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November 2021

  1. Abdourhamane Ibrahim TOURE, Gilbert Comlan ZOUGOU TOVIGNON, Yves EMANE, FrédéricChristol NGANSOP NONO, NGWARH Perpetua TUNCHA ,Moussa KIMSE and Benoît BOUKILA

    The objective of this study is to contribute to the improvement of knowledge on the feeding of Oreochromis niloticus. The trial required 2262 monosex O. niloticusjuveniles with average weights comprised between 21.10±1.04 and 39.70±1.27 g, distributed in 4 groups with two repetitions per feed in 2.5 and 3 Ares concrete basins. The juveniles were fed a control ration (Asmag) and the ration made from a mixture of 40% of dried brewer’s spent grains and 60% of fine wheat bran (Afab) during 180 days. The average live weight (ALW), the absolute weight gain (AWG), the daily individual growth (DIG), the specific growth rate (SGR), the feed conversion index (FCI), the protein efficiency coefficient (PEC), the total length (TLg), the standard length (SLg), the condition factor (K), the survival rate (SR), the quantity of feed distributed and the manufacturing costs of akg of feed were evaluated. It emerges from these results that, except the DIG, FCI, SGR, PEC, K and SR that showed no significant difference (p>0.05) at the level of the feeds, the ALW, AWG, TLg andSLg of the fish fed the ration Asmag were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those recorded in fish submitted to the ration Afab. For Asmag and Afab, it was obtained respectively an ALW of 148.01gvs 90.48 g; anAWGof 16.52 g vs 10.44 g;aTLg of 19.64 cm vs 16.50 cm and aSLg of15.50 cmvs 13.10 cm. Moreover, the cost price of Afab (61,040.88 FCFA) was lower than that of Asmag (308,368 CFA).In view of growth performance and production costs of feed recorded, the feed locally made (Afab) could be recommended to farmers producing O. niloticus.

  2. MS. Narmadha, T., Prof. Prabavathy, S. and Dr. Renuka, K.

    Background: Teachers are a high-priority group because they are role models for pupils and influential members of society. Teaching is a difficult and stressful career, and instructors experience stress when the demands of the circumstance surpass their abilities to deal with them. School teachers are consistently burden by excessive workload. They may feel burdened or intimidated, and as a result some teacher may resort to protests probably due to excessive stress. Coping as the behavioral and cognitive efforts a person uses to manage the demands of a stressful situation. Coping resources allow a person to deal with stresses more effectively, lessen the severity of symptoms, and recover from exposure more quickly. Life skills are important for the promotion of the health and well‑being of children and adolescents and to develop knowledge, positive attitude, and values to lead a healthy life in future. Objectives •To assess the level of stress and coping among school teachers •To evaluate the effectiveness of life skill training on stress and coping among school teachers •To associate the level of stress and coping with the selected demographic variables Materials and methods: Quasi experimental research design with one group pre-test and post-test was adopted. Sixty three school teachers were selected by using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The data was collected and pre-test data collection was done by using Perceived Stress Scale(r =0.937) and brief COPE Scale ( r =0.911 ) to interview method. 63 subjects were divided into two groups and life skill training was given for the duration of 45 min twice a week for 10 days and the post test was conducted. The data were analyzed in terms of both descriptive and inferential statistics by using paired t- test and Chi-square test. Results and discussion: The study showed that the post-test level of stress of teachers mean score (10.78) are significantly less than the pre-test level of stress (mean score (18.1). And the post-test level of coping mean scores (63.78) are significantly less than the pre-test level of coping mean scores (59.17) by using paired t - test (4.272). This study reveals that life skill training has highly statistical significance in reduction of stress and coping among teachers at P-value <0.001. Conclusion: Thus, this study proves that Life skill training was effective in reduction of stress and coping among teachers.

  3. Michel Jacques Conte, Ileana-Constanța Roșca

    The classical interactions in gravity and in electrostatics have been revisited in (1-4) and it follows that the temperatures in black body equilibrium are taken into account for the neutral and charged masses. This new conception of the black body radiations effects in photonic fields which are superimposed in the structure of space-time in quantum entities EVTD2 requires that inside the entities exist material elements (concretizing the intimate substrate of space-time) to capture and store these electromagnetic energies, which were originally named "Substratum" (5). These Substrata corpuscles would be correlated with the positive and negative pressures where the attractive and repulsive effects are generated in the new conceptions of gravity and electrostatics. So, this Substratum subjected to positive pressures would be a good sensor of electrostatic energy (photons) but also a good provider of returned caloric energy, for example in greenhouse effects for its atmospheric environment if necessary. These are the starting points for a certain understanding of the different greenhouse effect yields of CO2 and CH4 molecules, whose RECH4 / RECO2 ratio is recognized as being in the neighborhood of 25. We must therefore determine what is the common and quantifiable correlation between these molecules that makes it possible to approximate it to 25. It is a question here of determining, at best, the respective intrinsic and adapted volumes of compliant energy storage of these two gases.

  4. Onur BAYRAKÇI and Halim BAYRAM

    Covid-19 disease is a fatal viral respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. A wide range of clinical findings are seen, from asymptomatic to death. Therefore, it has been observed that empirical antibiotics were frequently used in hospitalizations due to secondary coinfection concerns. The data of 1186 hospitalized patients were analyzed retrospectively.4 groups(30 patients per group) consisting of a total of 120 patients were formed homogeneously. All patients who fulfilled the criteria(Covid PCR test positive, diagnosed with pneumonia, treated with Favipiravir, normal white blood cell and neutrophil, didn’t have bacterial infection, didn’t receive anti-inflammatory and steroid-derived drug) were included in the study. Data of all patients (age, gender, comorbidity, laboratory parameters, tomography reports, antibiotic and other drugs, need for intensive care and mortality) were evaluated retrospectively. The first group was levofloxacin, the second group combination of levofloxacin and ceftriaxone, the third group combination of levofloxacin and piperacillin tazobactam, and the fourth group combination of levofloxacin and meropenem. Combination treatment with levofloxacin ceftriaxone and levofloxacin meropenem is more effective in patients with comorbidities. Levofloxacin meropenem or levofloxacin ceftriaxone treatment in patients with interstitial pneumonia and levofloxacin or levofloxacin piperacillin tazobactam treatment in patients with lobular pneumonia is more effective.Levofloxacin ceftriaxone treatment is more effective on the decrease in CRP value,but there is no statistically significant difference between all treatments (p<0.05). Levofloxacin decreases hospital stay more than levofloxacin meropenem. Levofloxacin ceftriaxone decrease hospital stay more than levofloxacin piperacillin tazobactam and levofloxacin meropenem (p<0.05).There is no statistically significant difference between levofloxacin and levofloxacin ceftriaxone as length of hospital stay. Treatment cost sare have been found as levofloxacin

  5. Naiyer Furkan, Maraj-ud-din and Ufaque Muzaffar

    Methodology: The study was conducted in the Post graduate department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Lalla Ded Hospital, GMC Srinagar, a tertiary care centre over a period of 18 months. 100 caesarean sections performed on 100 female subjects in second stage of labor were included in this study based on inclusion criteria. Data Collection: Obstetrical, maternal and fetal baseline criteria and outcomes were recorded and compared.All the cases, that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were analyzed in terms of indications, instrumentation before caesarean section; intra operative complications like hematuria, uterine incision extension, lower uterine segment tear, atonic PPH; postoperative complications like febrile illness, wound infection; and neonatal morbidity and mortality by way of NICU admission, APGAR score, neonatal sepsis and stay in the hospital. Results The mean maternal age at presentation was 24.66 (± 3.42) years with the range from 17 to 35 years. Maximum number of cases were seen between the age group of 20-25 years (58; 58 %), followed by 25-30 years (28; 28%).Out of 100 pregnancies, 74 were primigravida and 26 were multigravida pregnancies.The gestational age was between 37-39 weeks in 94 deliveries and only 6 deliveries were above 40 weeks. The mean gestational age was 37.94 ± 1.03 weeks. Majority of patients belonged to Low Socioeconomic group (64; 64%) followed by Middle Socioeconomic group (34; 34%). Conclusion: Caesarean section in the second stage of labor is a challenging operation with distortion of pelvic anatomy and a fetal head that is often deeply impacted in the maternal pelvis. So, proper fetal and pelvic assessment should be done to assess the potential impact of the fetus on the characteristics of the labor and every attempt should be made to avoid second stage caesarean section, if possible. When faced with difficult decisions relating to the management, a second opinion from a senior obstetrician should be sought. If second stage caesarean section is unavoidable, a multidisciplinary approach should be followed involving a senior anaesthetist, a senior obstetrician and a neonatologist

  6. Kunaal Vinoth Kumar, Vibhav Shetty, Garikipati Thoshini, Dr. Abhishek Venkteshwar and Rahil Jain

    The study focusses on the influence ride hailing services have on the customers vehicle buying consumer behaviour. It also discusses the possible factors on which the customers preference of either is based on. These factors, taken based on the prior study, are the traffic situation, the traveling distance, costs involved for travel, convenience, availability of the alternatives, safety and self-efficacy. The study had 258 respondents who have used the ride hailing services before. The results suggest that shared mobility offered by taxi aggregators does affect the vehicle buying consumer behaviour up to a certain extent. Further it is also found that traffic, convenience, availability of alternatives, safety as well as self-efficacy play a crucial role in the value that the consumer attaches to shared mobility.

  7. Shanthi D. and Sankar, K.

    Water is renewable resource occurs in three forms viz, Liquid, solid, vapor (gaseous), all these tree forms of water are extremely useful to man. No life can exist without water. Since, water is an essential for life as like that of air, it has been estimated that in the human body two-third portion is constituted by water. The water is not only essential for survival of human beings, but also for animals, plants and other living beings. The present study is attempted to identify the groundwater contamination zones using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Using sequential by preparing of thematic maps like EC, pH, Ca and TDS maps managing these GIS layers in Geo-database and assigning weightages based on the correlative factors that appear to be important in holding / processing of recharge of water and ground water contamination content. This study helped to delineate the part have been classified as high contamination zones.

