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January 2023

  1. MassouroudiniAKOUDJIN, KounboDABIRE, Martin Bienvenu SOMDA, Abdoul MalickKINDA, Olivier BADO et Chantal Yvette KABORE-ZOUNGRANA

    Le niébé, Vignaunguiculata (L.) Walp., est une légumineuse d’importance alimentaire et économique en Afrique. Cependant, le rendement de cette culture est faible en raison d’attaques des insectes ravageurs au champ et en stockage. Cette étude a été conduitepour tester l’efficacité biologique de trois biopesticides à base d’extraits de neem (Zadirachtaindica (A.) Juss.) contre les insectes ravageurs du niébé au champ.Pour ce faire, un dispositif en carré latin d’une superficie de 400 m2 constitué de 4 blocs contenant chacun 4 unités expérimentales, a été mis en place. Quatre traitements ont été appliqués : le T0 (témoin, sans traitement), le T1 (solution aqueuse à base d’huile de neem), le T2 (solution aqueuse de feuilles de neem) et le T3 (solution aqueuse de graines de neem). Les résultats ont montré trois ordres d’insectes capturés dans les parcelles d’étude : les Hemiptera (punaises et pucerons), les Lepidoptera (Marucavitrata) et les Thysanoptera (thrips). Ces insectes étaient plus abondants dans les parcelles témoins non traitées (T0) par rapport aux parcelles traitées aux extraits de neem (T1, T2 et T3). En outre, les résultats obtenus avec les extraits de neem, ont montré des taux d’infestations différents au niveau des feuilles (5,75% à 10,33%) et des fleurs (8-10,25%) (p<0,01) de niébé. Les comparaisons multiples des taux d’infestation, ont révélé que les unités expérimentales ayant été traitées avec le T2 ont enregistré moins d’attaques sur les feuilles et fleurs de niébé par rapport aux autres traitements (p<0,05). De plus, le rendement en grains de niébé était également amélioré avec le traitement T2 (p<0,001). En somme, l’ensemble des résultats semblent confirmer que le traitement à base de la solution aqueuse de feuilles de neem ou traitement T2 est plus efficace. A l’issue de cette étude, l’utilisation de la solution aqueuse de feuille de neem comme stratégie de lutte alternativeaux pesticides de synthèse contre les insectes ravageurs du niébé, est à encourageren milieu paysan.

  2. Massouroudini AKOUDJIN, Soudah BOMA, Martin Bienvenu SOMDA, Lassina SANOU et Chantal Yvette KABORE-ZOUNGRANA

    Les sites forestiers sous la pression humaine se retrouvent confinés sur des sols non cultivables sous forme d’îlots forestiers et sur des domaines protégés et classés. Dans le souci d’un développement durable et pour des services écosystémiques profitables à la population, le suivi de l’environnement est nécessaire à l’aide des indicateurs biologiques d’anthropisation. Ainsi, des suivis écologiques ont été réalisés dans la zone de cultures, la zone de pâtures et dans la forêt classée de la Mou de 2020 à 2022. Ces suivis écologiques ont consisté à faire des inventaires floristiques et entomologiques en début et la fin des saisons des pluies durant deux années consécutives dans la commune rurale de Koumbia dans le bassin cotonnier de l’Ouest du Burkina Faso. La richesse spécifique de la flore et de l’entomofaune était croissante de la zone de culture vers la forêt classée. Aussi, des espèces se sont distinguées comme étant des bioindicateurs des zones de pâtures et des reliques des formations naturelles, qui subsistent à l’intérieur de la forêt. Pachnoda cordata cordata (Drury,1773) et Pachnoda marginata marginata (Drury, 1773), des espèces de Cetoniinae ont eu des densités significatives dans la zone de pâtures (p <0,05) tandis que des espèces de Nymphalidae Charaxes epijasiu sepijasius (Reiche, 1850)et Charaxes viola viola (Butler, 1866) ont eu des densités significativement élevées dans la forêt classée. Il ressort que la forêt classée joue le rôle de refuge pour des espèces à écologie fragile comme Chlorocala guerini (Janson, 1888) et Stephanorrhina guttata guttata (Olivier, 1789) qui sont des espèces de cétoines. Ces résultats encouragent la conservation et la préservation des îlots de formations végétales naturelles pour qu’elles soient des zones de refuge et de transition de la biodiversité des insectes.

  3. Kusum Meena and Gazi Sakina Rauf

    Objectives 1)To measure serum leptin level in patients with carcinoma breast 2)To study the correlation between metabolic syndrome as well as its individual parameters and grading and receptors in patients of carcinoma breast 3)To evaluate rise of serum leptin levels in patients with carcinoma breast with metabolic syndrome(MS) in comparison to values in patients with breast cancer without MS. Method: A cross sectional study was carried out with 66 patients of proven carcinoma breast. Serum leptin of all the patients were analysed using ELISA. All the parameters of MS were recorded individually as defined according to NCEP-ATP3(National Cholesterol Education Program and Adult Treatment Panel). Histopathological grading was done by using SEER and modified bloom Richardson grading. The data was carefully tabulated in a proforma and statistically analysed by statistician using SPSS. Results: In our study out of 66 ,38 (57.57%) patients were in TNBC group and 28 (42,42%)in receptor positive group.The mean age in receptor positive group was 49.32= 14.56 and in TNBC 51.16=10.47.in receptor positive group 85.7% had waist circumference >80cm and in TNBC group 73.7% had WC >80 cm . Total 32 (48.48%) patients had MS, in receptorpositive group 13/28(46.43% had MSand 15/28(53.57% did not fall in MS category, however in TNBC 19/38(50%) had MS and equal no 19/38(50%)did not have MS and the P value obtained was 0.716 which was statistically non significant. Inreceptor positive group 28.57% had grade 3 histological grading and in receptor negative group 52.63% patients had grade 3 histology.In receptor positive group 6/28 (21.4% )had serum leptin levels were <11.1 pg/dl and 22/28 (78.6%) had serum leptin level >11.1%.In TNBC group 4/38 (10.5%) patients had serum leptin level <11.1pg/dl and 34/38(89.5%) patients had serum leptin level >11.1 pg/dl and the P value obtained was 0.03 which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Thus the increased serum leptin levels have strong correlation with TNBC and high grade breast cancers and correlation with MS was equivocal .The correlation with Ki 67 was also statistically significant while comparing both groups.

  4. Fagbohun A.O., Akinyemi S.O, Eke G.N., and Fashina O.A.

    Background: Tracheomalacia is a structural deficit of the tracheal cartilages inducing excessive collapsibility of the trachea. Origin: Acquired conditions more common in adults. Case report: A report of a 23year old lady who presented with a benign, simple small sized goiter of 9 months duration scheduled for thyroidectomy. She had no retrosternal extension, pressure symptoms or features of respiratory insufficiency. Patient had thin, fragile depigmented (bleached) skin with discolouration. She had extensive skin striae (stretch marks) on the trunk, abdomen and pelvic region despite having s slim stature. She had been using a potent skin whitening cream containing two potent topical steroids for about 3 years. Prior to surgery, patient had intravenous exogenous dexamethasone to prevent the potential risk of the suppression of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis with a subsequent inappropriate response to surgery. Intra-operatively the lead surgeons had called the teams’ attention to the abnormal anatomy of the patients’ trachea. The lumen of the trachea appeared narrowed as evidenced by the reduced anterior-posterior airway caliber with associated loss of the semicircular shape of the tracheal rings and bulging of the posterior membranous wall. The diagnosis of tracheomalacia was made and an emergency tracheostomy was performed. The endotracheal tube was extubated after proper suctioning. Surgery was concluded and patient was transferred to the high dependency unit for close monitoring. The serum cortisol and urinary cortisol levels were elevated (28mcg/dl and 55mcg/day respectively). This report highlights the unusual presentation of this patient and emphasizes the place of interprofessional team work required in her management. Conclusion: Tracheomalacia is a life threatening condition that is mostly of acquired origin in adults. Chronic use of topical steroids has been associated with systemic complications such as atrophy, and weakening of airway cartilages but these effects has been sparsely discussed or documented in literatures particularly relating to anaesthesia. This report presents an unusual presentation of suspected tracheomalacia secondary to chronic use of topical steroids.

  5. Dr. Noopur Kulkarni, Dr. Roshini Vinod, Dr. Atul Deshpande, Dr. Sujit Londhe and Dr. Shailesh Gawande

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm hitting the oral cavity . A variety of genomic factors are responsible for this . Early diagnosis is the key to deal with this deadly disease . This dental image is an interesting finding of presence of a ghost keratin pearl in the H & E section of OSCC

  6. Renji Francis, N. and Jyoti S Kabbin

    Context: Corneal ulcer is one of the major causes of ocular morbidity in developing countries and fungi are the main etiological agents of corneal ulceration in India. Risk factors for fungal keratitis are male gender, history of ocular trauma, chronic use of corticosteroids and systemic diseases, that impair the host immunity Aims: To determine microbiological profile of fungal keratitis2 .To determine the epidemiological profile of fungal keratitis. Settings and Design: Descriptive – cross sectional study. Methods and Material: A retrospective study was done for the period of six months. Corneal scrapings taken from the clinically diagnosed cases of fungal keratitis and processed by direct microscopic methods and standard culture techniques Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was done by using MS Excel sheet. Descriptive statistics like percentage calculation was done in the study. Results: Among the 23 fungal keratitis positive cases, males outnumbered females. The maximum number of positive cases were seen in the age group of 31-40 years, followed by the age group of 51-60 years. The most common cause of fungal keratitis was found out to be Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium (31.25 % each), followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus calidoustus (17.39 % each), and Acremonium (8.69 % ), Curvularia, Rhizomucor, Aspergillus niger (4.34% each). Aspergillus species were found to be isolated from 43.4% of cases of keratomycosis. Amongst the fungal keratitis cases, 91.3% cases were positive for fungal growth on culture and 8..6% cases were positive for the presence of fungal elements on direct microscopy. Conclusions: Lack of early diagnosis and treatment lead to the onset of complications, which may compromise the patient's vision and thereby the quality of life.

