorescein chemosensor to the hydroxyl group of drugs or specific carriers are employed by biodegradable amino and oxy acrylate linkers for targeted drug delivery applications. This review mainly demonstrates the biomedical applications of small molecule-based non-cleavable and cleavable fluorophore-drug conjugates as delivery systems through fluorescent monitoring of drug liberation, accompanied with chemo, photothermal and photodynamic therapies to avail higher targeted therapeutic efficiencies against cancer.

  7. Nkasa Liwata Helmont, Mulenga Mbombo Christophe,Taba Kalulu Muzele, Malongwe K’ Ekuboni Joseph, Ngoy Bokolombe Pitchou, Kindala Tinatina Junior and Kayembe Sungula Jean

    The present study reports a kinetics study of alkaline hydrolysis of a secreted Mycolactone by Mycobacterium ulcerans with the Phytomedicine called “MATHESIA” using the Conductometric measurement during the hydrolysis reaction. We also explored the influence of MATHESIA concentration on the rate constant of the hydrolysis reaction. Experiments were conducted in varying Mathesia concentrations from 173 to 17.30µg/ml. The results obtained demonstrate that the enhancement of reactant diffusion leads to an increased rate of Mycolactone hydrolysis. This effect was observed across a range of rate constants, specifically from 62.147 to 153.894M-1.s-1 when the concentration of MATHESIA decreases from 173 to 34.60 µg/ml, beyond this point (34.60 µg/ml), further dilution led to an inverse effect, resulting in a decrease of the rate constantfrom 139.48 to 56.123 M-1.s-1when the concentration of MATHESIA decreases from 28.83 to 17.30 µg/ml.This decrease could be attributed to the significant dilution of the solution, subsequently reducing the concentrations of reactants within the medium.

  8. Manjula, K.V. and Renukadevi, D.N.

    Epilepsy is a common problem among the people and it is a disorder of brain characterized by repeated seizures. It is having social discriminations due to lot of stigma and misconceptions about the disease with fear and anxiety. This stigma presents in many countries today also and we can see the impact on the quality of life for people with the disease and their families. The objective of the study to assess the attitude and knowledge among the people resides around the suttur village, Mysore. The methods was used a descriptive study designs was adopted and random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Among 100 samples 60% were male and 40% were female. Their majority age around 18 to 45 years, 47% people were agreed with Epilepsy is caused by punishment of god, 88% people were dis agreed with Epilepsy caused by Evil spirit. 72% people were dis agreed with Epilepsy only seen in poor people. 88% people were dis agreed with Epilepsy person should isolate from family. 55% people were dis agreed with Epilepsy person can lead healthy lifestyle. The result suggests that still stigma was present There are no significant difference in the attitude scores of with misconception and gaps. There is a need for multi educational programme improving the awareness of the Epilepsy and can remove this stigma and discrimination.

Physical Sciences and Engineering

  1. Lili Zhu, Shihuo Wang, Cuiyu An, Yalin Xie, Yue Yin and Shaobai Wen

    The ecotoxicological impacts of microplastics (MPs) on aquatic organisms have garnered considerable attention; however, the toxic effects of MPs on aquatic organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations have been underreported. In this study, juvenile marine medaka were exposed to polyethylene and polylactic acid at concentrations of 20 μg/L for a duration of 60 days. The findings revealed that prolonged exposure to different types of MPs at low concentrations did not exhibit significant detrimental effects on the growth and intestinal tissues of juvenile fish. Nonetheless, long-term exposure led to alterations in gut microbial composition in juvenile fish, potentially influencing their functional roles. PICRUSt2 prediction analysis demonstrated a significant down-regulation in Isoleucine Biosynthesis function within the PE-exposed group at Level 3. Overall, further attention is warranted regarding the adverse consequences associated with prolonged exposure to environmental MPs on aquatic organisms.