  8. Mathurin GOGOM, Afred Raoul MISSESSETE and Désiré LILONGA-BOYENGA

    Studies on long lines of power transmission remain a controversial subject up to this day in view of the unsatisfactory results. These studies often address cases where the line is connected to a node which is perfectly voltage regulated. Likewise, the telegraph equations, reflecting how these lines work, express the voltage and current of the source as a function of the voltage and current along the line. Thus, our study examines the case of a line connected to an unregulated node. Regarding the telegraph equations dedicated to long lines, we will take care to express the voltage, the current and the joule losses according to the length of the line considered as variable while the voltage and the current of the source constitute constant. This way of approaching the study allows us to design an optimal compensation plan in order to maintain an ideal voltage profile.

  9. Antonio Pedro Suarte, Lays Genro Coutinho, Júlia Visconti Segovia Barbosa, Bárbara Vidigal Braga, Gabryella Sampaio Justino, Sérgio Filho, Júlia Torres, Marcelo Martins and Thiago Blanco-Vieira

    Background: The existence of stigmatizing attitudes with individuals suffering from mental disorders is unequivocal, timeless and observed even among mental health professionals. The impact of such stigmatization varies from social exclusion to lack of medical support, ending up, at times, in preventable deaths. Medical education institutions still find it difficult to deconstruct the stigma among students, and the search for effective methods, in short and long term, guides the main studies in the area and is also the main focus.Objective: Assess the effects of duration of mental health training in students during the medical internship in reducing the stigmatization of people with mental disorders.Method: A quasi-experimental study to assess the impact of an educational program during the medical internship in mental health. The sample consisted of 70 and 67 medical students in their last year in college, in 2018and 2019, respectively. Questionnaires were applied to assess the extent and typification of stigma, concerning schizophrenia and self-perception on medication management and treatment of psychiatric disorders. The instruments used the Three-Point Likert Scale to assess the results. The questionnaires were applied immediately before and after exposure to the educational program, which lasted four and nine weeks in 2018 and 2019, respectively. The mean values of self-perception and stigma were compared between both occasions using the Student T-test. Results: the mean post-test scores regarding self-perception and stigma did not show significant difference between the classes. Conclusion: Future studies need to observe other potential variables to improve the effectiveness of intervention programs to reduce stigmatization to people in psychic suffering.

  10. Benson K. Makokha, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Marciana N. Were

    In the year 2021 October /November an estimated 35 schools across Kenya were set on fire causing many to close down. This led to Ministry of Education’s directive to have students proceed on unprecedented half term recess from 19 November to 23 November 2021. Earlier on, waves of arson had been experienced. It is important to note that, despite the existence of school safety standards guidelines since 2008, cases of student’s tragedies in schools as a result of insecurity have continued to be reported more so in boarding schools every year. For instance, in Rangwe Sub-county, Kenya between 2012 and 2018, 8 students lost their lives in a Girls Boarding Primary School while, properties of unknown value were burnt down when fierce fires gutted down dormitories at a girl’s secondary school and a boy’s secondary school. In another instance, a 17- year- old student was arrested after he was found with a gun in school at a boy’s secondary school. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of safety standards training on implementation of school safety standards in boarding schools in Rangwe Sub-county. The study established that training on implementation of school safety standards accounted for 40% of the variation in the implementation of safety standards. This means that training on implementation of safety standards enhanced the implementation of school safety standards in boarding schools in Rangwe sub-county. The study concluded that safety standards training influenced the implementation of safety standards in boarding schools in Rangwe Sub-county. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that, principals, head teachers, teachers, students and security personnel be regularly trained on management of school safety standards. The findings of this study are significant to educational managers by enhancing their understanding of training which shapes the implementation of safety standards in boarding schools. It also forms baseline information for future research in related areas.

  11. Benson K. Makokha, Marciana. N. Were and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Kenyan schools have continued to experience insecurity for many years. The most remarkable one is the Kyanguli High School fire tragedy case in which 67 students perished in the year 2001. This led to formulation of safety standards manual for schools in Kenya in 2008. Despite the existence of school safety standards since 2008, cases of student’s tragedies in schools as a result of insecurity have continued to be reported more so in boarding schools. For instance, in Rangwe Sub-county, Kenya between 2012 and 2018, eight students lost their lives in a Girls Boarding Primary School while, properties of unknown value were burnt down when fierce fires gutted down dormitories at a girl’s secondary school and a boy’s secondary school. In another instance, a 17-year-old student was arrested after he was found with a gun in school at a boy’s secondary school. The purpose of the study was to establish the influence of financial resources on implementation of school safety standards in boarding schools in Rangwe sub-county. The study established that financial resources accounted for 33% of the variation in the implementation of safety standards in boarding schools in Rangwe Sub-county. This means that financial resources enhanced the implementation of school safety standards in boarding school in Rangwe sub-county. The study concluded that financial resources influenced the implementation of safety standards in boarding schools in Rangwe Sub-county. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that school Boards of Management should allocate sufficient funds for implementation of safety standards in schools. The study is significant to educational managers by enhancing their understanding of factors which shape the implementation of safety standards in boarding schools. It also forms baseline information for future research in related areas.

  12. Rawan Ahmed Gaafar and Rehaam Mohammed Wayani

    Background: Many rumors and misinformation disseminated among people due to fear associated with an explosion of COVID-19 cases. Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge, identify common misconceptions about COVID-19 and their demographic determinants among health staff. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was done among a sample of healthcare workers who work in primary healthcare centers or outpatient units of general hospitals located in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia during period from February to April–2021. A structured online questionnaire was used for data collection, including sociodemographic factors and 19 questions to assess healthcare workers knowledge about COVID-19. Results: The study included 434 healthcare workers. Their age ranged between 23 and 60 years with an arithmetic mean (±) standard deviation of 30.4±6.4 years. History of having any previous training to deal with situations related to COVID-19 pandemic was observed among 54.6%. The main sources of information about COVID-19 were medical literature (36.9%) and government statement (29.5%). Overall, majority of healthcare workers (82.5%) expressed adequate knowledge. Widowed healthcare workers (mean rank=363), those experienced between 5 and 10 years (mean rank=227.70), those who experienced any previous training to deal with situations related to COVID-19 pandemic (mean rank was 233.18) and those who reported medical literature as the main source of information (mean rank=256.90) were more knowledgeable compared to their peers. Conclusion: Majority of healthcare workers expressed adequate knowledge regarding COVID-19 pandemic. However, some misconceptions were identified. Therefore, well-organized continuous educational sessions are needed to improve the knowledge and clarify some misconceptions.

  13. Ms. Kanchan

    The study examining a comparative study of frustration among adolescents of working and non-working mothers. The random sampling technique was used. The sample of the study was 200 adolescents (100 boys and 100 girls).the quantitative analysis technique was used to collect the data. The tool used in the investigation was Reaction to frustration scale by Dr. B.M. Dixit and Late D.N. Srivastava (2011). The result shows there is significant difference between frustration of adolescents of working and non-working mothers. The result reveals that there significant difference between frustration of adolescent boys of working and non-working mothers. The result shows there is significant difference between mean scores of adolescent girls of working and non-working mothers on frustration. Teachers, administrators and counselors should be sensitized about the level of frustration and coping strategies of children of working mothers so that they would take proper measures for planning, counseling intervention for them.

  14. Periclis Cristiano Flores and Janici Therezinha Santos

    Objetivo: Analisar situações estressantes para os enfermeiros atuantes na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva de um hospital filantrópico do estado de São Paulo - Brasil. Metodologia: Pesquisa quantitativa de caráter exploratório, realizado em um hospital da Sociedade Beneficente Brasileira e Japonesa, localizado na cidade de São Paulo. A amostra foi composta por um total de 50 (100%) Enfermeiros. Utilizou-se a aplicação da Escala de Estresse Bianchi, nos enfermeiros que trabalham nos turnos da manhã / tarde e noite das Unidades de Terapia Intensiva e os profissionais que já trabalharam nos últimos 2 anos em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. Resultados: O item “A” da escala de Bianchi obteve-se como resposta o escore 4,8 pontos, que significa atividades de médio nível de estresse, enquanto o item “B”, obteve como resposta o escore 4,7 pontos que significa médio nível de estresse, o item “C” obteve como resposta o escore de 6,0 pontos, significando alto nível de estresse, o item “D” revelou o escore de 5,8 pontos, o que significa alto nível de estresse, o item “E” obteve o escore 4,0 pontos, médio nível de estresse e o item “F” obteve o escore de 4,0 pontos, o que significa atividades consideradas de médio nível de estresse pelos enfermeiros.Conclui-se que, os níveis médios e altos de estresse, podem desencadear doenças no decorrer do tempo de trabalho. A instituição e os gestores devem se preocupar com relação aos dados obtidos e encontrar estratégias para minimizar a sobrecarga destes enfermeiros.