  7. Dr. Daouda NDIAYE

    The use of English is growing worldwide as a direct consequence of globalization. This affects many sectors: business, military, science, education, the media and culture in general. Many states are taking actions to strengthen their national or local languages, while investing heavily in English language learning. Given its role on the world scene, English is now used as a foreign or second language in non-English speaking countries. It is the case of Senegal which is a former colony of France, where French has long been the language of education, commerce and the Media. However, with the recent development of tourism, Senegalese society is increasingly realizing the benefits of using English language, which is incontestably rated the most powerful language nowadays. This article focuses on the emergence of English in Senegal and seeks to highlight its use in the Senegalese society.

  8. Geremias Luis Gomes and Alcides Romualdo Neto Simbo

    This article aims to develop the teaching-learning methodology for solving problems related to the Theory of Divisibility at the Higher Education in Cabinda. The study involved three Institutes, namely of Educational Sciences, Polytechnic Institute and Lusíadas Polytechnic Institute. This research arises as our experience as Mathematics teacher and the result of observation in the pedagogical practice of teachers, which contradicts the recommendations expressed in official documents of the Angolan Ministry of Education and Higher Education. Based on Polya's theory of solving problems, were elaborated a methodological proposal for teaching how to solve problems related to the Divisibility Theory in an investigative perspective. A questionnaire was applied in the classrooms, with students aged between eighteen and over twenty-six years old who were not used to working with problems related to the Theory of Divisibility. We chose to work with a quali-quantitative research methodology to understand how students relate to problems and identify the strategies used to solve them in their daily lives.

  9. Rabindra Kumar Mishra, Bhagyabati Rana, Susree Sangita and Soumyashree Rath

    The objectives of this paper are to examine general knowledge of FXS as well as knowledge of FXS pharmacotherapy. This overview may help pave the road for greater knowledge and understanding of NDDs, with a focus on FXS.Intellectual incapacity and behavioural abnormality, consisting of fear, ADHD symptoms, and Bio Neurological Disorder traits, are all linked to Fragile X syndrome (FXS). We noticed that a large number of patients with FXS had High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein readings while following up on them, therefore we started a systematic chart analysis of drug molecules development This study has implications for evaluating one's health with FXS, treatments .Therefore, his study identifies additional risks associated with FXS, such as genetic and environmental variables that contribute to increased brain dysfunction in addition to the FMR1 mutation.

  10. Swamy, K.R.M.

    Chayote belongs o the Family- Cucurbitácea, Subfamily- Sicyoideae, Genus- Sechium and species edule. Chayote has ten botanical varieties viz., 1) Sechium edule var. albus minor, 2) Sechium edule var. albus dulcis, 3) Sechium edule var. albus levis, 4) Sechium edule var. nigrum minor, 5) Sechium edule var. nigrum conus, 6) Sechium edule var. nigrum levis, 7) Sechium edule var. nigrum xalapensis, 8) Sechium edule var. nigrum spinosum, 9) Sechium edule var. nigrum maxima, and 10) Sechium edule var. virens levis. Chayote is known by different name in Indian regional languages such as Seema vankaya or Bengaluru vankaaya (in Telugu), Chocho or Chow Chow or Bengaluru katharikkai (in Tamil), Seeme badane, chow-chow (in Kannada). Putative wild populations of S. edule and related wild species are found in Central America, and therefore this region is most likely the centre of origin of chayote. Chayote was already a common cultivated vegetable among the Aztecs in pre-Columbian times. Chayote (Sechium edule) is cultivated throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world and utilized in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries because it is an excellent source of minerals, dietary fibers, protein, vitamins, carotenoids, polysaccharides, phenolic and flavonoid compounds, and other nutrients. In this review article origin, distribution, taxonomy (classification, species, wild types, synonyms, botanical varieties), botanical description, flower biology and pollinators, growth and development, genetic diversity, genetic resources, breeding (inter-specific and infra-specific hybridization, commercial varieties), production and international trade, uses, nutrititional value, halth benefits, and cultivation of chayote are discussed.

  11. Dhritiman Barman

    Children with special needs have a physical or mental condition. As there is increased prevalence of severity of malocclusion, these children have high orthodontic treatment need than the general population. The parents are also highly motivated in improving the quality of life of their child by improving their appearance as well as their oral function. This review article discusses about difficulties encountered during treatment and their management.

  12. Ardhendu Kumar Mandal and Sibani Sarkar

    Conventional chemotherapy against diseases develops multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects owing to inadequate drug therapeutic index, non-selective toxicity, insolubility and low bioavailability of drugs. In this context, metallic nanomaterials have emerged as potent effective delivery system against infectious diseases due to their nano, controllable sizes utilized as high surface area, enhanced reactivity and easy functionalizable structures. Aluminium nanomaterials (AlNMs) such as aluminium (Al0) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) due to their capability of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and surface-charge interactions with cells, are able to create oxidative bursts-oriented stress followed by damages to DNA, protein changes and lipid peroxidation resulting in adhesive infectious and microbial cellular deaths. This review is mainly focused on synthesis, drug loading, functionalization, mechanism of action, biomedical application, toxicity, biodistribution and elimination of aluminium nanomaterials as delivery system against different diseases.

  13. Brananda Adityo, Lalu Hamdani Husnan and Ni Ketut Surasni

    This study aims to analyze the effect of GCG, ROA, and CAR on total NPL with inflation as a moderating variable in banks listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). The sampling technique was purposive sampling so that a total sample of 20 companies was obtained, with a research period of 2018-2021. This type of research is causal associative. The data analysis technique in this study is moderated regression analysis (MRA). The results of this study indicate that GCG, ROA, and CAR influences total NPL. Inflation is proven to strengthen the effect of performance on total NPL.

  14. Siham boularbah, Meryem Soughi, Sara Dahouki, Soukeina chhiti, Zakia Douhi, Sara Elloudi, Hanane Baybay and Fatima Zahra Mernissi

    Bowen's disease is an in situ squamous cell carcinoma. The condition affects the skin and mucous membranes and carries a risk of transformation into invasive squamous cell carcinoma after several months or years of development. The risk factors for the development of Bowen's disease are sun exposure, exposure to ionizing radiation, immunosuppression, chronic dermatoses, papillomavirus and arsenic. We report a case of Bowen's disease occurring on a surgical drain scar, which underlines the importance of monitoring any delayed healing after removal of a surgical drain.

  15. Dr. Sadino, S.H. M.H. and Dr. Suartini, S.H., M.H.

    From Constitution Number 32 of 2009 about concerning Environmental Protection and Management regulates environmental economic instruments and regulations under them which are grouped under control measures, especially in the context of preventing environmental pollution and/or damage. The Constitution give the mandates "in order to preserve environmental functions, the government and regional governments are required to develop and implement Environmental Economic Instruments including: development planning and economic activities; Environmental Funding; and incentives and/or disincentives". With economic instruments it is intended that environmental management in Indonesia is able to run effectively and efficiently, fulfill the precautionary principle, and really lead to sustainability. This economic instrument approach emphasizes the existence of economic benefits for those in charge of a business and/or activity if they comply with environmental requirements as stipulated by laws and regulations. It is also necessary to stimulate those in charge of businesses and/or activities to comply with environmental requirements in order to avoid paying penalties or being penalized, to save expenses for using efficiency practices, and to get incentives if their activities have a positive impact on efforts to prevent damage and preserve the environment. Economic instruments through development planning and economic activities are expected to achieve sustainable development. The research method used is normative legal research by conducting legal studies and legal analysis of the application of Environmental Economic Instruments in realizing sustainable development. The main issues in this paper are: First, how are environmental economic instruments regulated in Indonesian laws and regulations? Second, is the regulation of environmental economic instruments capable of realizing sustainable development?