  2. Ira Das, Surat Priya Sethi, Chanchal Sharma, Himanshi Solanki, Nandini Dubey and Khushbu Gupta

    Dignity of labour means equal respect for all types of mental or manual jobs without discrimination. A double group design was made to test the significance of difference. 'Dignity of Labour' scale by Das and Sharma (2020) was used. A sample of 214 students selected randomly from the city of Agra and Mathura. All the students in the sample were between 18 to 25 years of age. Mean of DEI Students (N=66) came out to be 63.86 with standard deviation of 4.47 and mean seore of Non-DEI students (N=154) was 61.10, with standard deviation of 5.73. At degree of freedom 212, the value of t = 3.8 was found to be significant at .01 level.

Health Sciences

  1. Dr. Sajad Nazir Malla, Dr. Asif Mehraj, Dr. Waseem Ul Rahman dar and Dr. Sheikh Bisma Ramzan

    Hydatid disease (HD) is due to infection by tapeworm Echinocococcus granulosus in its larval or cyst stage. The tapeworm lives in canids which are infected by eating the viscera of sheep that contain hydatid cysts. Most of cysts are found in liver, lungs, spleen brain and bones. The localization of hydatid cyst in muscle is rare (0.7-0.9%), even in endemic countries. Muscle hydatidosis is rare, possibly because of muscle lactic acid content and muscle contraction, two factors that likely prevent cyst growth in striated muscle. Herein we report a case of muscular hydatidosis, with concomitant hydatid liver in a 43 year female who is a known case of systemic sclerosis

  2. Dr. Siddhant Rajput, Dr. Hamid Ashraf and Prof. Zafar, K.S.

    Introduction: Sheehan's syndrome is hypopituitarism due to pituitary gland necrosis resulting from hemorrhagic shock during pregnancy. It is a rare complication with varied manifestations and a considerable delay in diagnosis. Case Presentation: We present the case of of a 38 year old woman, who presented to emergency with complaints of acute abdomen and decreased sensorium. She had no previous treatment history. On haematological and radiological assessment, she was diagnosed to be a case of Sheehan’s syndrome with primary insult 18 years back. Investigations: Patient was investigated for all the hormonal axis- LH, FSH, Estradiol for HPO axis , Thyroid Profile, ACTH and Cortisol for HPA axis. Brain imaging using Pituitary protocol was done, which found complete Empty sella. Discussion: Patient was treated with replacement therapy for steroid and thyroid axis, which lead to unmasking of Diabetes Insipidus as free water clearance improved, desmopressin supplementation. There was a rapid improvement in patient outlook within one week of institution of therapy. Conclusion: Previous case reports describe patients being diagnosed after one or more complications from long-term panhypopituitarism. The present case illustrates that undiagnosed Sheehan's syndrome is associated with long-term morbidity, and we want to emphasize that a high index of suspicion is crucial for the early diagnosis of the syndrome in routine clinical visits in order to prevent complications arising with delayed diagnosis. Awareness among clinicians is also essential so that such cases are not overlooked, especially in developing nations, where home delivery is still common and obstetric care is limited.

  3. Chawla, Bhawna, Gupta, Kanav and Gupta, Brij, K.

    Background- Globally, pathologic myopia is a leading cause of visual impairment. Pathologic myopia is characterized by the presence of typical fundus changes (posterior staphyloma or myopic maculopathy). Many eye and vision professionals have been alerted to the global incidence of pathological myopia and are taking steps to stop its progression. Methods- This systematic review article is carried out after comprehensive analysis .Analysis is carried out following a thorough search of academic and guideline database for a period of one month.Once all searches were combined, observations were noted down in one month. Results - Evidence have shown that a proactive reshaping of the eyeball is the core point of myopia developing process, which particularly includes the weakening, thinning, and expanding of the sclera. As a result, it is thought that the sclera is a prime target for therapeutic modification to stop the progression of myopia. Hypoplasia and loss of RPE are characteristics seen during the progression of myopic maculopathy.The preliminary work has shown a promising way in stem cell-based therapy of patients with myopic maculopathy. Therefore, it is possible to achieve the ambitious goal by stem cell-based therapy. Conclusion- In this paper, we postulate that through shaping the eyeball and inhibiting abnormal scleral remodelling, scleral collagen cross-linking, or SXL, has enormous potential for stabilizing the myopic process.Also, replacing atrophic RPE cells with healthy ones through transplantation of RPE cells appears to be a better method of improving the visual outcomes of pathological myopia patients.