  15. Dr. Usha Kiran C. and Dr. Sreelatha

    A study to assess the on “Effectiveness of debate programme on futuristic nursing Among 4th Year B.sc Students in selected nursing college Tirupati AP, India.” was under taken by M.Sc (N), in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science, College of Nursing, SVIMS University, Tirupati during the year 2019-2021. Objectives of the Study: • To assess the level of knowledge on futuristic nursing among 4th year B.Sc. Nursing students • To assess the effectiveness of debate among 4th year B.Sc. Nursing students • To find out the association between level of knowledge among 4th year B.Sc. Nursing students regarding futuristic nursing with their selected socio-demographic variables. Methodology: By using Non-Probability Convenient sampling technique, a pre experimental research design was adopted, 50 B.Sc. (N) 4th year students were taken as a samples. Data collection was done by using a self-structured questionnaire. Results: the results revealed that out of 50 nursing student pre test shows majority 33 (66%) had inadequate knowledge, 17(34.%) had moderate knowledge and only 0(0%)students had adequate knowledge. And in post test shows 5(10%) students had inadequate knowledge, 21 (42%) had moderate knowledge and only 24(48%) had adequate knowledge on futuristic nursing. the association between socio demographic variables and level of knowledge of B.Sc Nursing students in pre test, in which type of family shows significant relationship at p<0.02 level. the association between socio demographic variables and level of knowledge of B.Sc Nursing students in post test, there was a significant association such as age, religion ,residence and type of family p<0.001 level. Conclusion: It was concluded that knowledge of futuristic nursing among nursing students was adequate. So, there is a need to educate the nursing students to increase awareness about futuristic nursing. Administration policies should allow for conducting training, workshops for nurses regarding futuristic nursing and its application in the field of nursing. Utilization of research findings in the practice has to be encouraged

  16. Kabé Hinlibé Karka, Gomoung Doloum, Augustin Schinzoumka Passannet, Tchuenteu Lucien, Tchobsala, Megueni Clautilde and Njintang Yanou Nicolas

    The study was carried out in the field, in the southwest of Chad during the 2018 agricultural campaign. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biocidal and fertilizing effects of residues resulting from the extraction of Jatropha curcas oil on the control of pests of legume pods in the field. The experimental device was a split plot (2x4) with two factors: the first factor is the legume species (Vigna subterranea and Arachis hypogeae) and the second the treatments (J. curcasseedcake, J. curcas seedpowder, urea or positive control and control or negative control). The tests were repeated four times. Data on growth parameters, legume production and soil characteristics were collected. The results obtained indicated that the treatments had a significant effect (P <0.05) on the growth, development, dry biomass and seed yield of the plants. They have made it possible to raise the level of soil fertility to make it more profitable for agricultural activities. The insecticidal and insect repellant potential contained in the seeds of J. curcas helped to limit the damage caused by centipedes on peanut and bambara groundnut pods. This agricultural practice helps to widen the way for the practice and promotion of organic farming.

  17. Ram Lal and Dr. Daljit Kaur

    Bhīm Rao Ambedkar was a reformer, he changed the society by his thoughts. In this paper has described the efforts to change the life of people and briefly study how he changed his own life and how many efforts he made. B.R Ambedkar faced many challenges by society for brought changes .He made many attempts for uplifting the society. His efforts for liberal societies are uncountable. Briefly read about the attempts made by him for the welfare of Indian society also.

  18. Dr. Saba Fatima, Dr. M Rajiv, Dr. Satyanarayana, N. and Dr. Rao, J.N.

    Objective: The objective of the study is to identify the gaps, highlight those areas where delay in discharge of inpatients can be eliminated and recommend accordingly, so that the hospital discharge process can be managed smoothly. Methods: A prospective observational study, with data of patients admitted in medical and surgical departments was conducted in a convenient sample of 280 inpatients and the quick changeover approach, also known as the single-minute exchange of die (SMED), was selected as it aims at increasing productivity by reducing waiting times and unused human talent. The data was collected and analyzed from August 2021 to October 2021 at tertiary care teaching Hospital. Results: The average time taken for 32% of patients discharge is 8-10 hrs, 26 % of patients is 6-8 hrs, 20% of patients is 4-6 hrs, 16% of patients is more than 10 hrs and 6% of patients is 2-4 hrs. Using Ishikawa diagram, the possible causes of delayed discharges are illustrated. Showing Pareto chart, the reasons contributing for delay in discharge process, it highlights the credit, billing and patient factor in delay of discharge. Showing 20% of delay in vacating causes 80 % of delay in bed allotment. After the process diagnosis and data collection, the quick changeover approach is conducted before and after the implementation. Conclusion: The delays were mainly related to processes that could be improved by lean intervention. Orienting the hospital settings with measures to prevent causes and implement changes to decrease the effect of delayed discharge process. Thus, interventions should be developed to reduce overcrowding, for higher availability of hospital beds and to improve patient satisfaction.

  19. Moukhass A. and Haddoun, A.R.

    Objective of the study : Compare the results of each of the early rehabilitation treatments (passive and active) with a view to orienting the therapeutic choice in the physiotherapy management of lesions of the flexors of the hand. Materials and methods : This is a single-blind, randomized clinical trial involving 30 patients suffering from operated hand flexor lesions divided into two series: Series 1 (n = 15): rehabilitation protocol for early passive mobilization and series 2 (n = 15): rehabilitation protocol for early active mobilization. The sample size was set according to Student's tests with an alpha threshold of 0.05, a power of 0.90. The intervention on the patients will be done at the level of the rehabilitation unit of the trauma service Wing 4 of the Ibn Rochd Hospital Center in Casablanca and will last 12 sessions at the rate of 03 sessions per week. The overall duration of the study depends on the flow of patients and will take approximately 6 months. The evaluation tool recommended for the classification of the results emanating from the study is that of the functional evaluation of the hand according to the method of White and boys.For statistical analysis, the data will be analyzed by SPSS software for Windows version 24.0. (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). An ethics dossier relating to the study is in the process of being validated. Expected results The results found will make it possible to verify the following alternative hypothesis: H1:There is a statistically significant improvement in favor of the rehabilitation protocol of early active mobilization versus early passive mobilization. This implies checking the resulting alternative sub-hypotheses: H1.1: there is a statistically significant correlation of the distance pulp-palmar distal fold in favor of series 2 versus series 1. H1.2: there is a statistically significant correlation of the total deficit of the distal extension in favor of series 2 versus series 1

  20. Deepthi S Nair, Jinu A. and Sathian K. K.

    A survey was conducted across 14 districts of Kerala based on structured questionnaire with an objective of performance of greenhouses maintained by Kerala farmers. Using stratified random sampling 11 farmers were selected randomly from each district and collected the details regarding the problems of greenhouse cultivation, cleaning interval of cladding material, variation of yield with increasing age of cladding material, cost required for cleaning etc. by personal interview method. Details were analyzed using spss 16.0 software.Failure of greenhouses in Kerala is due to aging of cladding material (44.16%), both aging of cladding material and decrease of soilfertility (28.57%), both aging of cladding material and fungal/insect attack (12.34%), aging of cladding material and maintenance problems (9.74%), both aging of cladding material and structural problems like shape, apron length (3.25%). Remedial measures to improve the crop performance inside the greenhouse are intermittent cleaning of cladding material to reduce aging effect of cladding sheet, adopt soil management practices like soil fumigation to improve the soil fertility inside the greenhouse, along with rectifying structural problems design elements have to modify.

  21. Dr. Ann Theresa Tomy, Dr. Saranyan, R., Dr. Manovijay, B., Dr. Meenalochani, T.B. and Dr. Vaishnavi, S.

    Diet and nutrition are considered to play a cardinal role in maintaining overall health among individuals. Diet is the amount of food consumed by the individuals: whereas nutrition is the process of utilizing food for growth, metabolism and repair of tissues. Periodontal diseases are polymicrobial disease characterized by infiltration of leukocytes, loss of connective tissue, alveolar bone resorption, and formation of periodontal pockets. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alteration of the micronutrient levels. Any imbalance of the micronutrient levels leads to increased susceptibility to oxidative damage of tissues. In order to sustain the periodontal tissues in both health and disease depends on the ample source of essential nutrients available to the host. Maintaining a balance of these trace minerals is essential to prevent progression of chronic conditions like periodontitis. Depletion or lack of availability of these nutrients gives rise to malnutrition at either the macro or micronutrient level, both of which are detrimental to periodontal health as well as to general health.

  22. Namburi Nireekshana, Sravan Kumar, K., Vijayakar, N. and Teja, K.

    The new inventions in technology lead to more power consumption by more number of nonlinear loads, which in turn effecting the quality of power transmitted. The power transmitted in a line is needed to be of high quality. The flow of power basically depends on the line impedance, sending end and receiving end voltage magnitudes. Nonlinear loads create harmonic currents which in turn creates system resonance, capacitor overloading, decrease in efficiency, voltage magnitude changes. The simulation results show that FACTS devices improve the system stability; furthermore, the SSSC-based stabilizer provides a better effectiveness on damping power system oscillation.

  23. Namburi Nireekshana, Shivani, V., Rohini, A., Prathyusha, B.

    Nonlinear loads connected to electric energy distributionnetworks generate harmonic pollution. Such nonlinearloads drain currents with varying degree of harmoniccontents. The harmonic current components do not representuseful active power due to the frequency mismatch with the gridvoltage. A remedy to the harmonic current injection problem is to connect series controllers in transmission lines.

  24. Namburi Nireekshana Sharmistha Mallick, Mamatha, V. and Gampala Anjali

    Power system has made a stunning entrance to the market.. The structured power systems has effected by different kinds of problems. Whether system stability problems or Power Quality issues, these issues need solving. Classically passive filters were used but nowadays active filters such as Static Var Compensator (SVC) has been chosen for the task. SVC is a device that regulates the voltage level or the reactive power in the system. It is used to maintain voltage stability, enlargement of critical clearing time. In this paper Simulation has been done with one example.

  25. Namburi Nireekshana, Akhila Reddy, B. Keerthi Reddy, G. and Keyooralaya, A.

    Reactive power problems usually occur at the interconnection points of different systems or now in the deregulated market between different owners of transmission or distribution networks, reactive power generators and consumers. As reactive power is a local product its value to system security and voltage control very much depends on the location in the system. STATCOM is a device that regulates the voltage level or the reactive power in the system. It is used to maintain voltage stability, enlargement of critical clearing time. In this paper Simulation has been done with one example

  26. Mourya, P. and Kushwah, M. K. S.

    The present study shows the seasonal and spatial changes in physic-chemical parameters of water. The study was carried out for a period of one year from July 2016-June 2021. Sampling stations were established to keep in mind cover whole water body. Some of water parameters were analyzed at the time of sampling while some of the analyzed in laboratory by using appropriate method. Some physic-chemical parameters of water fluctuated form permissible limit. Poor quality of water is affected primary productivity, aquatic fauna and flora.

  27. Canul-Chulim L.E., Flores-Encarnación, M., Aguilar-Gutiérrez G.R., Carreño-López R., and García-García S.C.

    Antibiotic resistance is a global public health problem. Bacteria have developed different strategies that have allowed them to cope with the action of antibiotics, thus in a few years after the appearance of a new drug with antibacterial properties, strains of bacteria resistant to that new drug emerge. Extended spectrum beta lactamases are a group of bacterial enzymes that can inactivate different antibiotics. They have been found in different examples of Gram positive and negative pathogenic bacteria.