  16. Kalita, M.C. and Kalita, A.

    A field trial was conducted in 1995-96 at AAU, ICR farm to know the effect of irrigation management practices on wheat crop. It is important for cereal crop like wheat that longevity of leaves is important and retention of a large leaf surface area; which can carry on photosynthesis till the completion of maturity of a plant. NAR become higher during vegetative phase to flowering and declines rapidly as growth progressed in wheat crop. Two irrigations @6cm depth at CRI and Flowering stages were found to be the optimum in Assam under both the land situations

  17. Kalamba Dianda Michel, Muyombi Kapanda Elie, Makonga Ndalamba Alain, Ngoy Mukalayi Bavon, Ngoie Maloba Viviane, Ntwadi Mwanabute Pierre and Kalonji Chibwabwa Deddy

    Introduction: Les vices de réfraction ou amétropies sont représentés par toutes les situations où le système optique de l’œil ne permet pas de focaliser l’image d’un objet sur la rétine. Le but de cette étude était de faire ressortir la fréquence des vices de réfraction chez les enfants de 0 à 16 ans dans ses aspects épidémiologiques et cliniques à Kamina.Méthodes: Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive longitudinale sur les aspects épidémiologiques et cliniques des amétropies du chez l'enfant congolais de 0 à 16 ans dans la ville de Kamina entre janvier 2020 à Décembre 2021. Nous avons recueilli l'âge des patients, leur sexe, leur provenance, le type d’amétropie ainsi que les antécédents (hérédité) observés sur 140 patients. La saisie et l’analyse des données ont été effectuées sur les logiciels : Word, épi info 7.2. Résultats: Au cours de cette étude, le nombre de patients venus consultés le service d’ophtalmologie de centre médical Bénédicte étaient à 6534 parmi lesquels 1035 soient 15,8% étaient âgés de 0 à 16 ans tous les diagnostics confondus. (Tableau 1) et parmi ces derniers seulement 140 patients soient 13,5% avaient les vices de réfraction (Tableau 2). En rapport avec l'âge des patients, la plupart des amétropes sont compris dans la tranche d'âge de 11-16 ans soit 81,42% des cas (Tableau 3). L'âge moyen était de 10 ans avec un écart-type de 8,71 ans. La médiane était de 3,5 ans et le mode de 3 ans. Le sex-ratio était de 1,06 (un homme pour 1,06 femme); le type d’amétropie observé était la myopie. Conclusion: La fréquence des amétropies dans la ville de Kamina chez les enfants âgés de 0 à 16 ans est de 13,50%, elles restent une affection ophtalmologique fréquente dans notre milieu, elles sont plus marquées par une baisse de l’acuité visuelle, la myopie reste le vice de réfraction le plus fréquent dans notre milieu. Le port de lunettes améliore l’acuité visuelle des patients avec vice de réfraction en réduisant la malvoyance.

  18. Waleed Sultan

    This study aims to examine the impact of project management on entertainment sector in Saudi Arabia and how project management contributed in developing of entertainment sector. in addition to being the first study specialized in the correlation between project management and entertainment sector. This study based on qualitative method which collecting the official data like statistics, surveys, and reports and any published articles related to the topic. The results were investigated shows a significant impact for project management on entertainment sector in Saudi Arabia and there is a huge development by comparing with the last decades, project management contributed in organizing and executing the projects and increase its efficiency and effectivity in addition to mitigating the risks and reduce the costs. In general, project management is essential for managing risks, enhancing communication and collaboration, and making sure that activities are finished on schedule and within budget. In the end, this contributes to the success and expansion of Saudi Arabia's entertainment industry.

  19. Yamba Sinaré, Boureima Kafando, Awa Gnémé, Noel Gabiliga Thiombiano Patricia Soubeiga, Mohamed Bagayan and Magloire Boungou

    Snail was invertebrate host of many parasites including trematode, nematode and annelid. Trematode are endoparasites that present a complex life cycle, generally involving an intermediate invertebrate host and a vertebrate host. Many studies have focused on the diversity of trematodes in molluscs in several countries of the world. But research on mollusc parasites is little addressed in Africa, especially in West Africa. The aim of this study was to conduct a freshwater snail survey to assess the diversity and the relation with a focus on habitat types and their parasites infections. Snails were collected in different areas of central plateau region and examined. A total of 936 individuals’ snail was collected and classified into four families, 6 genera, and 8 species. Snail diversity was higher in soil. The most abundant species was Melanoides tuberculata, representing 23.08% of the sample and the reservoir of Loumbila records the abundant and diversity of snail species. Three species of snail were free of parasites. They are Biomphalaria Pfeifferi, Bulinus joussemei and Melanoides tuberculata. The harvested parasites are divided into two groups that are the trematodes (12 species) and Annelids (1 specie) with an overall rate of 6.60%. The Shannon diversity index showed that parasitic diversity varied between the two sites based on infected hosts, micro-habitats and seasonal periods. Cleopatrasp presented the highest diversity of parasite among the species of gastropods collected. The infection rate varied according to the collection months and according to the micro-habitats. Lecithodendriumsp only had an aggregated distribution during this study.

  20. Gökhan Uğur

    A unique culture can only come into being in a setting that is truly independent. Since cultural uniqueness arises within the structure of nation-states that bear the hallmark of complete autonomy, that takes us to the foundations of the political economy of the construction of uniqueness. The entire population of a given country is the collective sculptor of a sculpture. Every country has its own Higher Persona, and the singularization of that Higher Persona is brought about through the uniqueness of the activities of the people inhabiting that country. At the same time, the Higher Persona is not fixed but rather is in a state of constant flux, altering form across the ages like a sculpture that changes shape, becoming beautiful at times and unattractive or indistinct at others. If a country is adept at hewing that sculpture, which is a reflection of the Higher Persona, the cultural mass will increase and create a more intensive gravitational pull by warping the cultural grounds yet further. A country that increases its cultural mass will pull towards itself countries that have not been able to achieve an equivalent amount of cultural mass. Within that context, in order for a country like Turkey to construct a unique culture and increase its cultural mass, thereby more clearly defining its Higher Persona, it must be fully independent in a political-economic sense. The construction of the nation-state and national character is analogous with the construction of national uniqueness. In a way, the identity of a country is represented by stones in architecture and images in cinema.

  21. Saikat Majumdar

    Nutritional status of children is one of the major components of economic development of the country. According to 2011 censes, there are 472 million children of 0–18 years, comprising 39% of the country’s population and there is a huge burden of under nutrition among children. The imbalance between the nutrients the body needs and the nutrients it receives is known as malnutrition, which may take the form of either undernutrition or obesity. Health and physical consequences of prolonged states of malnourishment among children include delays in their physical growth and motor development, lower intelligence quotient (IQ) scores, greater behavioral problems and social skill deficiencies, susceptibility to contracting diseases, and others. During this crucial period, many factors like low birth weight baby, inappropriate feeding practices, morbidity factors (diarrhea and ARIs), low socioeconomic status and others lead to malnutrition. The study tried to find out the nutritional status ofunder 5 year children and low birth weight(LBW) baby including the child morbidity in Birbhum district, West Bengal using the secondary datasheet for NFHS-4 & NFHS-5.

  22. Raji Roqeeb Babatunde, Shwetha Pai Nayak and Guruprasad Vijayasarathi

    Distal Radio-Ulnar Joint (DRUJ) instabilities with or without associated conditions (such as mal- united distal radius fracture) is a common diagnosis in the field of orthopedics. However, few of these cases were referred to occupational therapy unit for post-surgical hand rehabilitation. The main reason for this is unknown but probably because of the scanty evidence to show the impact of various occupational therapy treatment modalities in treating DRUJ instability. As a result, this study intend to report the efficacy of combined occupational therapy (OT) intervention modalities in DRUJ instability by presenting Mr J, a known case of left DRUJ instability (with left mal-united distal radius fractured). He was admitted for k-wire removal after six weeks of K- wire fixation and referred to occupational therapy unit for hand rehabilitation. Having established the problems to be addressed through standardized and non-standardized OT assessments, different OT modalities which address each problems were used in the treatment process. Post treatment assessment during discharge shows a significant improvement despite the short hospital admission period. Therefore the outcome of this case study shows that, using combined OT modalities in DRUJ instability management do have greater impact on patient with DRUJ instabilities with mal-united distal radius fracture.

  23. Devika, S., Jyothy, A., Sharon Emilia James, Dr. Akhila, S. and Dr. Anitha Mary Mathews

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is defined by a reduction in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and/or urinary abnormalities or structural abnormalities of the renal tract.Objective of the study was to analyse the prescription pattern among patients with chronic kidney disease. A retrospective observational study was conducted over a period of six months in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 100 patient case records satisfying the inclusion criteria were analysed. Case records were retrospectively reviewed for the demographic data, clinical presentation, investigational management and outcomes. Data analysis were conducted using Microsoft Excel 2010, SPSS (Version 1.0.0.1406). There were more male patients (67%) as compared to the female patient (33%) and majority of the patients were in the age group of 61-80 years (49%).The number of patients were greater in the stage 5(67), followed by stage 4 (25). This study reveals that hypertension is the most diagnosed comorbidities in both male and female patients, followed by diabetes mellitus. The average number of drugs per prescription was 16.67, the percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name was 6.67%, percentage of drugs prescribed from national essential drug list was 72.04%, percentage of prescriptions with injection(s) prescribed was 99% and percentage of prescriptions with antimicrobial(s) was found to be 69%.

  24. Nikita Topanou, Lyde Tometin, Blaise Agbatchi, Merveille Gougbédji, Mariane Domeizel , Pascal Prudent and Taofiki Aminou

    Considering the, (i) high population and spatial growth of the Abomey-Calavi city (Benin), (ii) qualitative and quantitative increase of the household solid waste in the town of Abomey - Calavi, (iii) a more and more generalized practice of embankment of wet zones by household solid waste (HSW), (iv) non-existence of municipal landfills and, (v) fragility of the groundwater due to its weak depth, it’s necessary that appropriate actions are achieved with the aim of an effective and long-term management of the household solid waste. Objective: The aim of this study was to propose an effective and long-term plan of management of Abomey-Calavi HSW. Materials and methods: Knowledge of household-solid-waste quality and sociological point of view are the first step in an effective implementation of waste management spinneret. A sociological investigation was made with 200 persons, dealing on various levels with solid wastes in the Abomey-Calavi city. Results and Discussions: The management of HSW in Abomey - Calavi city, which can be termed pre-collection-based, is felt as bad by 80 % of HSW-careers and 50 % of the town council investigated employees. This study also proposes a management strategy for household-solid-waste for the city of Abomey-Calavi on three steps based on composting after sorting.