  4. Dr. Ravi Kumar, Dr. Vineender Reddy, B., Dr. Rashi Srivastava, Dr. Ashutosh Chajjed, Dr. Dinesh Saini and Dr. Mannan

    SLE is an autoimmune disease in which organ damage is mediated by auto-antibodies and immune complexes. Around 90% of patients are women of child bearing age. It is ~9 times more prevalent in women than in men. SLE is newly diagnosed in 4 lakh people each year worldwide 1,2. SLE can involve many organ systems likewise musculoskeletal, dermatological, renal, neurological, hematological, cardiopulmonary, ocular and gastrointestinal. Severity of SLE varies from mild and intermittent to severe and fulminant. Neurological manifestations are common in SLE occuring in ~ 60% of patients but Myelopathy is rarest presentation among neurological manifestations (< 1%). Hence we are reporting a rare case of a young female patient of SLE presented with cervical myelopathy Subject Area: Internal Medicine and Rheumatology

  5. Dr. Vimal Ranka and Dr. Jimit Patel

    Takayasu’s arteritis is a chronic vasculitis of medium and large vessels. The most involved vessel is the aorta and its major branches. The disease is primarily seen in young women. The described incidence of the disease ranges from 0.3 to 3.3 million per year. The vessels are characterized by mononuclear infiltration and granulomatous inflammation of vascular media, which leads to arterial wall thickening with stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysmal dilation. Here we present a case of Takayasu’s arteritis in a 58 year-old woman who presented with fever and rashsince 1 month. . Early diagnosis and treatment are warranted. When the disease is dormant, the outcome seems favourable.

  6. Dr. Ligil A.R., Dr. Rosaline Tina Paul, Dr. Roshna Mandayapurathu, Dr. Joseph K. Thanikunnel and Dr. Parsen Paul

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a potentially serious and life-threatening disorder affecting millions of people around the world. It is a sleep-related respiratory condition, characterized by the complete or partial collapse of breathing because of a narrowing or closure of the upper airway during sleep, resulting in intermittent cessations of breathing (apneas) or reductions in airflow (hypopneas) despite ongoing respiratory effort. The symptoms include excessive daytime sleepiness, Mood changes, Fragmented sleep, as well as the decreased health-related quality of life. Patients often complain of snoring, Gasping or choking, frequent nocturnal awakenings, early morning headaches, poor concentration and coordination, anxiety, irritability, and insomnia, yet many patients are unaware of these symptoms and disease onset is insidious. This article details the obstructive sleep apnoea

  7. Dr. Ligil A.R., Dr. Rosaline Tina Paul, Dr Roshna Mandayapurathu, Dr. Joseph K. Thanikunnel and Dr. Parsen Paul

    Cephalometric measurements on radiographic images are subject to errors that may be caused by: • Radiographic projection errors- magnification, distortion. • Errors within the measuring system – digitized,,, identification, scaling errors and linearity • Errors in landmark identification - The quality of the radiographic image sharpness, contrast, blur , noice. The precision of landmark definition and the reproducibility of landmark location.The operator and the registration procedure.

  8. Rinku C Rajeev, Mishal Ann Mathew, Mariya Elizabath Sunil, Dr. Merin and Dr. Ancy

    Hyperdontia, commonly referred to as supernumerary teeth, is a well-known dental anomaly in humans. It is defined as the presence of extra teeth exceeding the normal count in either primary or permanent dentition. The occurrence has been documented to range from 0.2 to 3%, with a higher frequency observed in males compared to females. The etiology of this condition is heterogeneous and highly variable, and a majority of cases are idiopathic in nature. However, the presence of multiple impacted or erupted supernumerary teeth is rare and often associated with specific genetic syndromes. Early detection of abnormalities allows us to implement appropriate patient management strategies and plays a vital role in making well-informed decisions concerning long-term medical care and treatments.