  28. Dr. Ajai Kumar

    If we consider on cultural aspect of ancient Indian history, we can say that kushana period is very relevant for it’s marvelous women sculptures. We found many types of women sculptures in this period, auspicious women figure is major part of this catalogue. With flow of time in Indian History there came numerous variations and developments in art forms and tradition, enriching Indian culture and aesthetics. In Kushana period of early ancient Indian history such enrichments in art and sculptures can be witnessed by a close look on women sculptures of the period. In each dynasty women’s representation through sculptures is remarkable and appreciable. It is a well known fact that in Shunga-Satavahana period art forms were based on pre determined parameters leaving limited scope for any deviation. With the beginning of Kushana period specially in northern India sculptures began to be created with new flow of thoughts. Thus like other forms of art, in sculptures also far reaching revolutionary changes took place that took art of that time out of strict discipline of well defined parameters giving it a relatively more open and liberal perspective and integument. Since Kanishka , the most revered king of Kushana dynasty, played decisive role in establishment and spread of Mahayana sect of Buddhist religion, the first depiction of Mahatma Buddha sculpture emerged under his patronage. His regime provided favorable environment for such sculptures. These factors encouraged Indian artisans to develop their creativity without any restraint, because of this there is an advent of a golden age of sculpture which was pioneered by Mathura school of art . with extremely beautiful and refined pieces of sculptures it filled entire north India with marvelous artifacts.

  29. Eltoma Musa Mohamed Saleh Ph.D., Marwa Adam Abdelrahman Adam Ph.D., Prof Mohi Eldin Magzoub and Prof. Magda alhadi Ahmed Yousif

    Clinical competency of the critical care nurses should be reinforced to ensure provision of safe, effective and quality nursing care among the patients. A need to structure a training framework to reinforce these competencies was the focus of this study. A descriptive quasi experimental research design was utilized to assess the level of competence of the nurses both in the control and study group. The sample size was 100 out of the 216 population finalized after consideration of the inclusion criteria. Data were collected using self-assessment tool. BKAT and Unit Specific Competency Assessment Tool. The results revealed significant relationships between self-assessment and demographic profile specifically age (.005 and .049) in the pretest and posttest and educational attainment (.013) of control group. The results also revealed relationships on BKAT and years of experience (.015 and .038) pretest and posttest. Significant relationships were also established between unit specific competencies and demographic profile specifically on; Age and mechanical ventilator (.043) and age and Pulmonary Catheter (.036) from the control group and age and mechanical ventilator (.043) in the study group. Significant difference also existed between the level of competency of both groups on BKAT and Unit Specific competencies both at .001. All the results were compared and interpreted at 0.05 level of significance. The study concluded to reject the null hypothesis. Recommendation include adoption of the training framework formulated to reinforce clinical competencies of nurses

  30. Khaleefa Banu and MD Hasan Mondal

    With the arrival of an unanticipated and unprecedented situation of COVID-19 several things underwent major changes which include the education sector as well. The entire educational activities have been shifted to the online mode with a number of changes in the teaching-learning processes. Along with its advantages this sudden change has brought in a number of challenges with it. But those advantages and challenges differ from person to person and from one course to the other. The teacher education is one of those courses which has significant applied component in it. The practice component plays a very vital role in teacher education courses. The actual practicum or the internship component is hardly possible to be done online. Therefore, the challenges that the student-teachers and teacher-educators are facing in current times are quite disparate as compared to the other theory-based courses. Though online education is very flexible in terms of time and cost it has not escaped from its challenges. Having the knowledge of the effective usage of technology is a prerequisite for any kind of online learning. The study gives an account to the possibilities and challenges of teaching teachers online.

  31. Uzma Sadia, Andrew Schiro and Ala Hassouneh

    Background: Diabetic foot disease has a major impact on the morbidity and mortality of patients. It is a complex clinical problem which needs multi disciplinary approach and well defined principles of treatment. One of the key components of treating these patients is the prudent selection of antibiotics based on deep tissue cultures. This reduces the associated morbidity and risk of major limb amputations. Methods: This clinical study was done in our tertiary level referral hospital. It is a cross sectional retrospective microbiological and clinical study done over a period of 12 months. It explores the associations between several variables (risk factors, severity of infection, development of complications and clinical outcomes) and the microbiological profile of the diabetic foot infections. Results: 90% of the patients had peripheral mixed neuropathy while 26% had a documented diabetic nephropathy. Most patients (61%) had a poor glycemic control with a HbA1c>7 while 39% had well controlled diabetes with HbA1c<7. Gram negative organisms were grown in 60% of surface swabs and 71% of intra operative specimens. Gram positive organisms were grown in 30% of surface swabs and 29% of intra operative specimens. 10% of the surface swabs had a mixed growth whereas none of the intra operative specimens had a mixed growth.The outcomes comprised of minor amputations of toe(s) and at trans metatarsal levels in 8 patients and major amputations above or below knee in 5 patients. None of the patients who had a positive culture of ESBL and MDR underwent major amputations. Conclusion: The judicious use of antibiotics based on deep tissue cultures can reduce the risk of major amputations. The role of revascularisation is pivotal in patients with peripheral arterial disease complicated by diabetic foot ulcers. The multi disciplinary approach is necessary to address the variables which effect the outcome of these patients.

  32. Salihu, D.A., Gyang, M.D., Meshak, D.J., and Bulus, J.

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is an increasing medical problem in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Current evidence suggests an epidemic proportion of this condition in this developing region, largely due to increasing urbanization and epidemiological transition. There are suggestions that the quality of diabetes care in Africa is suboptimal. However, there is unclear evidence to substantiate these claims. There was the need to systematically assess and summarise the existing evidence on quality of care among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whilst identifying any gaps in information and exploring possible barriers to care in a SSA context. This will provide policy makers and health care providers with a systematic overview of the available evidence on the state of diabetes care in this region from which they can base decision making. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the systematic review was to examine the existing quality of management of type 2 diabetes in SSA by addressing the following questions: i. How good is the current control of type 2 DM in SSA based on indicator outcome of glycaemia? ii. Have implemented strategies, treatment or interventions improved glycaemic control of type 2 DM in Sub-Saharan African countries? Methods: This study was a systematic review of quantitative studies. The population comprised people with type 2 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa. All ages, gender, ethnicities irrespective of race, residence, locality, immigration status, educational background and socio-economic status were included. The studies included cross-sectional studies, experimental, quasi-experimental studies, observational studies and review papers. Only full papers as opposed to abstracts were included in the review. Conference proceedings, editorials and case reports were excluded. Two databases were explored to develop search strategies – MEDLINE via Pubmed (1946 to February 2013) and EMBASE via Ovid (1974 to April 2013). Terms such as glycaemia and hyperglycaemia, and terms related to these were used in the search strategy. The search included searching reference lists of derived papers and contacting experts. Data on measures of glycaemic control as primary outcome of interest were extracted and summarised upon. Secondary outcomes included process measures like the frequency of blood glucose levels documentation. Duration of diagnosed diabetes and assessment of diabetes complications were considered. The interventions or implementation strategies within studies or data collected on these were also assessed. Study quality was assessed based on components in a quality assessment tool from the Effective Public Health Practice Project. Results: Thirteen published studies were identified and included in the review. Eleven of these were cross-sectional studies, one was a prospective cohort study and another combined cross-sectional and cohort study. Education on diabetes management and prevention of complications seemed to be the most consistent intervention carried out, followed by drug treatment with oral hypoglycaemic agents and Insulin, then dietary measures. Target levels of HbA1c were generally less than 7% in almost all the studies. This is in keeping with the IDF and ADA guidelines. Target glycaemic control were consistently seen in less than 50% of the patients within studies. Conclusion: This review found the quality of care of type 2 diabetes based on glycaemic control, to be sub-optimal in sub-Sahara African countries. Therefore, quality of care needs to be improved upon in this region. It is likely that several interventions, mainly secondary preventive strategies, and implementation strategies identified would improve quality of care in this region. Targeted interventions and strategies specific to the local populace would be beneficial.

  33. Kodjovi Senanou GBAFA, Ouro-Djobo Essoavana SAMAH, Komlan Assogba KASSEGNE and Sonnou TIEM

    The road network manager constantly needs information on the condition of paved roads in order to properly plan maintenance and renewal. The ideal would be to have a reliable model of the condition of the network and its degree of service. This work intends to build a road network model for Togo based on a characterization of the paved roads and prevailing climatic conditions. The characterization of the condition of the roads in their environment was based on extensive documentation and field surveys. The paved national Togolese road network supports heterogeneous class of T5 to T0 traffic, dominated by untreated bedrock structures (84.41%) mostly coated with asphaltic concrete (78.47%). The early onset of degradation, mainly of small amplitude, on the surface of the pavements is explained by the use of pavement materials without considering the diversity of traffic or climatic factors.

  34. Dr Shaista Alvi

    Now a days prevalence of diabetes in increasing due to earlier onset of diabetes and the better treatment opportunities. Early onset Diabetes in young females is commonly associated with pregnancy. Diabetes in pregnancy can lead to adverse effects both on the mother and the baby due to hyperglycemia. In addition, pregnancy itself can also cause altered blood glucose levels due to hormonal changes and leads to deleterious effects on the complications of diabetes. So management of diabetes requires multidisciplinary approach.

  35. Ajay Raju V., Sheed Shuraz Khan and Dr. Abhishek Venkteshwar

    This topic speaks about chip shortage problem around the world during the year 2020-2021 which led to a huge fall in sales, product launch &waiting period for various smartphone manufacturers, automobile company’s&various company’s which use chipsets to run their products.