  25. Thierry GODJO, Houe´nafa Alain TOGBENON, Guy A. DEGLA and Alain ADOMOU

    In this paper, a new model of the anaerobic digestion of biomass waste in discontinuous operation is developed. It takes into account all its stages and is analyzed, and validated with data from related literature. It aims at better predicting the production of biogas. The methodology formulation of the new model is based, on the one hand, on the principles of energy conversion processes, the application of physicochemical laws, and the conservation of matter, and on the other hand, on the characteristics of the existing models which allow an optimal conversion. As results and conclusion, we demonstrate, through mathematical analysis, some experimental observations, namely the existence, uniqueness, positivity, and boundedness of the solutions of the new model. The validation tests of the model show that the dynamics of its solutions are in agreement with the experimental data of the literature. Stability in the production of biogas is observed from the 35th day. The results of these tests also make it possible to have and understand the evolution of variables that are not taken into account in the literature.

  26. Dr. Gogulnath, S., Dr. Surinder Kaur and Dr. Haridarshan Singh Sidhu

    Background: Traumatic dental injuries frequently occur at school environment. However, teachers are not prepared to provide the adequate emergency management. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge and attitudes of elementary school teachers about dental trauma and its management in Patiala district, Punjab. Methods: The questionnaire was sent to teachers in randomly selected primary schools in Patiala, Punjab. A total of 112 teachers responded (response rate 93%). The questionnaire surveyed teachers’ background, knowledge and management of tooth fracture, avulsion, and also investigated teachers’ attitudes and self-assessed knowledge. Results:The majority of the participants in the study were females 94.6%.32.1% had witnessed dental emergency in school premises.All the teachers (100%) agreed that dental trauma emergency management must become one of the educational priorities for the teachers. Mostteachers were unsatisfied with their level of knowledge for dental trauma and the majority were interested in having further education on the topic. Conclusions: The findings revealed that the level of knowledge of management of dental trauma (especially tooth avulsion) among school teachers in patiala is inadequate, and education campaigns are necessary to improve their emergency management of dental injuries.

  27. Dr. Vineet Ajitsaria, Dr. Pankaj Babubhai Patel, Dr. Hardik jagdishkumar Yadav, Dr. Ishan P Shah and Dr. Kalgi Shah MD Medicine

    Background: BPH is the major etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men >50 years of age. In our study, we described our institutional prospective study comparing the efficacy and outcomes of Greenlight laser photovaporisation of prostate (PVP) and transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Aims and objectives: To study and compare prospectively, study complications & their management and surgical treatments modalities in high risk patients outcome ofPVP and TURP. Materials and methods: The prospective study was conducted between September 2019 and August 2022, at department of Surgery, Nootan Medical College & Research Centre, Visnagar. A total of 150 patients with BPH were enrolled in the study. 75 patients underwent PVP and 75 patients underwent TURP. Out of 75 TURP patients, 38 patients underwent monopolar TURP and rest 37 underwent bipolar TURP. Results and discussion: Average age for PVP is 67.9 years, 64.02 years for monopolar TURP is and 66.15 years for bipolar TURP. Mean operative time for PVP is 46.68 min, 38.55 min for monopolar TURP and 38.37minfor bipolar TURP. Transient dysuria is found in 6% in PVP, 1% in monopolar and 0% in bipolar, TUR syndrome and blood transfusion is 0% in patients undergoing PVP. Conclusions: PVP might be considered as safe and effective surgical procedure for the treatment of patients with BPH at high risk such as heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, COPD and cerebrovascular accident. Duration of surgery is longer in PVP but complications such as TUR syndrome, blood transfusion, capsular perforations, clot retention and urethral stricture are lower in PVP

  28. Dr. Isa-Allena N.D., OMD, PhD

    Early Childhood Education (ECE) Occupations are highly demanding, and require solid physical/mental skills to meet demands required to educate young children and succeed professionally; teachers w/hyper-energetic skills are needed for keeping up with learning/growing children and fulfilling their needs. Research reveals this type of active input is lacking from many ECE teachers; studies show it’s due to illness including but not limited to obesity, lack-of-mobility, occupational disability, injury and sedentary habits. These impact teacher performance-ability/participation levels which directly impact teaching quality. Meanwhile the U.S. Obesity Epidemic rages on; the already high numbers continue to rise for teachers and students as young as 2. Evidence gathered by undercover “PhD Scientist/Doctor” working as “Teacher” suggest that negative health behaviors are being transferred/shared - and that a teacher’s health behaviors - positive or negative are either benefiting or impeding cognitive function and academic success in children. This influence is based on whether teachers share healthy habits or habits of unwellness in the classroom. This triangular link between obesity, a Teacher’s sedentary teaching style and degradation of a student’s educational experience suggests the Teacher’s “Health Status” influences “Performance-Ability.”

  29. Shila Jasmine L.S., Asha J.V. and Baiju K.C.

    Awareness on inclusive education in schools throughout the Indian subcontinent is still at the infancy stage. Educational institutions are somewhat skeptical about having both normal and special children studying in the same classroom. The inclusion of individual disabilities has been a societal challenge for research and practice. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the developmental process of inclusion services for individuals with disabilities in India. The paper also provides a comparative picture of inclusive services across the world in order to depict the progression of inclusive services for children with exceptional needs in Indian schools since its independence. The authors made an attempt to highlight the key issues and challenges against successful inclusive education and put forward certain views that may assist in providing appropriate inclusive education for individuals with disabilities in India.

  30. Dr. Vasantha Kamath, Dr. Pramod Korke and Karthik KH

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte imbalance noted in routine clinical practice, which is defined by a blood sodium level below 135 mEq/l. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresisis the most common cause of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients. We in our article, review the physiology, pathophysiology, etiology, presentations, evaluation and treatment of SIAD.

  31. Dr. Kumara, R.M.M.S.K. and Prof. Rosairo, S.

    Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging common non communicable disease, worldwide. It is characterized by accumulation of excess fat within the liver cells which could progress into cirrhosis. Although the gold standard method for diagnosis of this condition is by liver biopsy, the ultrasonography can accurately diagnose it. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the presence of intimal lesions which manifest indirectly as increased intimal medial thickness of an artery. Several studies have shown greater intima-media thickness in patients with NAFLD, but there are no studies reported in Sri Lanka. Hence, this study is done to assess the correlation between the stage of NAFLD and common carotid artery intimal medial thickness (CIMT) in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Objectives: The general objective of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the stage of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and common carotid artery intimal medial thickness in patients attending Department of Radiology Teaching Hospital Peradeniya. The specific objectives of this study are to describe the socio-demographic profile of the patients with NAFLD, to calculate the body mass index (BMI) of the patients with NAFLD and to determine the correlation between the stage of NAFLD and CIMT of the patients with NAFLD. Methods: This prospective correlational study was conducted after getting ethical clearance from Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya. 201 patients who fulfill the pre- set exclusion and inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. The main exclusion criteria for this study were patients having chronic illness, communicable diseases and hepatic diseases. Patients who give consent and having any degree of fatty liver were included for the study. Sonographic evaluation of grade of fatty liver and B/L CIMT was done and recorded. Consecutive sampling method was used. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the socio-demographic profile and body mass index. Spearman’s rank order correlation test was used to determine the correlation between the stage of NAFLD and CIMT at 95% confidence interval. Results: The age range of the study population was 23 years to 79 years (Mean = 41.77, SD=12.93) and majority belonged to primary working age group (25- 54 years; 75%). Majority of patients were males (56.2%). Average BMI was 25.18kgm-2 (SD=4.37) and 45% of patients were obese. Majority of patients had grade II fatty liver (57.7%). A significant correlation was found between the age and bilateral CIMT.(p value <0.001). Average CIMT in right and left side were 0.075 cm (SD= 0.009) and 0.077 cm (SD= 0.01) respectively. Average R/ CIMT in males was 0.074 cm and that of in females were 0.077 cm. Average L/ CIMT in males were 0.076 cm and that of in females were 0.078 cm. A statistically significant difference was found between means of R/ CIMT in male and females (p value 0.045) but no statistically significant difference was found on L/side (p value 0.44). There was no statistically significant correlation between the grade of fatty liver with right CIMT (correlation coefficient= 0.025, p = 0.730) or left CIMT (correlation coefficient = 0.128, p = 0.072). Conclusion: Majority of patients with NAFLD were males who belonged to primary working age group. 45% of study population were obese. Majority of patients had grade II fatty liver. There is a significant correlation between the age and CIMT. However there was no correlation between the grade of NAFLD and right or left CIMT.

  32. Debasmita Debbarma

    Twin pregnancy consisting of one fetus and one complete mole (CMCF, complete hydatidiform mole and a coexistent fetus) is an obstetric rarity with an incidence of 1/22 000 to 1/100 000 pregnancies. Associated risks include prematurity, intrauterine death, vaginal bleeding, preeclampsia, hyperthyroidism, theca lutein cysts, uterine rupture and the development of malignant neoplasia in the form of a trophoblastic tumour (GTD, persistent gestational trophoblastic disease), which is thought to be the most common complication. We report the case of a 33-year-old patient with CMCF in the 30 week of pregnancy in labour pain without any ANC .She delivered preterm alive girl baby vaginally 1.5 hours after admission.