  9. Beavers, P.J., Khan, A.B. and Merhavy, Z.I.

    Facial proportion changes and volume loss are commonly experienced corporeal changes, whether due to the natural process of senescence or as a side effect of systemic illness. Because these physical transformations are inevitably experienced by most people, treatments that assist in the maintenance or restoration of a youthful, yet natural appearance have long been a subject of great interest in the medical field. Thanks to the relative ease and low cost with which they ameliorate certain aspects of the aging process, facial and lip filling treatments have developed into a point of focus in the world of aesthetic medicine. As it currently stands, facial and lip volume enhancement or restoration can be achieved with a multitude of injectable products, including temporary and permanent fillers. With an ever-increasing number of materials at their disposal, providers in the cosmetic industry have many important choices to make when advocating biomaterials to their patients based on desired aesthetic outcomes. This review aims to meticulously discuss different aspects of the most commonly employed biomaterials in the cosmetic facial and lip filler industry today, as well as the particular treatments for which each material is best suited. The specific biomaterials addressed in this review include: collagen (human bioengineered and bovine), hyaluronic acid (HA), poly(L)-lactic acid (PLLA), calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and autologous fat grafting (AFG). For each biomaterial discussed, the review provides information on how they became commonly used in aesthetic medicine, specific injection techniques, desirable cosmetic medicinal properties, and optimal situational applications for each biomaterial in the setting of elective patient cosmetic augmentation.

  10. Suman Ghosh and Banani Mondal

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization around has led to the enormous amount of solid waste production. Many nations are facing the impact of environmental pollution due to improper waste disposal. Plastic and wood are the two most globally used materials in all walks of life. The use of plastic is a convenient choice but at the same time also hazardous and disastrous to the environment. Cutlery and crockery are one of the most simple and very useful worldwide devices created for consuming food. The disposal of plastic cutlery and crockery is hazardous to the environment. Though the plastic cutlery and crockery are hard to replace taking into account the convenience and costing but at the same time it is necessary to act wisely and sensibly towards sustainable environmental practices and innovate alternative and sustainable ways to plastic cutlery and crockery. One such innovation is the edible cutlery and crockery. Edible cutlery and crockery can turn out to be the future creating a positive impact on the environment and at the same time being nutritious. The concept of edible cutlery and crockery is being developed by many entrepreneurs. Very little is known about these in the hospitality and service sector. The research paper aims to explore the feasibility of edible cutlery and crockery in the hospitality sector.

  11. Resham Agarwal and Samir Khan

    The aim of this research is to examine if relationship satisfaction is impacted by Love styles, Sexual styles and Adult Attachment styles. An attempt is also made to find out if the independent variables have any relationship among them. The sample chosen for this study were individuals who are in a relationship currently for at least 3 months. The results indicated that the attachment style does not impact relationship satisfaction. The love styles and sexual styles did impact the relationship satisfaction for this population. There were also correlations found in attachment style and love styles, and sexual styles and love styles. Other factors like the type of relationship had an impact on love styles, however the duration of the relationship did not influence any of the variables.

  12. Atallah Habahbeh, Ph.D.R.N., Murad Alkhalaileh,Ph.D.R.N., Ibrahim Ayasreh, Ph.D.R.N., NiaserAlhroob, Ph.D.R.N., Liath Alousofe, Ph.D.R.N. and Renad Habahbeh, M.D. and Ahmad Aljabery, Msc. RN.

    The main purpose of this study is to identify the competencies of Jordanian nurses in patient safety. Using convenience sampling, we conducted a cross-sectional study from January to June 2023 in governmental hospitals. Furthermore, Descriptive data are presented as frequencies, percentages, mean values and standard deviations of variables, Pearson correlation was use to examine the relationship between certain demographic variables and patient safety competences. A significant positive relationship between age and work experience (.741**) and a significant negative relationship between age and separate module for patient safety (.-276**). Moreover, a negative relationship was detected between work experience and separate module for patient safety (.-364**). t- test was applied to examine the mean differences between patient safety competences and certain demographic variables, no statistical differences were detected. We recommend that a separate module for patient safety should be included in nursing curricula, continuous education on patient safety toprovide high quality of nursing care, further research is required including different hospitals in Jordan to identify different intervention to ensure patient safety.