  36. Dr. Bikramjeet Singh, Dr. Renu Bala Sroa, Dr. Jagvinder Singh Mann and Dr. Navjot Singh Khurana

    Nanotechnology is considered to be an upcoming technology. In the field of dentistry, it helps in diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Nanotechnology incorporates the usage of nanoparticles less than 100 nm. It has delivered its impact on almost every facet of science and development. It is but natural that medicine and dentistry too are being influenced by this recent entrant which has immense potential. A new revolution in the field of dentistry by the use of nanotechnology has got remarkable potential that can bring considerable improvements to human health in the form of nanomaterials, nano diagnostics and nano robotics. The usage of nanoparticles in restorative materials has increased the quality and life of dental restorations resulting in better oral care and hygiene. The technology helps in modifying the existing restorative material in terms of physical, chemical and biological aspects to improve their quality. The restorative materials with nanoparticles currently used are nanocomposites, nano glass ionomers, nano adhesives. In endodontics these nanoparticles can be incorporated in endodontic sealer, obturating material, intracanal medicament and irrigating solutions to provide the desired results. Nanotechnology possesses tremendous potential but social issues of public acceptance, ethics, regulation, and human safety must be addressed before it can be looked upon as the hope for the future.

  37. Kalaichelvi, D. and Nalini Jeyavantha Santha

    Iron deficiency anemia is most common nutritional deficiency disorder in India and remains a formidable health challenge. Iron deficiency leads to many health disturbances which include growth and development, depressed immune function in infants; reduces physical work capacity; decreases the cognitive function in adolescents. The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of nutritional intervention in improving intelligence among adolescent girls. Objectives of the study • To assess the iron deficiency anemia and intelligence among adolescent girls with anemia. • To find out the effectiveness of nutritional intervention on intelligence among adolescent girls with anemia. • To find out the relationship between iron deficiency anemia and intelligence among adolescent girls with anemia. • To find out the association between the demographic variables and post test intelligence level of adolescent girls with anemia. Methods: A quantitative approach with true experimental, pre test and post test control group design was used for the study. Adolescent girls in the age group of 12–15 years studying in seventh to ninth standard were selected. Peripheral blood smear and hemoglobin level was estimated. For assessing the intelligence MALIN’S Intelligence Scale was used. In MALIN‟S scale, verbal response and performance were assessed. In verbal response, general information, arithmetic, similarities and digit span and in performance, picture completion, object assembly, coding and maize was used. Results: Majority (50%) of the study subjects had mild anemia and average intelligence level in the pretest of experimental and control group. Their intelligence level also increased in verbal response especially in arithmetic and digit span, the pretest mean value was 86.88 and post test - II mean value for digit span.

  38. Sahil Zaveri, Bhavin Shah, Jamshed Zuberi MD MPH FACS

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB is an acid-fast staining rod that gets transmitted through aerosolized droplets. Even though TB cases in the United States are decreasing, it is still prevalent in the developing world, especially in travelers from countries with endemic TB. TB is primarily a lung infection because of its aerosol transmission. It can become a systemic infection and last in the body for long periods of time. When the infection becomes systemic, it gets labeled as miliary TB because of the lymphohematogenous and disseminated spread. In this case report, we present an exceedingly rare case of a young patient with latent miliary TB who presents to the hospital with gastrointestinal complaints, ultimately having a small bowel perforation and a complicated hospital course which followed. Of note, according to the CDC, US cases of TB are about 2.7% per 100,000, of which military tuberculosis is a rare complication as low as <2% (6). Secondarily, systolic blood pressure can range from as low as 7% up to 30% occurrence based on the etiology, and patient presentation. Combining both factors can elucidate how rare it is for SBP and disseminated TB to occur individually, let alone simultaneously.

  39. Moїse HABIYAREMYE, MD, ABAKUNDANA Nsenga A. Gabriel, BSc- MSc, JeanR. IGIRAMABOKO, MD and Yuhua JIANG, MD-MMed

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. This study aims to assess cervical cancer status and related risk factors. Methods: Patients who attended the hospital cervical cancer screening and prevention center were enrolled in the present study. The data of patients were analyzed using SPSS software. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were used to show the study population concerning relevant variables, and binary logistic regression assessed the risk factors of cervical cancer. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant, and the confidence level was at 95%. Results: A total of 136 women were included in this retrospective study from July 2020 to July 2021. We found that 54 (39.7%) women had cervical cancer; the mean age was 39.33 years (SD = 12.8 years). We also found that factors like more than five sex partners (OR= 2.5; 95%CI (1.04 – 6.10, p=0.03)), primary education level (OR= 2.9; 95% CI (1.20 – 7.36, p=0.018)), staying in the rural area (12;95%CI (3.61-45.90, p=0.007)), and being HIV positive (OR=19.6; 95%CI (8.1-47.66, p=0.006)), increase the risk of cervical cancer. Conclusion: This study revealed the risk factors for cervical cancer.Cervical cancer education and prevention has to be performed to all women categories, and it is necessary to build more cancer treatment centers in all regions of the country.

  40. Taghreed Obaid and Dr. Ameerah Qattan

    Background: Transformational Leadership TL is a type of Leadership style is focusing on understanding behaviors, feelings, personal attitudes of individuals "employees" toward their jobs, leaders, and the organization. The most relevant studies that mentioned the Transformational Leadership (T.L.) style applied to support the relationship between leaders and employees in the decision-making process and participation in other processes. The actual turnover is a serious problem because financial and manpower wastes follow it. K.A.A.H. Physicians' Turnover and Job Performance are the dependent variables, and Transformational Leadership is an independent variable in this paper. Methods: The online Questionnaire used in the research is Google Forms. Microsoft Excel is used to organize the responses and S.P.S.S. statistical package program to generate regression statistics and descriptive statistics. The target sample size is 175 participants, according to Select Statistics Calculator. The scale used is the Likert scale which is 5 items; 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Results: The results show the effectiveness of applying T.L. to minimize turnover and positively increase employee's job performance. In the 1st dependent variable, most responses are reflected by the physicians "totally disagree" with negative Turnover intentions while two measures are reflected as "neutral." In contrast, a short number of them preferred to answer from "totally disagree" to "agree." Lastly, in the 2nd dependent, four measures out of five are gained "totally agree." These measures are positively describing the feelings of the participants regarding their Job Performance. Discussion and Conclusion: The research is designed as a descriptive case study. This type of design concerns understanding the specific targeted case towards determined variables. The highest percentage of each question's responses is determined by the highest numbers of physicians who agreed, disagreed, or neutral. In addition, the highest numbers of the participants are "totally agree" and "agree" with the measures of the independent variable Transformational Leadership. In contrast, most numbers of the participants are "Totally disagree," "disagree," and "neutral," with the measures of the dependent variable turnover.

  41. Mrs. Hiramoni Barman and Ms. Helenpuii

    Psychological well-being is about lives going well because the combination of feeling good and functioning. Individual with high psychological well-being is happy, capable, well-supported, satisfied with professional and personal life effectively. The entrance to the undergraduate course is an important transitory period for young people. Understanding the well-being of young adults and the factors that contribute to it will help towards clarifying and defining ways to better help to prepare for their lives. Present study has been undertaken to compare the dimensions of psychological wellbeing among undergraduate male and female students of selected colleges of Cachar district, Assam. A total of 77 undergraduate students were enrolled for the study using non probability sampling technique. To assess the psychological wellbeing, Psychological Well-Being (PWB) scale developed by Carol D Ryff is used. Findings of the study revealed that majority of the participants (92.2%) belong to the age group of 18-20 years. Among the participants majority i.e. 71.4% were female. The mean total score of psychological wellbeing between male and female students didn’t reveal any significant difference but statistically significant differences were found between male and female students in some of the dimensions of psychological well-being, i.e. in self-acceptance (p<0.05), autonomy (p<0.01) and positive relationship with others (p<0.01). The study concluded that there exists a gender difference in the various dimension of psychological wellbeing. There is a need to develop policies and strategies intended to increase the well-being of students to achieve greater gender equality.

  42. Husni Hasri Yanto, Anny Victor Purba and Shirly Kumala

    Acne sufferers sometimes hate themselves, away from interpersonal relationships. This disease is triggered by the bacteria Propionilbacterium acne, and Staphylococcus aureus. Various acne treatments are offered in the community, but not all acne drug products are guaranteed safe. The purpose of this study was to obtain an acne gel preparation, a combination of extracts of star fruit and papaya leaves which have antibacterial activity against Streptococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes To determine the compounds that have antibacterial activity, bioautography using GCMS analysis was carried out. The preparation was made by mixing carbophol 940, triethanolamine, methyl paraben, propylene glycol, sodium metabisulfite. The results of the evaluation of the preparation at room temperature storage did not experience significant changes and were relatively stable, while at hot and cold temperatures there was a slight change in pH, dispersion, viscosity and flow properties. Peaks include 1,3-Diacetoxy-butane, 1-Pentanamine, Pentadecanoic acid, 9-Octadecenoic acid, and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid.Formula 3 has almost the same stability as formula 1 and formula 2. Formula 3 has room temperature storage for 3 months, including: organoleptic preparations dark brown in color, slightly entangled homogeneous, pH 5.11 preparations, spreadability of preparations 2628.01 mm² viscosity of preparations 79666, 67-258333,33 cPs flow properties 184466,33- 286282,17 cPs, the results of the antibacterial activity showed the Inhibitory Diameter (RD) on P acnes 14,56±0,1131 mm and S aureus 15,18±0, 0424mm . The formula was non-irritating to test animals.

  43. Sonny Anak Jumpo and Mohammad Puad bin Bebit

    Tattoos add a perceived aesthetic value to the body of the wearer. In instances where tattoos are worn – by choice – to enhance the outer appearance of the wearer, they are a vivid expression of artistic freedom, individualism and even a mark of belonging. For the same reasons that their appearance becomes conspicuous, tattoo wearers are vulnerable to receive negative first impressions. Tattoos are broadly divided into three types: those that are of tribal origins, those that are linked with criminal communities, and those that are forcefully given to mark prisoners or given as punishment. A well-known example of tribal tattoo are the ones worn by Borneo Ibans. This paper will explain the importance of semiotics studies by looking at the cultural value of a particular tribal tattoo. The bunga terung is an Iban tattoo that a man will get when he goes for bejalai, a journey comparable to a walkabout. The theory of semiotics and representation by Charles Sanders Peirce will cover the knowledge process towards understanding the bunga terung. This research will enable us to differentiate between a tattoo that represents a particular indigenous community and a tattoo that represents a criminal one.