  33. Lopamudra Panda, Dr. Pallabi Mishra and Dr. Ganesh L.

    This paper discusses the details of issues and challenges social enterprises go through in India. Various aspects like challenges at individual level, organizational level and issues faced in regulatory and taxation also is discussed in detail. The paper also discusses the performance measurement of social enterprises through its social value creation. The literature evaluation gave special consideration to India while taking into account all pertinent studies conducted worldwide. The researcher acknowledged many academics who contributed their work to the performance measurement of social entrepreneurship and social enterprises. The paper throws light on the various issues and challenges faced by social enterprises in India and all over the world. The researcher also attempted to highlight the publication in the chapter because it speaks to the caliber of the information. The paper discusses the widely used instrument Balance Scorecard (BSC) and its components to measure the Social value of Social Enterprises, its usefulness in measuring the performance of different organizations. Relevant keywords are used to gauge the studies' content. The chapter organizes and presents the various aspects of each social entrepreneurship study according to the theme.

  34. Saleh Hussein Al-awami, Ali Tahir Abu Raas and Emad Awadh Ben Srity

    In an Autonomous System (AS), network devices communicate through interior gateway protocols. Because they have characteristics such as high throughput, flexibility, low overhead, scalability, easy configuration, and high bandwidth and CPU utilization, interior gateway protocols are among the routing protocols with the fastest growing usage in networking technologies. Despite the fact that convergence time is a critical issue in any of these routing protocols, The network's updated, comprehensive, and correct information is summarized during convergence time. Numerous studies have examined interior gateway protocols; however, only a small number of these studies have taken link failure into account while employing various network scenarios. This study makes a contribution in this field. (Graphical Network Simulator) GNS3 software simulates a ten-router setup to mimic a complex real-time enterprise-level network. Every protocol is put into practice using the intended topology. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The interior gateway protocols Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), and Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) are analyzed in a complex enterprise-level network using GNS3 version 2.2.34 software. Results: End-to-end delay, jitter, and convergence time for each protocol implemented in the planned topology are examined. Each node has authentication capabilities to guarantee secure data delivery. Finding the best practical interior gateway routing protocol for various traffic scenarios is the study's main goal. In this paper, results are shown. The EIGRP protocol is superior in terms of end-to-end delay and convergence time after the results are tallied. While OSPF is supposed to have lower jitter than other Interior Gateway Protocols, in terms of convergence time, IS-IS outperforms OSPF. The results indicate that RIP protocols had the worst delays and convergence times.

  35. Javaid Iqbal, Moonisah Rafiq, Feroze Shaheen and Naseer Ahmad Choh

    Background: The use of CTA in patients with CHD has been limited by concerns about high radiation exposure. Recent-generation CT scanner technology significantly reduces radiation exposure compared with older technology. By implementing low dose radiation protocols, Case specific protocols, the radiation dose can be significantly reduced. Materials and Methods: The prospective study included 50 patients with complex congenital heart disease who received CT angiography. The examinations were performed as a high pitch CTA, with Contrast administration (1.5ml/kg body weight) and fixed scan delay. Radiation dose parameters were modified inorder to lower the effective radiation dose. Results: The median CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) was 0.45 (range 0.14-0.95 mGy ), the median dose-length product was 9 (range, 4-18 mGy*cm). The estimation of the effective dose by Monte carlo simulation revealed lower median dose levels 1.72 (range 0.99-2.88) msv.mGy-1.cm-1 Conclusion: Cardiac high-pitch CTA on neonates with CHD can be performed safely and dose reducing protocols can be implemented without compromising image quality.

  36. Abdilkerim Asrar Seman, Hamed M. S. Ahmed, Abubeker Ahmed and Abdurahman Awel Haso

    Projects especially public construction projects have a vital role for the economic development of a nation by transforming the living standard of the community. This study aimed to assess the causes and effects of public construction projects in Dessie town. To achieve the objective of the study 128 respondents approached from the clients, contractors and consultants of the ongoing projects of Dessie town. Questionnaires used to collect primary data from the target population. It has both a likert scale and open ended items. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive data analysis techniques along with the relative importance index. The index widely used in similar studies to measure the level of importance and occurrence of delay causes and effects. The findings of the study showed that the causes of delays emanated from clients, contractors, consultants and externals. Furthermore the main responsible stakeholder for delay of projects in Dessie town is clients. In addition the top ranked causes are delay of progress payment by clients, poor communication and coordination by contracting parties, slowness of the decision making process by owners and financial difficulties of stakeholders. Regarding to the effects of delay, time overrun cost overrun, total abandonment, dispute, litigation, poor project quality, negotiation and bad public relation are confirmed. Based on the findings, the study recommends clients the so called public agencies to revise their project management system, improve financial management system and need to ensure regular project monitoring and evaluation. In addition the study also recommends corrupted individuals should be identified and accountable legally.

  37. Dr. Sayantan Nag, Dr. Krishna Kishor, Dr. Anu Singh, Dr. Abhishek Kumar Singh and Dr. Shakti Kumar Sonu

    Odontomas are the most common odontogenic tumors. They are broadly classified into Compound Odontoma and Complex odontoma. Complex odontoma is a conglomerate of all the dental tissues that is characterised by normal histodifferentiation but abnormal morphodifferentiation producing little or no resemblance to normal tooth form. They are usually asymptomatic so incidental findings are common. We reportan interesting case of complex odontoma that was associated with a small bony sweeling of the mandible. The tumour was treated by surgical enucleation under local anaesthesia.

  38. Naglaa Abdalla Nasser, Montaser Mohammed Abd Allah, Roaa Huseein Mohamed Ahamed, Tyseer Alabid, Maye M. Merghani and Nihad Elsadig Babiker

    Background: One of four vaccinations, the AstraZeneca vaccine, was given conditional approval to prevent COVID-19. It has been licensed and approved for use in more than 170 nations, and as of late November 2021, about 1 billion doses had been given worldwide. In order to produce the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which triggers an immune response, the vaccine uses a unique method that relies on a chimpanzee adenovirus vector (ChAdOx).This study aimed to estimate the changes in coagulation parameters among Sudanese vaccinated with the AstraZeneca vaccine. Materials and methods: This was a case-control study health facility base that was conducted in the vaccine center at the institute of public health which provides vaccine services. Participants who received the first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine were included in the study's population, along with participants who appeared to be in good health. Two groups of samples were taken before and after the immunization (the case group). Of them, 83.3% were men and 16.7% were women. Of those, 43.3% were under 30 and 56.7% were over 30.The lab work was carried out at the research lab of the Gharb El-Niel College in Khartoum. Results: Platelets, fibrinogen, and D.dimer showed extremely significant differences (p value 0.000) between pre- and post-vaccination in the case group.There were no appreciable differences between the pre-vaccine case group and the control group when comparing the means of the platelets count, PT, APTT, INR, fibrinogen level, and D-dimer (p value 0.05); however, when comparing the post-vaccine case group, there was a significant rise in D-dimer and a significant fall in fibrinogen level (p value 0.000). Additionally there were insignificant variations in different parameters between pre and post-vaccine groups according to gender. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine significantly increased the platelets count, PT, APTT, and D-dimer levels and significantly decreased the fibrinogen levels in the Sudanese persons.

  39. Piyali Chatterjee and Prof. Soumyendra Kishore Datta

    Purpose: The role of tourism industry for accelerating the growth of a nation is discussed here. One of the objectives of this study is to observe the trend of year wise domestic tourist visits into different states and union territories (UTs) of India during 1991 - 2021. The other important objective is to analyse the simultaneous relationship across FDI, GDP as an indicator of economic growth and foreign exchange earnings from tourism (FET) in respect of Indian economy. Focus is also put on determining pair-wise causal relationship among the aforesaid variables. Methodology: Three year moving average method is used to observe trend of year wise domestic tourist visits into different states and Union Territories (UTs) of India during 1991-2021. Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test and Phillips – Peron (PP) test for unit root is used here. Vector Auto Regressive (VAR) model is used here to see the simultaneous relationship among these three variables. Finally pair-wise Granger Causality test is used to examine the direction of causality among them. Results / Conclusion: Using three yearly moving averages, we got a smooth upward rising curve till 2019. This study also shows the unidirectional relation of FDI on GDP and GDP on FET. By analysing the result of this study we see that there is no influence of FDI on FET. We can say that if FDI and FET have positive influence on each other then it becomes beneficial for economic growth. There is needed inflow of FDI in tourism sector, in constructing roads for better transport, infrastructure, hotels, renovation and construction of tourism site etc. We also see that FDI has influential effect on GDP but not the other way round. So Govt. may encourage FDI inflow in tourism sector which might enhance FET and contribute to GDP growth. Hence favourable policies should be recommended and implemented that will encourage inflow of FDI in tourism sector which will prove beneficial for engendering GDP. Apart from this, further research is needed for analysing the impact of FDI on FET, effect of FET on GDP and influence of GDP on FDI.