  13. Living D. Nyaki, Nazima Dharsee, Rachel J. Mtei and Fileuka Ngakongwa

    Background: Depression is among the public health problems across the world and the leading cause of disability. A cancer diagnosis can lead to depression with global and Tanzania prevalence of 24% and 28% respectively. However, the associated factors of Depression in Cancer Patients in Tanzania have not been studied. This study seeks more recent information on the prevalence as well as the associated factors, and the results intend to raise awareness among healthcare providers on the importance of early diagnosis and management of depression in cancer patients. Aim: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of depression among cancer patients at Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI) in Dar es Salaam. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study, using consecutive random sampling. Logistic regression was applied for the identification of independently associated factors. Results: The prevalence of depression is 62.6% among 369 participants. A higher risk of depression was found in those with Low levels of education,low perceived social support, low general self-efficacy, and low level of hope. Conclusion: This study shows depression in cancer patients is high, which can lead to poor prognosis of cancer; hence the need for psychosocial interventions at cancer centers.

Social Sciences and Humanities

  1. Dr. Bharati Y Khasnis

    Teachers can play a significant role in making our environment pollution free by changing the attitude of students and society towards the environment. The Student teachers are the prospective teachers of the nation. So it is the time for the great concern for protection and preservation of natural resources which can only be possible if we have a right type of attitude towards proper awareness in the related matters. Teachers can bring awareness and attitude which can be possible through environmental education. The goal of environmental education in schools and colleges is to acquaint and sensitize the students towards environmental problems and concerns, to inculcate in them healthy personal and social attitude and behaviour towards environment. Hence, it is necessary to know how far the Student Teachers are aware about environment and environmental problems. A pilot study was carried out selecting 120 pupil teachers studying in teacher education colleges located at Vijayapur district .“Environmental pollution Attitude Scale” developed by Dr. M. Rajamanickam and “Environmental awareness ability measures (EAAM)” developed by Praveen Jha were used for the collection of data. The findings show that the female Student teachers were found to be more positive in their attitude towards environmental awareness than the Male pupil teachers.

  2. Dr. Zara Suharwardy, Dr. Anju Bala, Dr. Rajnish K Jain, Dr. Ambica Khetarpal, Dr. Sandeep Kumar and Dr. Umar Hussain Shah

    Objective: The purpose of this review article is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of dental caries, encompassing its etiology, risk factors, diagnostic methods, and management strategies. Through Critical analysis of existing literature and emerging research trends, this review aims to elucidate gaps in knowledge, and propose evidence-based recommendations for improving prevention, diagnosis and treatment approaches to mitigate the burden of dental caries on global oral health. Materials and method: Database system PubMed, Google Scholar, land research gate were used to extract the articles. Only English language studies were accessed. A Boolean search of the PubMed data set was implemented to combine a range of keywords. The following filters were applied: abstract, free full text, full text, clinical trial, randomized control trial, systemic review, meta-analysis and review. More studies were also obtained by manual searches and textbooks on dental caries. Results: By using this process, 683 articles and studies were obtained. The most relevant studies were chosen and used in the current review. The selected articles are included in the reference list. Conclusions: Dental caries management requires a multifaceted approach that integrates preventive, therapeutic strategies. While significant advancement has been made, challenges such as early detection and addressing disparities in access to care remain. By continuing to innovate and prioritize patient centered interventions, we can work towards achieving optimal oral health outcomes and reducing burden of dental caries worldwide.

  3. Tian Wang

    This paper takes the current situation of teaching leadership and educational resources allocation in Qingdao University (QU) and investigates the current situation of teaching leadership and educational resources allocation in the institution through survey questionnaires.In addition, it investigates the current situation of leadership and educational resources allocation in education in QU and analyzes the ability of leadership to effectively mobilize and allocate educational resources in QU. The study uncovered substantial and highly positive correlations between instructional leadership and efficient resource management among administrators. The interconnection between personal attributes, teaching philosophy, skills, and resources emphasizes the importance of a holistic approach to leadership development in educational institutions. These insights stress the need for cultivating not only specific skills but also personal qualities and a coherent teaching philosophy to facilitate effective resource management and the attainment of educational objectives.