  44. Mohd. Washid Khan, Imran Mansoori and Arun Patel

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona -2 (SARS-COV-2) is a highly contagious and contagious Corona virus, creating a respiratory epidemic called Corona virus disease 2019 (Covid-19) that threatens human health and public safety. On January 30.2020 the World Health Organization declared the outbreak as a global public health emergency. In these reviews we describe the basic virology of SARS-COV-2, including diagnosis, treatment. We summarize current knowledge of clinical epidemiology and clinical features of COVID-19 and immune response, disease management, control and prevention strategies, advances in the SARS COV-2 vaccine. Highlights - Critical respiratory disease, Corona virus -19, disease, diseases, public health, prevention strategies.

  45. Ms. Binita Mishra, Mrs. Sanjenbam Emon Chanu and Mrs. Rajkumari Sylvia Devi

    A quasi experimental study was conducted to help the adolescents to overcome from the anxiety situations by administering them Systematic Muscle Relaxation Technique from 17th December 2014 to 31st December 2014. Sixty seven school students (thirty three in experimental and thirty four in control group) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected as sample by simple random sampling technique and they were assigned randomly to experimental and control group. The data were collected by using modified SCARED tool to assess anxiety among school students. Intervention was given in the form of systematic muscle relaxation technique to experimental group for 30 minutes a week daily by a specialized yoga teacher. It was showed that the mean anxiety score in experimental group was decreased with p=0.01, whereas in control group although there is a reduction in mean anxiety score but it was not statistically significant (p=.105) which indicate that reduction in mean anxiety score was not by chance but due to the intervention given.

  46. Dr. James E. Tobih, Dr. Theophilus O. Esan, Waliat O. Ayinde and Dr. Deborah T. Esan

    Background: The practice of ear and nose piercing is an age long cultural practice mainly for cosmetic and religious reasons and female gender are mostly involved. Culturally, parents especially mothers do it for their children until about few decades ago when the trend seems to be changing from what was a mere cultural practice among the primitives now becoming a vogue among young people and unusually males and celebrities getting more involved as well. The attendant complications associated with this practice may be very devastating if dire caution is not put into place hence the reason for this study seeking to assess the trends, prevalence, and complications of ear and nose piercing among undergraduate students of AfeBabalola University, a University in the South-West Nigeria. Methodology: The study employed a descriptive cross sectional design, using multistage sampling technique. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 391undergraduate students of AfeBabaloa University based on the required sample size. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with significance set at P<0.05. Result: Results revealed majority of the respondents were between 20-25 years. The prevalence of Ear and Nose piercing was 58%. Majority of respondents pierced their earlobe, with 91.3% having 3 or more piercings. Respondents reported complications such as bleeding (57.2%), infections (66.4%) and severe pain (66.4%) on the pierced site. Only few had piercing done by a professional, as most of the respondents did the piercing themselves in unsterile environment. The prevalence of Ear and Nose piercing is high among undergraduate students of Abuad. Conclusion: The prevalence of ear and nose piercing among undergraduates is very high and by inference among young people with imminent risks. There is therefore urgent need to embark on aggressive health education campaign in schools from nursery to university level and the general populace to grave complications of this new trend in this practice. All the stake holders most especially the ndividual, parents, professional body piercers and the government to work together to ensure safety standard in the shops where these practices are done. The government through the health sector must all be readily available to handle complications of this practice whenever they arise.

  47. Varsha T. and Dr. Mamatha, H. K.

    The research mainly aims to prove the stress level amongst higher education teachers during online teaching system and the impact of the crisis on individual teachers and identify common issues while taking the online classes and methodologies to adopt in the new normal and the major coping up strategies’ as well, through the study its analysed that so that we can better understand the challenges that teachers are facing and consider how these may be addressed during the crisis and beyond levels. Stress Management The word ‘stress’ is used in physics to refer to the interaction between a force and the resistance to counter that force, and it was Hans Selye who first incorporated this term into the medical lexicon to describe the “nonspecific response of the body to any demand”. Stress means “pressure or tension” exerted on a material object. Stress is a fact of everyday life. When people reach out for help, they are often dealing with circumstances, situations, and stressors in their lives that leave them feeling emotionally and physically overwhelmed. Many people feel that they have very little resources or skills to deal with the high levels of stress they are experiencing. Stress management involves the usage of different techniques along with psychotherapies to control the different levels of stress, mainly chronic stress so as to improve the daily working of an individual and the quality of life. Online education system “Online learning” refers to instructional environments supported by the Internet. Online learning comprises a wide variety of programs that use the Internet within and beyond school walls to provide access to instructional materials as well as facilitate interaction among teachers and students. Online learning can be fully online or blended with face-to-face interactions. Online education also can be defined as an approach to teaching and learning that utilizes internet technologies to communicate and collaborate in an educational context. The physical classroom learning nowadays is no longer applicable for the current younger generations (Gen Y). Internet and distance learning which is generally known as online education plays a vital role in the country's education system. It is undeniable that online education provides ample of benefits to young learners. Fully online learning is a form of distance education in which all instruction and assessments are carried out using online, Internet-based delivery (Picciano and Seaman 2009; U.S. Department of Education 2007).

  48. Mohammad Mohsin Hamidi, Ph.d

    Taliban's return to power in 2021, was an important internal and international matter. Afghan society, after 20 years of living under the rule of weak but secular governments, currently is experiencing an ideological rule by Taliban. This paper is not dealing directly the huge problems which Afghan people are facing, but try to clarify the arena of governance of Taliban. This group, has many problems, inside and outside of it's apparatus, in domestic and international area. The causes of it's re-rise is not here our purpose. Now it's on the real politics arena, and one of the most important issue is: what challenges are they facing? How can they overcome on this challenges? Which possible trends is appearing there?

  49. Silviana Dian Safitri and Dian Indri Purnamasari

    The current study aims to determine the impact of financial literacy, financial behavior, and financial motivation on students’ investment decision. The population consists of Economics and Business Faculty (FEB) students at the UPN “Veteran” Yogyakarta. In this study, we adopted a quantitative research approach. To collect samples, we employed a purposive sampling method and to analyze the data we used a statistical technique known as multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis conducted in this study show that financial literacy has an impact on students’ investment decision, while financial behavior and financial motivation have no impact on students’ investment decision.

  50. Kamolrat Intaratat

    This research aims to study under the context of digital technology & COVID-19 pandemic disruption1) the demanding of SDG’scross cutting issues in Thailand that ODL can facilitate; 2) how STOU use ODL to serve the SDG’ s cross cutting issues; and 3) to recommend how to scale up ODL to serve the SDG’scross cutting issues. Qualitative research via STOU-ODL case study approach was used to analyze how ODL of STOU serve the demanding SDG’s cross cutting issues. Results found 1) the demanding of SDG’s cross cutting issues in Thailand respectively are 1) Goal 4: Quality education; Goal 3: Good health and well-being ; Goal 5: Gender equality; Goal 1: No poverty; Goal 2: Zero hunger; Goal 9: Industry, innovation and infrastructure; Goal 10: Reduced inequality ;Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities; Goal 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions; and Goal 17: Partnership; 2)STOU use ODL to serve the SDG’s cross cutting issues by embedded with ICT to offer all types of educational programs : (1) Formal, (2) Non-formal &Informal educations to cover all groups of people in Thailand including all the marginalized can be easily accessed to all kinds of SDG’s cross cutting issues for their new required knowledges and skills, more opportunities, and better quality of life. 3) ODL must be appropriate designed with partnership model to fit well with all contexts of the SDG’s cross cutting issue i.e. in-time & demanded base issue, friendly & appropriate pedagogy, agile administrative & management, and all kinds of participatory contribution. Some examples of STOU-ODL’s academies to serve all the SDG’s cross cutting issues are Smart MOOC, Smart Ageing, Smart Farmer, Smart Youths & Young Women Entrepreneur, and others.

  51. Maria de Nazaré Santos Melo, Maysa Leite Serra dos Santos and Naysa Christine Serra Silva

    O presente artigo aborda o tema A Batalha de Guaxenduba ocorrida no Maranhão em 1614, precisamente onde localiza-se a cidade de Icatu e que envolveu a expulsão dos franceses do Brasil pelos portugueses. Grandes nomes envolveram-se na batalha, destacando Jerônimo de Albuquerquee Daniel de La Touche agregando valor histórico e cultural no território maranhense. O final da batalha garantiu a vitória dos portugueses que depois de não cumprirem o acordo de paz estabelecido entre os dois lados iniciaram o ataque sem baixar a guarda. Daniel de La Touche foi preso e levado para Pernambuco conseguindo o perdão do Governador-Geral, porém decidiu questionar o valor da pensão e foi preso em Portugal.

  52. Mohammad Jahedul Alam, Md Jahedul Islam and Farida Siddika

    Introduction: To lower the infection rate of SARS-CoV-2, public gatherings are discouraged by the personnel of scientific communities and so educational institutions are closed for being the meeting place of so many students. To continue the education, most of the countries took the decision of teaching-learning through online. But all the countries could not be benefitted completely because of lacking computer knowledge and technical issues. Bangladesh is among them and this study was conducted in the Chattogram region of the country. Materials and method: Data was collected from 300 students and 100 hundred teachers of different educational institutions ranging from primary schools to universities and then analyzed on Excel platform. Results and Discussion: The findings present how attitude, motivation, self-efficacy, and use of technology play a significant role in giving and receiving lessons for academic performance of students and teachers. Also, participants preferred face-to-face learning over online learning. Conclusion: In spite of having many challenges, there is no option to continue education during pandemic except e-learning. So, major challenges should be met and positive attitudes must be grown.

  53. Sodikin Sodikin

    The principles of spatial planning such as integration, sustainability, democracy through legal certainty and justice are a necessity given the development of the global situation and conditions. The spatial planning regulation should accommodate such principles, but in the existing statutory regulations in spatial planning management it creates problems, namely overlapping and disharmony among the statutory regulations governing spatial planning. The problem raised in this article is what kind of regulatory reconstruction can accelerate spatial planning regulations so that they can provide certainty and justice for society. The research method used is descriptive normative. The results of this study indicate that the regulatory construction that is formed at least provides a solution in spatial planning that does not cause complexity with overlapping and disharmony regulations, so that the desired regulatory construction encourages acceleration of spatial planning regulations that provide justice for society, and legal certainty in spatial planning.