  40. Dhanisha D Jadhav, Anup U Shelke, Monica J Mahajani, Subodh P Gaikwad, Amit S Saragade and Surabhi P Tandel

    Mucormycosis or black fungus is a non-septate filamentous fungal infection that causes potentially life-threatening conditions. This typical infection affects immunocompromised and diabetic patients most of the time and the symptoms of this deadly infectious condition depend on the site of origin, but generally facial structures (nose, sinuses, eye, and brain) are most involved. The major route of infection spread is via inhalation, which then involves the lungs and paranasal sinuses. The highest risk of fungal mucoromycetes infection is in those patients diagnosed and treated for COVID-19 with broad-spectrum antibiotics, non-invasive ventilation, and received corticosteroid therapies. Patients who had pre-existing diseases, such as asthma, diabetes mellitus, and chronic renal failure, and developed COVID-19 on top of it are particularly predisposed to contracting the mucormycotic infection. Any suspected case of mucormycosis requires rapid diagnosis and management due to its rapid progression as well as the destructive course of infection. This article reviews the taxonomy, risk factors, clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and various treatment modalities of Mucormycosis.

  41. Rodrigue KABORE. W. Kossi IMBGA, B., Wende Pouiré Germain OUEDRAOGO and Nabi Ismaël

    The incubator makes it possible to deal with many problems of poultry farming in a country like Burkina Faso. Indeed, the incubator allows good visibility of the eggs, a remarkable hatching rate. A computer program carried out using programming tools such as Arduino, provides built-in automatic temperature and humidity control and a programmable automatic rotation system who optimizes the performance of incubators. Beyond its many advantages there are shortcomings in which one can enumerate late and early hatching, chick malformations, infertile eggs and chick death during hatching.

  42. Talad Khan, Harihar and Samuel Gorden Singh

    The present study was carried out to analyze the physicochemical parameters and heavy metal of Yamuna water from Agra near Taj Mahal. Heavy metals persist as major pollutants in water bodies. Phytoremediation, the green technology is a cost effective and an in situ method for remediation of pollutants. Present study is an integrated approach towards efficient removal of physicochemical parameters and toxic heavy metals from polluted Yamuna water using Hydrilla verticillata with different treatment of EDTA and EGTA. Physicochemical parameters and heavy metals investigated in present study include pH, Electrical conductivity, TDS, Dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD, Pb, Zn, Ni. In this research three tubs were used as control (without amendments) and 9 tubs were used in triplicate for each treatment T1, T2, T3 on 30 days of experimental period. The accumulation of Pb was found more 9.28 ppm in roots copared to the stem and leaves of Hydrilla verticillata in T3. The accumulation of Zn and Ni were found 7.21 ppm and 6.3 ppm in roots on T3. Result shows that Hydrilla verticillata is a potential hyperaccumulator and suitable for Pb, Zn and Ni accumulation.

  43. Marwa Adam Abdelrahman Adam Ph.D., Prof. Osman Khalafallah Saeed; Prof. Magda Alhadi Ahmed Yousif and Amel Yousif Omer Mohamed B. Sc

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are life-sustaining devices but are associated with a risk for infections that can increase morbidity and mortality, Infections associated with intravascular catheters account for 10% to 20% of all nosocomial infections. The mean rate of CVC-related bloodstream infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) is 5.3 per 1000 catheter days From 10% to 70% of all CVC-related infections are preventable. therefore based guidelines have been publish( Galpern, D., Guerrero, 2013).this study was conducted to study The Effect of Nurse Educational Program regarding knowledge, Attitude and practice of intensive care unit nurse regarding care of Central Venous Catheter in Omdurman military hospital, Khartoum State, Sudan,( 2016-2019.Atotal of 150 intensive care unit nurses in Omdurman military hospital were selected, A well-structured questionnaire for interviewing the respondents ,Check list included the nurse's practice regarding central venous catheters and Educational training for intensive care unit nurses use for the study ,data was analyzed using statistical package of social science (SPCC). 55% of the participant using stander precautions in pretest, regarding the hand washing compliancy the participant need more awareness and encouragement to perform proper hands washing only 40% of the participant performing hand hygiene before touching the patients, 53% of the participant performing hand washing after touching patients, in the posttest 39% only performing ,20% of the respondent performing hand hygiene after early procedure which is minimum percentage and it is increased in posttest by 30%,37% of the respondent performing hand washing after removing gloves and the is alight improvement in posttest by 39%,55% of the participant aware about organisms that cause central venous catheter 24% of the participants aware about the factor associated with central venous Catheter infection ,only 40% of pretest and posttest participant aware about the inserting the central venous catheter , the compliancy of hands hygiene increased from 20%in pretest participant to 30% in posttest participant, using of stander precaution increased from 23%-30%.the participant need more awareness regarding hand hygiene and use of stander precaution the study recommended that Cautiously updating the staff of infection control programmes and policies and Determine a clinical resource nurse to update and evaluate the staff regarding their knowledge and practice.

  44. Mooneer Almadani, Mustafa Alhaj Zeen, Majed Marshad Alanazi, Abdulilh K Alshebaily and Hayfa H Alhayyaf

    Background: As the future of our healthcare system is in the hands of the current medical students, we aimed in this study to deduce the prevalence and determinants of obesity among Al-Maarefa medical students. This is of importance due to society's perspective on medical students, as they are the future doctors. So, we would like to encourage the university to start an educational program. Objective:Our study aims to identify the prevalence and determinants of obesity among medical students at Al-Maarefa University, Saudi Arabia Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students at Al- Maarefa University, Riyadh Saudi Arabia. After obtaining permission from the college authority, self- administered, pre-coded, pre-tested questionnaires were distributed to 450 medical students. Results: The study included 402 medical students who completed the study questionnaire. in which 37.79% were in clinical years and 62.21% were in preclinical years; and the mean age was 22 years. Exactly 51% of participants were female and 49% were male. Conclusions: We found that 10.20% of participants were underweight,21.39% were overweight, and 13.2% were obese. The prevalence of obesity among students in clinical years was higher. Male students had higher prevalence of obesity compared to female students. Risk factors for obesity were age and a family history of the condition. Our study revealed high prevalence of obesity and overweight among medical students at Al-Maarefa university. This shed light on the need for educational programs to encourage a healthy lifestyle, healthy diet, and physical activities to avoid obesity and its related complications.

  45. Salma Gull, Rabia Rashid and Nuzhat Samoon

    Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplasms worldwide, accounting for more deaths than any other cancer cause1.In our population, Lung cancer was reported to be the second most common malignancy in one hospital-based study2 Hukkah smoking was found to be highly prevalent in the lung cancer patients of another small study of 25 hospitalized. Materials and Methods: A 2 year retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College Srinagar. The histopathological records were retrospectively reviewed for CT guided and Endobronchial biopsies of lung lesions between July 2018 to June 2020. There were 238 cases during this period. Results: A total of 238 cases were studied. 92 of these cases were reported as non-neoplastic (table 1). The age varied from 15 to 87 years. Tuberculosis was found to be the commonest non neoplastic pathology among the cases studied and constituted about (29 cases) of non-neoplastic pathology.146 out of 238 cases were reported as neoplastic. Conclusion: To conclude, in our study malignancies predominated over non neoplastic lesions in incidence among young as well as in old patients. The most common histological cell type encountered in this study was Squamous Cell Carcinoma which is against the changing trend in West where Women were increasingly diagnosed with Lung cancer having adenocarcinoma. Granulomatous inflammation with Tuberculosis was the most common non neoplastic lesion followed by nonspecific inflammation.

  46. Dr. Azmat Jahan Mantoo, Dr. Mufeed Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Zohra Younus and Dr. Sabah Younis

    COVID-19 has affected the population worldwide drastically with a tremendous impact on obstetric population which has led to serious concerns regarding maternal and fetal outcomes. Although there are recommended guidelines regarding delivery and management of complications, due to changes in characteristics of COVID-19 infection, they are constantly changing and evolving. Methods: Prospective cohort study done during the covid pandemic from 1st April 2020 to 15th Feb 2022 in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, SKIMS MCH Srinagar J&K.The parameters measured were severity of covid disease, maternal age, gestational age, parity, blood investigations, mode of delivery, APGAR score, neonatal infection status and post-delivery complications. Results: A total of 311 pregnant covid 19 positive patients were included in the study who were actively managed.239 (76.85%)were delivered by casearean section and 72(23.15%) by NVD. 92% patients had mild symptoms only,8% had severe symptoms with 1.6% rate of ICU admission and 1.2% mortality rate.83%delivered at term,17%had preterm deliveries.8% patients had pneumonitis with positive findings on CT scan.24% patients had anemia,12% had GDM,10 % had PIH,12.86% had IHCOP,5% had PPH,1.6% had APH.All the neonates were negative for covid 19. 80% babies had an APGAR score of ≥8/10 at 1 min of birth with a mean birth weight of 2400g±500.No post delivery complication was noted. Conclusion: Our study concludes that SARS‐CoV‐2 infection can lead to unfavorable maternal and perinatal outcomes.

  47. Shailendra Kr. Dwivedi and Parwati Mahato

    The Electronic and electrical equipments made up of mild steel especially small assembly rusted in different environments and time intervals, mechanically these are fails in performance so, as to avoids these circumstances some polishing chemicals are used, but in some cases polishing is not possible in small assemblies so vapors’ are used at the time of packaging in wooden boxes . An invisible layers are formed over the surfaces, after that woods emitted acid vapors because the cell wall is made up of cellulose. Failure of electronic equipments and assemblies in extremely adverse climate. e.g. having wide variation of temperature between day and night, high degree humidity(coastal areas),wide variation of temperature between day and night coupled with low humidity atmosphere is full of dust focus the attention of the worker on the deterioration of electronic equipment. These are made up of mild steel and forming the layer of ferrous sulphate, due to polishing of metal surfaces by conc,0.5N sulphuric acid dumped in packing cases .In most of the cases due to packaging woods. It accelerate the rate of corrosion in temperate region by emitting acid vapors.