  4. Sabornido, Elna B., Ardina, Genaro T., Baguio, Apple Joy P., Empedrado, Ian Rey A., Garma, Vernel A., Lumbab, Sarah Jean C., Red, Pretzel Ann G. and Ybañez, Cristiandion

    Philippines, one of the requirements that guarantee high-quality instruction is the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET). LET aims to differentiate individuals who possess the abilities and competencies required for entry into the teaching profession from those who do not. The performance of Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSED) graduates and their trend over an 11-year period in the LET was assessed in this study. Regression analysis and a descriptive-quantitative research design was used in this quantitative longitudinal investigation. The study's findings demonstrate that from 2011 to 2023, BSED graduates outperformed the national average in the LET for first-time takers, showcasing the strength of their initial teacher education. However, re-takers struggled, falling below the national average, indicating a gap in support post-failure. There is a need for enhanced support for re-takers, despite strong initial academic preparation among BSED graduates.Hence, it is recommended to establishre-taker support through targeted programs and policy reforms, while research should explore underlying causes of their lower success to refine assistance strategies.

  5. Elna B. Sabornido, Genaro T. Ardina, Ian Rey A. Empedrado and Apple Joy P. Baguio

    The integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in education is rapidly advancing, offering personalized learning experiences and enhancing teacher effectiveness. However, there is a critical need to assess future teachers' readiness for AI-driven classrooms. This study aimed to determine the Future Teachers’ Readiness in an AI-Driven Classroom (ADC). Using a descriptive-correlational research design, and purposive sampling, data were collected from Teacher Education students. The researchers utilized an adapted research instrument based on the Meta AI Literacy Scale. The analysis involved utilizing descriptive statistics such as the mean and standard deviation, along with inferential statistics such as the Spearman rho-rank order correlation. Results indicated that future teachers demonstrated a strong grasp of AI ethics but showed lower readiness in using and applying AI tools and AI problem-solving. A moderate positive correlation was found between AI literacy and AI self-management. In conclusion, the study revealed that while future teachers displayed a solid understanding of AI ethics, there was a need for further development in utilizing AI tools and problem-solving skills. Recommendations included tailored training programs focusing on practical AI applications, problem-solving strategies, and building AI self-management skills to bridge identified gaps. By addressing these areas, teacher training programs could better prepare future educators to effectively leverage AI tools, ensuring a smooth transition to AI-Driven Classrooms (ADC) and enhancing the overall learning experience for students and teachers alike.

  6. Tripti Tripathi and Dr. Sweta Vyas

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness practices, relaxation techniques, and lifestyle modifications in managing menopausal symptoms and their underlying physiology. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of studies that demonstrate the impact of mindfulness, relaxation, and lifestyle changes on menopausal symptoms, as well as those that shed light on the physiological mechanisms behind these symptoms. We could assume that mindfulness practices, relaxation techniques, and lifestyle changes could be valuable tools for managing menopausal symptoms like stress reduction, relaxation, and hormone balance. Nevertheless, there is a need for more studies to prove their effectiveness among different population groups and account for individual variability in treatment. Some of the recommendations include putting these innovative strategies into practice and creating education and support networks for women in menopause.

  7. Shraddha R Gotmare and Anna Maria Jose

    In this paper, we have taken data on crimes in Kerala from 2008 to 2022 and analyzed them using time series modelling. The data used in the research paper is obtained from the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) and State Crime Records Bureau. The findings of this research paper have implications for developing effective crime prevention strategies and enhancing public safety in India. This research paper aims to predict overall crime trends in India using ARIMA (Auto-regressive integrated moving average) model.

  8. Pascal Wery

    Black matter is one of the greatest unknowns in the cosmos, despite being the most important gravitational component. Indeed, black matter is the most prevalent matter, and its bulk has an impact on the design of the universe. It has permitted the construction and preservation of cosmic structures. As a result, understanding the cosmos without knowing its qualities is extremely difficult. However, it only reacts to gravity and not to the other fundamental forces. It is not a weak reaction, but rather the complete lack of direct reactivity with full spin (even in our particle accelerators). Indeed, black matter is not only opaque to us because it lacks a measurable electromagnetic field, but it also exhibits no nuclear reaction at all. Finally, it appears to be able to influence only wide areas, implying that it lacks concentration. So the only thing we know about black matter is its non-properties, or what it does not do, which is react with our own fundamental forces (save gravity) and cover only enormous areas (big gravitational lenses). As a result, black matter remains a big mystery. There is, however, a solution if the problem is phrased differently.





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