  54. John Sharkey MSc

    This research paper provides recommendations, based on a reflective analysis, concerning the prescription of safe, effective, and appropriate fascia-focused physical activity, and manual therapy interventions, for patients recovering from COVID-19. In particular this review and emerging recommendations are specific to those who are failing to achieve a full recovery and thus experiencing Long-COVID symptoms leading to a possible National health crisis. The progression of the airborne RNA virus, identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19, is ongoing, and the numbers of Long-COVID suffers are increasing. It is now almost two years since the World Health Organisation (WHO) announced that the spread of this airborne virus had reached pandemic proportions. It is hoped this research paper will provide important information concerning the longer-term effects of COVID-19 and its numerous variants Alpha, Delta, Delta plus (K417N spike protein mutation), Lambda and others. Appropriate guidelines for safe physical activity and touch therapies for hospitalised and non-hospitalised long-COVID patients will be provided. There is emerging detail concerning long-termpost-viral effects showing them to be similarly reflective of other common syndrome sequelae such as Fibromyalgia, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, Myofascial Trigger Points, and Chronic fatigue. This information is proving to be useful in offering much-needed recommendations for the safe prescription of physical activities and manual therapy in supporting patient's return to pain-free movement and improved quality of life. While high-quality research is lacking on this topic, according to reliable scientific sources, long-COVID syndrome, or Long-COVID, is an emerging and growing problem worldwide. Several reports confirm that a significant number of people are failing to achieve full recovery following infection. Available research figures show patients who did not require hospitalization when having COVID-19 and who had no underlying medical condition including children, healthy fit individuals, particularly women, and 'under 40' pre-menopausal women are particularly vulnerable to Long-COVID. This reflective analysis provides recommendations concerning informed, appropriate fascia-focused therapeutic physical activity and touch-therapy therapeutic interventions for qualified therapists working with hospitalised or non-hospitalised Long-COVID patients. Based on current data, it seems prudent to consider SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 as a long-term illness. Post-Covid patients require professionally trained personal to provide the necessary clinical support and valuable functional life change advice. Following medical approval, if required, qualified therapist should carry out a complete battery of tests to rule out other underlying causes before providing any therapeutic interventions.

  55. Dr. Chithra Melavanki, Dr. Adarsh V. Hegde, Dr. Glynis Mirinda and Dr. Zarir Ruttonji

    Background: A core build-up is a restoration placed in a badly broken down tooth to restore the coronal portion. This facilitates restoration of the broken down tooth by means of extra-coronal restoration. Compressive and flexural strength of core materials is thought to be important because core usually replaces the large bulk of the tooth structure and must resist multidirectional forces. In this study, compressive and flexural strength of a newly introduced core material was determined and compared with conventional core materials. The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the compressive and flexural strength of Zirconia modified Glass Ionomer used as a core build-up material with other conventional materials. Methodology: Cylindrical specimens measuring 6mm in height and 4mm in diameter were prepared using machined aluminium mold. Ten specimens were prepared in each group. (Amalgam, Resin modified GIC, Light cured composite, Zirconia modified Glass Ionomer). Compressive strength was determined using a universal testing machine. The maximum load applied to fracture the specimen was recorded and compressive strength was calculated in Mega Pascal. Results: The mean compressive strength and flexural strength was significantly higher (p <0.05)in Glass reinforced composite group as compared to Zirconia modified Glass Ionomer, DPI alloy and Vitrimer, but no statistically significant difference was observed between Zirconia modified Glass Ionomer vs DPI alloy, Zirconia modified Glass Ionomer vs Vitrimer, DPI alloy vs Vitrimer. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, Glass reinforced composite had higher strength compared to the other three core build- up materials.

  56. Jaina Joshi

    In the dental field, diagnosis and treatment planning is given the utmost importance and for that reason, 3D imaging with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was introduced. CBCT enables the three dimensional evaluation of the structures. Therefore, it allows to identify the exact location and extent of dental lesions in a specific anatomic position. The wide ranging applications of CBCT enable it to be utilized in the fields endodontics, orthodontics, periodontics, oral surgery, implantology and other fields. The objective of this review is to provide up-to-date information to dentists regarding the applications of CBCT for different dental specialty to enable an accurate diagnosis and successful treatment.

  57. Bourguiba Emna, Jazi Imene, Kraoua Ichraf, Ben Youssef-Turki Ilhem and Chemli Mohamed Ali

    Cockayne syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease clinically characterized by growth failure, neurological and sensory dysfunction, photosensitivity and visual abnormalities. Dental and cranio-facial abnormalities are common but rarely studied. Methods: We performed a review of literature about oro-dental findings and dental management in Cockayne syndrome infants. We reported a 7-year-old girl with genetically confirmed Cockayne syndrome. We focused on oro-dental phenotype and management. Results: Sixteen articles were reviewed. Oro-dental findings reviewed were bad oral hygiene (N=5) (33.33%) , dental caries (N=16) (100%) , enamel hypoplasia (N=6) (37.5%) , white opacities(N=3) (18.75%) , narrow dental arches (N=4) (25%) , teeth malposition(N=4) (25%) ,agenesis (N=5) (31.25%), anomalies of form(N=4) (25%) , hyposialia (N=5) (31.25%), temporo-mandibular joint defect (N=1) (6.25 %) and other non-detailed features(N=4) (25%) . Dental management in CS patients was detailed in (N=7) (43.75%) of retained articles. Conclusion: Early dental check-up and management of CS is very important as preventive option. More oro-dental signs need to be explored as skeletal diagnosis, temporal-mandibular joints, and salivary and pulp tests.

  58. Dr. Sreelatha, M., Vijaya Nirmala, K. and Dr. Sudha Rani

    The aim of the study is to assess the level of knowledge and knowledge on practice regarding prevention of covid-19 among B.Sc nursing students OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: • To assess the knowledge and knowledge on practice regarding prevention of COVID-19 among B.Sc(N) students • To determine the association between knowledge and knowledge on practice scores regarding prevention of covid-19 with their selected socio demographic variables • To evolve and distribute a self instructional module regarding prevention of COVID-19 infection Methodology: By using Non probability-Purposive Sampling Technique, Non experimental-Descriptive Research Design was adopted, 100 B.Sc nursing students were taken for the study and data was collected by using a self structured questionnaire and analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The results revealed that out of 100 that majority 45(45%) of sample had moderate knowledge rest of 35(35%) of them had adequate knowledge and 20(20%) of the nursing students had inadequate knowledge. Conclusion: Covid-19 is a emerging condition which made the entire world to suffer and bring frontline worriers nurses should take active part in preventing the spread of disease and should promote the awareness among the community in order to implement the researcher has taken this study.

  59. Kirti Sharma and Jaipreet Singh

    The oral cavity is one of the predominant and prevalent sites of development of potential malignancies, since it comes into direct contact with many carcinogens. Despite monitoring the original tumour site following an advanced surgical and non-surgical therapy, the overall mortality rate remains unchanged probably due to the recurrence of the tumour either locally or at a remote site. Field Cancerization also called field defect or field effect is a well-known process of transformation of an existing precancerous lesion into a malignancy. This definition is often used to describe the development of abnormal tissues around a tumorigenic area, resulting into an oral multifocal cancer in individual sites, which later coalesce and create atypical areas, even after complete surgical removal of the tumour. Early detection and monitoring of the field may have profound implications for Cancer Prevention.

  60. Agoro, Eni-yimini Solomon and Wankasi, Mieebi Martins

    The development of male infertility is increasing rapidly worldwide with numerous causative agents and idiopathic causes. Infertility conundrum coincides with the epidemic of abnormal body weight which holds sway to countless pathological conditions. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between low body mass index (BMI), sperm counts and seminal electrolyte concentrations in young adults. A total of one hundred (100) students of the Niger Delta University constituted the study subjects. The age bracket was pegged between 18-35 years. The study was stratified into two categories; normal BMI (20-25) and underweight (< 19). The BMI, electrolytes and sperm concentrations were analyzed using WHO approved standards and procedures. Data generated from the mathematical and empirical analysis were analysed using student t-test and Pearson correlation obtained using SPPS version 18-20 packages. The result showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in seminal sodium and bicarbonate in the underweight when compared to normal BMI, whereas seminal potassium was on the contrary. Correlation between BMI and sperm count revealed non-significant relationship with Pearson coefficient (r) = - 0.077; p – value = 0.778. In conclusion, the distorted electrolytes observed in the study are a plausible predisposition of underweight to infertility.

  61. Marovino Edoardo and Morgillo Amelia

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a very common disease in the Western world and in Italy it is estimated that there are over one hundred thousand of patients, like HIV infection. In recent years, progress has been made with regard to lines of treatment and new drugs have been approved and already available and have changed the history of the disease making it favorable in most cases. Methods: the search for the articles to be included was conducted through the use of databases such as pubmed, scopus, researchgate, google scholar, by typing in keywords such as "multiple sclerosis therapies" the names of the new drugs and integrating with literature data. Results: The purpose of this article is to expose the characteristics of the most recent approved drugs, including oral ones, evaluating, based on clinical studies, their pharmacodynamic characteristics and adverse reactions, and finally to expose some of the compounds undergoing approval or innovative evaluation that in the coming months or years they may be commercially available. Conclusions: Disease-modifying therapies work both on the control of the underlying pathological process, limiting immune-mediated inflammation, and partly on the mechanism of neurodegeneration by slowing the progression. These drugs have shown remarkable results in decreasing the attack rate. However, there are still no definitive therapies, even if there are neuroprotective and remyelinating therapies in experimentation that seem to give very good results.