  48. Renuka Nagarale, Neetu Kadu, Saba Sayyad, Shifa Shaikh, Shafiya Khan and Basra Khan

    Introduction- Oral health is an important factor in maintaining sound psychological and physical health. Awareness regarding oral health is considered to be an essential prerequisite for health-related behaviour. Association between knowledge and better oral health has been well document. Aims to assess the oral health awareness and knowledge about periodontal disease among professional students. Materials and Methods- Study was conducted among students of professional colleges. A standardised self-administered questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice questions and the received data was analysed. Result- A substantial lack of oral hygiene undergoes and limited knowledge of oral hygiene practices even in health professional students. Conclusion-Hence there is an urgent need for comprehensive educational program to promote good oral health and impart education about oral hygiene practice at an elementary level.

  49. Sharanabasavayya and Dr. Siddappa

    In the present scenario, the Digital banking is one of the most important developments for the banking industry in its long history. The demand of banking is anytime, anywhere banking, this requires innovative robust secure optimized and ready to meet the expectations of empowered and tech savvy customers. However, despite the many benefits that online banking provides to customers, there are also a number of major concerns and challenges for marketers in the online banking sector. Traditional banking habits, security, technical issues, transaction difficulties, and small marketing budgets are all major challenges that online banking marketers will have to reconcile if they are to succeed in this field. The present study is based on secondary data. The data has been extracted from the various sources like research articles, publications from government of India, various bulletins of RBI and authenticated websites. The study found that, digital banking has drastically reduced the operating costs of banks. This has made it possible for banks to charge lower fees for services and also offer higher interest rates for deposits. Lower operating costs have meant more profits for the banks. The study also found that, digital banking is having enormous potential to change the landscape of financial inclusion. Easy use of digital banking can accelerate the integration of unbanked economy to the mainstream.

  50. Santosh Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar Kakodia, Shiv Lal and Ravindra Choudhary

    Rajasthan is desert state in India and the most of population is depends on the groundwater. The average annual rainfall is 580 mm with 30 rainy days. Groundwater level is in range of 250 feet to 400 feet. The level of groundwater is going down due to the growing population and per capita increase of consumption by urban and rural area.The testing and monitoring of water is very important and the water impurities are time varying parameter and it is also affected by the use of chemicals in agriculture, mining activities and industrialization. In the present study corrosivity of water is selected for the determination of suitability of source for drinking purposes.

  51. Mrs. Radhika, A.

    Use of technology and multimedia has been of utmost help during his pandemic. It has become more and more important as the classroom scenario changed from physical to virtual. Technology enables teachers to adapt to classroom activities thus enhancing language learning process. Use of multimedia and also technology grew more now as a tool to help the teachers facilitate language teaching and learning at all levels. Teachers now-a-days can choose from You tube videos, blogs, ppts, electronic dictionaries, video lectures and some applications as well. In this pandemic situation where education became virtual, it is important for the teacher tom upgrade and then engage the students in an active and interesting manner. It supports 24x7 , builds 21st century skills and also increases student engagement in all kinds of digital activities. Some benefits of using technology may be as follows: 1. Creates a more engaged environment and easy learning . It may be a distraction sometimes but by proper and guided instruction it can work wonders. 2. Incorporates different styles and levels of learning for all levels of students. 3. Improves collaboration among the students as they help each other in a very interactive way. 4. Prepares children for the future as the future lies in Digitalisation. Use of Multimedia in ELT: Multimedia content helps to enhance easy learning process and leads to better knowledge retention as the old saying goes we remember when we see and learn more quickly. Social media plays a vital role in every students life. It is often easier and more convenient to access information, provide information and also communicate via social media. Read-aloud is a popular and effective way to improve the word knowledge. Multimedia enhances English Language Skills of the learning by using five elements like graphics, texts, audio, video and animation. Some Multi-media tools • Animoto( video tool which allows to create/share videos) • GoAnimate • PodOmatic • Prezi • iMovie Benefits of Multimedia learning • deeper understanding • improved problem solving • access to a vast variety of information etc., How to use Multimedia in classroom • using Audio-books • using song files and music videos • short video clips etc.,

  52. Dr. Mahasweta Choudhury, Dr. Akhileshwari, B.S. and Dr. S.S. Koushik

    Background: Two percent of all pancreatitis is accounted by Drug induced pancreatitis. It is a diagnosis of exclusion, a patient can be diagnosed with Drug induced pancreatitis only after alcohol use, and cholelithiasis are excluded. The diagnosis can be made by establishing a temporal link between the drugs and the development of pancreatitis in the patient who does not have any other factors that can contribute to the development of pancreatitis. Case report: Here we present a case of 18 years old female who presented to the emergency room with acute onset severe pain abdomen 7 days after being started on Tablet Orlistat for the treatment of obesity. The patient does not give any history of alcohol consumption habits. Diagnosis of pancreatitis was established by elevated levels of amylase and lipase and CT abdomen showed a bulky pancreas with peri pancreatic fluid with no evidence of gallbladder and hepatobiliary abnormality. Conclusion: Tablet Orlistat is being extensively used for the treatment of obesity. Few studies have shown that Orlistat can trigger Drug induced pancreatitis in certain patients, so it should be prescribed cautiously, especially in patients at high risk of pancreatic injury.

  53. Uwumarongie, A.M.D., Emuedo, O.A., Uzunuigbe E.O., Ohikhena, F.U., Chukwuka, A. N., Ugiagbe-Ekue, U., Omoruyi, J.I., Omorogbe J.A., Ehiwe, O.D. and Edoma E.E.

    The land available for agriculture to feed the population that is growing geometrically, has reduced drastically due to urbanization. This has led to the use of arable land for industrial purposes. Industrialization has reduced the arable land available for agriculture to feed the ever growing population. To remedy this situation and ensure that the people don’t starve, there is the need to intensify agriculture by adopting a cropping system that utilizes the available resources on the land by increasing input on that available land to bring about increase output. Intercropping is one of the methods of intensifying agriculture. It involves the growing of two or more crops on a particular piece of land for efficient use of the resources available in that land for increase productivity. for a successful intercropping enterprise, there is the need to have knowledge of crop management techniques like spacing, spatial arrangement, planting density, varietal selection, understanding the physiology of the plants to be grown together, their growth habits, canopy and root architecture, water and nutrient use in order to manage interaction that occurs in favour of the component crops. This review tends to study the role of plant spacing, spatial arrangement, plant density, plant architecture in agricultural intensification for food sustainability and availability.

  54. Uwumarongie, A.M.D., Emuedo, O.A., Uzunuigbe E.O., Ohikhena, F.U., Chukwuka, A. N., Ugiagbe-Ekue, U., Omoruyi, J.I., Omorogbe J.A. and Edoma, E.E.

    A field study was conducted in 2018 and 2019 cropping season to determine the comparative effects of some soil amendments on the growth and fruit yield of snake tomato in a newly established rubber plantation in Iyanomo. The treatments involved a combination of sole and intercropped combination with NPK and rubber effluent application rates laid out in a randomized complete block design in three replications. Data were collected on vine length, vine girth, number of leaves, leaf area, fruit yield and its components. Results showed that soil amendment had significant effect on growth and fruit yield of snake tomato (P<0.05). Soil amendment significantly (P<0.05) improved snake tomato growth characters. The fertilized plants were higher in all the characters accessed than the unfertilized plants. Sole and intercropped snake tomato fruit yield with or without treatments had similar values. Unfertilized sole and intercropped snake tomato had the lowest fruit yield. The highest fruit yield were obtained from sole and intercropped snake tomato treated with NPK (STNPK and RSNPK).

  55. Nalin Kumar Ramaul, Pinki Ramaul and Vivek Negi

    Several authors have studied the prevalence and incidence of violence against women, but there have been few systematic attempts to investigate the financial consequences of the problem, that too mostly in developed countries. But the criminal justice policy debates can no longer ignore the basic economics of public policy choices. Violence against women is unquestionably a public problem because the entire society pays monetarily, as well as non-monetarily. Violence against women is enormously costly – to the women who experience violence directly, to women generally whose lives are constrained by the fear of violence, and to governments whose expenditures are swollen by responding to some of the consequences of this violence. In the Indian context, there has been no comprehensive study estimating the cost of violence against women. Establishing robust estimates are subject to significant data restrictions. Therefore, the present paper is an attempt to investigate the methodological aspects of estimating the costs of violence against women on the victim, family, and the State. The paper is based on desk review and critical analysis of various research studies and reports on violence against women. Measuring the full economic impact of this issue is the key to inspiring greater efforts to reduce the prevalence of violence against women.

  56. Achintya Singha and Sampad Shit

    Mathematics is erroneously regarded as a abstract to understand meant only for persons of higher mental ability. It arouses fear among many students which in turn creates resistance to learning at and result in adverse effect on their attainment. But actually school mathematics is within the reach of any average students. What is needed is to create the right ambience of learning mathematics in every school. Mathematics needs to be learnt with senses of joy and delight. It needs to be related where possible to life oriented activities to create interest in the subject. Mathematical faculty and intuition develop not only through theory and problems given in mathematics text books but also through a variety of activities involving concrete objects. Activities can be engaging as well as instructive. The main purpose of this study is to find out the students’ attitude towards mathematics laboratory. The researchers collected data using questionnaires and analyzed it using descriptive statistical tables, t-test and column charts.