  62. Sergio Fasullo, PierPaolo Prestifilippo, Alberto Grillo, Piero Levantino, Giuseppina Leone, Simone Lazzara, Giorgio Maringhini, Filippo Ganci, Sebastiano Scalzo, Mirko Luparelli, Marianna Rubino, Luciano Alibani, Mariangela Santamaria1 and Stefania Davi

    This case report describes a case of acute myocarditis post-vaccination. Patient who received the Covid 19 vaccine. There is evidence in the literature linking vaccines to different auto-immune manifestations. Of late, autoimmune manifestations that appear to be caused by an external adjuvant have been grouped into a complex syndrome referred to as autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). He presented to hospital with chest pain, fever and weakness after 4 days from vaccination. Laboratory investigations showed elevated creatine kinase and troponin-I, and extensive cardiac investigations yielded a diagnosis of myocarditis. Adjuvants are elements that induce an inflammatory response. In the case of vaccines, adjuvants increase the antigen-specific immune response, to ultimately improve vaccine immunogenicity. The incidence of myocarditis post vaccination is rare Given the benefits of the vaccine and the rarity of this complication, we do not discourage its routine usage when clinically indicated. However, ongoing surveillance is required to evaluate the occurrence of rare adverse events.

  63. Sunil P. Singh

    The wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology has led to a tremendous amount of commercial and research interest in WDM-based networks. The emergence of WDM networking components led people to design and deploy WDM based networks. Such networks take advantage of the flexibility and configurability of components. In principle the optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) and Optical code division multiplexing (OCDM) can be exploiting to utilize the fiber bandwidth. But presently these technologies are in developing stage. In this paper the recent developments in WDM based optical networks are presented.

  64. Reschiwati and Rini Andhika

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of independent variables, namely permanent and temporary differences individually and simultaneously on the income of retail companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2015-2019. Sampling using purposive sampling technique. Out of a population of 25 companies, 9 companies were selected as samples based on specified criteria. Data processing using Eviews 10 program with data panel regression method. Fixed effect model was chosen as a suitable model for use in this study. The results concluded that permanent difference and temporary difference have a significant positive effect on commercial income. In addition, permanent difference and temporary difference also simultaneously affect commercial income.

  65. Nripesh Trivedi

    This paper describes user interest.

  66. Dr. Mahendra Kumar Tiwari and Sandeep Kumar Tiwari

    Strictness of the Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEFCC) against the non-compliance of the Emission norms Notified by MoEFCC in 2016 for Cement Industries was the major challenge for Cement Industries to achieve the emission norms. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emission reduction was the major challenge for Cement Industry therefore, some of the Cement Industries have installed global approved NOx reduction technology called as Selective Non Catalytic Reduction (SNCR). After installation of SNCR system in Cement Industries NOx emission through process stacks get reduced but the Ammonia (NH3) gas has increased in process stacks because NH3 gas is injecting in Pre-calciner of the cement Kiln at Temperature range between 870 to 1090o Celcies and converting it into Nitrogen gas ((Production of Ammonium Nitrate, 2000) but some quantity of Ammonia approx 2 to 10 ppm (State and Territorial Air Pollution, 1994) get released from process stacks. Apart from this, some quantity of Ammonia gas also releasing during loading and unloading of Ammonia through tankers.

  67. Arun Shanmugam, Shanmuga Sundharam Rajagopal and Sambathkumar Ramanathan

    Two dietary patterns that have been shown to improve heart health include the Mediterranean Diet and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. Another common dietary method based on periodic fasting intervals is IF. Alternative diets include alternate-day fasting and time-restricted eating. Despite the lack of large, randomised clinical trials evaluating the link between IF and cardiovascular outcomes, human research suggests that this diet may lower cardiovascular disease risk by improving weight management, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and diabetes. IF may enhance your health in a variety of ways, including reduced oxidative stress, improved circadian rhythm, and ketogenesis. This review investigating the current data about the possible cardiovascular benefits of intermittent fasting and makes areas for further research.

  68. Dr. Sarvajeet Khare, Nishi Sheth and Dr. Zeeshan Ali

    Heparin induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis is associated after several days of ongoing heparin treatment. It is an immune-mediated response which leads to life-threatening thrombosis. Thrombocytopenia is caused by presence of antibodies which activate the heparin and bind to platelet factor 4(PF4). HIT is associated with thromboembolic complications in both arteries and venous circulation. Complications such as pulmonary embolism, myocardial infraction, and death due to thrombotic occlusion in heart, lungs and brain. The main diagnostic criteria are to examine the thrombocytopenia during heparin treatment. HITTS mostly occur after 1-2 weeks after the HIT. A complete watch on platelet and laboratory parameters is essential. The treatment options for HITTS are low molecular weight heparin (LMWHs) and antiplatelet agent are provided. The main consequence would be only keeping eye at patient during thrombocytopenia as it leads to thrombosis and providing effective treatment.

  69. Marlene Andrade Martins, Letícia Palota Eid, Ana Carolina Carvalho Ferreira Abreu Martucci, Maria Jaiara Pereira dos Santos and Paulakiane Macedo Barbosa

    Background: People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing hemodialysis may have symptoms of anxiety and depression that may interfere with adherence to medication treatment. Objectives: to evaluate adherence to medication use and its association with anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as sociodemographic and clinical characteristics in people with CKD undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out in a hemodialysis center in a city in southwestern Goiás, Goiás, Brazil, involving 105 people with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. The ethical aspects were met and data were collected during the months of December 2017 to January 2019, through interviews. For the outcome variables, the Morisky-Green Test and the HAD scale were used for anxiety and depression. Results: The overall prevalence of people adhering to the treatment was 14.3% (95%CI: 7.3-22.9%), with 70.5% having medium and low adherence. Regarding anxiety, the prevalence was 34.3% (95% CI: 25.7 – 42.9), while depression was 35.2% (95% CI: 26.7 – 44.3). There was an association between adherence to drug treatment and poor self-rated health (p=0.001) and anxiety (p=0.039); and marginal significance for depression (p=0.054). There was a weak negative correlation between medication adherence and anxiety (r= -0.275; p=0.005). Gender (p=0.014), self-rated health (p=0.016), and DM (p=0.020) were independently associated with depression. Conclusions: The need for multidimensional care for people on hemodialysis during care is reported, highlighting the low adherence to drug treatment and the presence of anxiety and depression, seeking to improve the quality of life of these people.

  70. Lalrinmawii, R., Sanjay Kumar and Ashish S Noel

    In the present research, an attempt was made to study an economics analysis on marketing of maize in serchhip district, Mizoram. The present study was conducted in North Eastern state of Mizoram during year 2020-2021. Primary market (Chawhmeh bazaar) has been selected purposively according to the association of the producers with the market. There are only two channel exist for the marketing of maize and these are: Producer - consumer and Producer-wholesaler-retailer-consumer. The findings from the study shows that total marketing cost was higher in channel II Rs 122, followed by channel I Rs 47 respectively. The total marketing margins was Rs 225 for channel II and the price spread for channel I was Rs 47 and for channel II Rs 347. The study shows that apart from primary market (Chawhmeh bazaar) most of the produce were bought by District agricultural office, serchhip which act as the wholesaler and it was later bought by the animal husbandry department which act as the retailer. Constraints in marketing was mainly due to lack of storage facilities, high transportation charges, and frequent price fluctuation.

  71. NAROUA KOURE Mamane Kabirou, OUMAROU DIADIE Halima, Balla ABDOURAHAMANE and ADAM Toudou

    Spirulina, a dietary supplement par excellence, is an algae very rich in proteins, vitamins and mineral elements. The objective of this synthesis is to report on the state of knowledge on the production, composition, processing and use of spirulina. This work was carried out from a bibliographic study. Thus, the results of studies have shown that all stages of spirulina production require compliance with a number of parameters. These include the choice of land and type of basin, culture medium, agitation system, maintenance and rigorous monitoring of crops. Spirulina is an algae which has a thermophilic character and a significant need for light, this particularity of spirulina limits its distribution area to an intertropical band located approximately between 35 ° North latitude and 35 ° South latitude. The chemical composition of spirulina gives it a wide potential for use, especially in human and animal food, in aquaculture, cosmetics, pharmacology, etc. Valuation trials were also tested.

  72. Dube, M.R., Pithiya M.B. and Bhoya, U.C.

    According to molecular flexibility, new ethylspacer containing benzoates RO-C6H4-COO-CH2-CH2-O-C6H4-O-CH2-C6H5 were synthesized. As ethylspacer provides good flexibility, this series shows polymorphism. We are introducing an easy one-pot reaction for the esterification of an aliphatic alcohol with the help of isobutyl chloroformate, reaction time and yield as well as liquid crystalline properties of synthesized compounds were studied. As compared to the reported series,the current series is polymesomorphic in nature with a lower transition temperature. Introducing a spacer between two rigid cores enhance the mesomorphic behavior to show Ntb mesophase. The setexture and transition temperatures were carried out in temperature controlling polarizing optical microscope. All homologues were confirmed by 1H NMR, Mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopic technique.

  73. Nambou GNOFAM, Atalaèsso BOKOBANA, Komlan Pikassalé AKANTETOU, Bassarou AYEVA, Zovodu KOFFI, Outéndé TOUNDOU, Gérard ZOMBRE, Koffi TOZO

    In Togo, the recurrence of pockets of drought during the rainy season and soil degradation pose serious threats to agriculture. Under these conditions, cotton production is strongly influenced, and the quality of the harvested fiber is altered. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contribution of two types of composts, made with crop residues, on cotton yield and on some technological characteristics of the fiber in conditions of lack of water. The study was carried out in a greenhouse, in a 10 L vegetation pot. The water deficit is induced at the flowering stage of the plant, for 30 days, and consisted of a reduction in irrigation from 70 % to 30 % of the useful water reserve (UWR). The results showed that the water deficit induced a significant decrease in productivity (p = 0.001) in cotton, on the other hand the difference was not significant for the fiber yield at ginning (p = 0.663) and seed index (p = 0.243). The impact of the water deficit on productivity is halved with the use of compost, with rates of change of -26.12 % and -28.78 %, against -47.75 % in the absence of fertilization. Whatever the water regime, the contribution of composts can significantly improve the micronaire index (p = 0.023), the maturity of the fiber (p = 0.019), the length of the fiber (p = 0.003), fiber uniformity (p = 0.006) and tenacity (p = 0.008). Thus, compost appears to be a solution both to the problem of soil infertility and to strengthening the resistance of crops to drought.

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