  57. Dr. Rajashri Ramesh Chavan and Mst. Shubham Siddeshwar Jadhav

    The paper aims to understand the awareness of customers and government efforts to promote e-vehicle and also to understand customers' product perception. This study is conducted in Satara city with 125 samples which consist of both existing customers and potential customers. A stratified disproportionate sampling technique is adopted to select the sample. The Schedule is designed to collect the feedback from the sample. The nature of the research study is descriptive. The study identified and evaluated the consumer perception of various factors about the electric bike. The result reveals that Government is taking rigorous efforts through FAME Amendment and PLI Scheme for the Auto sector. Satara customers are well aware of e-vehicle. There is a growth in both e-bikes and e-cars in Maharashtra. There is a combination of both positive and negative perceptions about e-vehicle. Most of the respondents consider the cost and the mileage in purchasing a bike, so there is ample potential for an electric bike in two-wheeler sectors. But their battery performance, speed, and appearance are the major factors that are affecting the sales of electric bikes.

  58. Dr. Atoe- Imagbe Osagioduwa Mike, Dr. Osarenkhoe Osaretin John, Dr. Umuerri Ejiroghene Dr. Aigbe Fredrick, Dr. Aiwuyo Osarumme Henry and Dr. Obasohan Austine

    Background: There is an increasing prevalence of stroke in the young adults as well as older adults in general. Cardiovascular risks are a significant predisposition to occurrence of stroke in both age groups. Various cardiac abnormalities are present in stroke patients either as risk factors or as complications. A relationship exists between these cardiac abnormalities and the prevalence, morbidity and mortality from stroke. The changing pattern of the cardiovascular risk factors among these groups of patients may contribute to a changing pattern of cardiac and echocardiographic abnormalities in stroke patients. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the profile as well as prevalence of various echocardiographic abnormalities in young versus older adult stroke patients of the different subtypes of stroke. Method: Descriptive cross sectional and comparative study was done. 180 subjects comprising of 90 young(less than 45years) and 90 older (45years and above) adult stroke patients were recruited for this study. Echocardiography was done for the patients. Echocardiographic abnormalities were compared among the young versus the older groups using chi-square and t-test tests when necessary. Results: Mean age in the young and older stroke patients were 40.23 ± 2.75 and 65.77 ± 12.34 years respectively. Male to Female ratio was 1.6: 1 among the older group and 1.4: 1 among the young group. Ischaemic stroke was the commonest subtype of stroke in both groups of patients (54.4% in the young and 68.9% in the older group of patients). Intracerebralhaemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage were present in 37.8% and 7.8% respectively in the young while 26.7% and 4.4% of the older group had intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage respectively. Echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy was also the commonest structural abnormality on transthoracic echocardiography in both groups of patients (52.3% in the young versus 47.1%in the older group), and the difference in prevalence was not significant. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was significantly more in the older patients than the young (21.1% versus 6.7% χ2=7.850, p=0.005). Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was slightly more in the older group (86.7%), compared with the young (75.6%). This difference was however not significant (χ2=6.759, P=0.08). The commonest pattern of cardiac diagnosis was hypertensive heart disease in both groups of patients (68.9 versus 65.5%).Others were valvular heart disease (6.7% both groups), ischaemic heart disease (2.2% and 5.5% in the young and old respectively), pericardial diseases (2.2% and 5.5% in the young and old respectively) dilated cardiomyopathy (1.1%) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (1.1%) both in the older group and left atrial myxoma (1.1%) in the young group. Conclusion: Transthoracic echocardiographic structural and functional abnormalities were largely similar among both age groups with slight differences noted. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was significantly more on echocardiography among the older group of patients. It is therefore important to screen adult patients with stroke irrespective of the age at presentation.

  59. Leontine Tekoum, Doumnang Mbaigane J.C. E. Kadjangaba, Ye Qian, Da Wang Guang and Fengyue Sun

    The Mayo kebbi mafic-ultramafic intrusions are represented by gneiss–amphibolite complex, which is exposed east of the Zalbi Group. They consist mainly of gabbro-diorite, amphibolites, gneiss amphibole, hornblendite and pyroxenite. The mineral assemblages are characterised by amphibole (hornblende), plagioclase, pyroxene and chlorite. Our electron microprobe analysis showed that, the most of mafic –ultramafic rock mineral are calcic-amphoble. Where hornblende are more Magnesio (Fe2+

  60. Azra Kamal

    Diatoms are microscopic algae which are present in all aquatic environments. The primary application of the study of diatoms in forensic investigations is in the diagnosis of drowning as the cause of death. Extraction and identification of diatoms present in the tissue samples can be used as supportive evidence in drowning and also for site specific diatoms. Whenever there is drowning the diatoms along with the water enter the blood circulation and reach the distant organs like bone marrow. In this present work few selected drowning death examination cases were mentioned .The biological sample as well as the water sample from the place from where the dead body was recovered examine in the laboratory by acid digestion method, centrifugation and presence or absence of diatoms were studied under trinocular microscope. 13 cases were selected in which 5 cases showed positive result for diatom test and the rest 8 that showed negative results are mentioned here. Finding also revealed the occurrence of various varieties of diatoms in Bihar region. Thus the study concluded that diatoms test is a valid tool to support the diagnosis of drowning which have a great forensic significance. Further research on molecular level and new methods are required for diatom testing and recognition.

  61. Pragati Pandey and Tulika Mishra

    Organic farming is a knowledge intensive system and has been developed by practitioners themselves over the years. Organic farming is one such system which provides healthy and safe food without ecological harm. Hence, the Indian Government started promoting organic farming through various schemes like National Project on Organic Farming (NPOF), National Horticulture Mission (NHM), Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) etc. This farming is a modern and a sustainable form of agriculture that provides consumers fresh natural farm products. Organic farming works in synchronization with nature. The objective is achieved by using techniques to improve crop yields without harming the natural environment as well as the people who live and work in it. Organic agriculture offers an exclusive amalgamation of environment-friendly practices, which require low external inputs, thereby contributing to increased food availability. It has a very positive influence especially on birds, insects, weeds, wildlife, and soil flora and fauna. As compared to conventional agriculture, organic farming produces cost-effective food products, free of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. It also provides employment opportunities and economic benefits to local communities. Organic systems give higher animal immunity and increased disease resistance to plants, with 50 % less mycotoxins in crops and a persistent shelf life. This Chapter emphasizes on use of bio-pesticides in place of chemical agents and drugs that are not only harmful for the environment but they also enter inside the food chain through the edible products and then by biological magnification continuously go on increasing in percentage. There are various plants that have potential in being used as insecticidal agents and they can prove to be an arsenal in crop management both post and pre- harvesting. Farmers need an awareness to use these biological agents as tools to enhance productivity and also increase their profits over time rather than spending heavy amounts on toxic chemicals that deteriorate the soil quality and make it unfit for future farming practices.

  62. Mamadou Lamine, L.O., Fatimetou Zehra Eba and Djibril, S.O.W.

    Like the countries of the sub-region, the Mauritanian context is characterized by the absence of a local road design guide. Thus, classic methods developed elsewhere and based on parameters whose relevance is debatable, given the climatic context, are used. This research, a pioneer in geotechnical engineeringin Mauritania, aims to determine the correlation between the CBR and the Young's modulus of the two most commonly used shell quarries, PK23 NDB and PK35 AKJT, in order to determine objective geotechnical characteristics for road design. The geotechnical characteristics of the materials studied were determined in the laboratory after a cement treatment with a dosage of 3 to 3.5%. Thereafter statistical analysis of the experimental results via computer tools like Python, Numpy, Pandas, Matplotlib, Scipy and Sklearn, showed that the widely used equation “E= 5*CBR” relation is not always appropriate in the local context and it varies between quarries. For the PK23 NDB quarry, the correlative relationship is established as follows: E = 3,55*CBR while for the PK35 AKJT quarry it is given by this equation: E = 3,76*CBR. The results obtained in this study are an important step towards the development of a pavement design guide that is appropriate to the local context, and they reinforce the idea of using these materials in pavement base layers.

  63. Patrick HINNOU

    Le régime révolutionnaire amorcé depuis le 26 octobre 1972 des suites d´un coup d´État a fait parler de lui, entre autres, en termes de quelques réformes mais surtout de mal gouvernance et de confiscation des libertés publiques. Les crises sociale, économique et politique qui s´en sont suivies ont amené les masses populaires ignorées, marginalisées, opprimées à prendre conscience de leur statut de dominés qui ne leur paraissait fatal. Dès lors, comment ces acteurs dominés se sont-ils organisés et à travers quelles stratégies pour braver les pratiques dictatoriales de « l´État-commando » pendant la période révolutionnaire ? La présente recherche répond à cette question centrale qui analyse leur résistance, assimilable à des « insubordinations sociales », comme le produit d´un long processus fait d´actions et d´événements majeurs sonnant le glas du régime et ouvrant la voie à de la transition démocratique dès 1990. De nature qualitative, elle est alimentée par un recueil de témoignages dans les principales régions du Bénin connues pour être le bastion de la lutte contre la révolution du fait de leur posture oppositionnelle au pouvoir. Ce corpus, qui s´étend à des données obtenues de l´exploitation des documents d´archives et autres coupures de presse, est moulé dans un paradigme analytique qui associe la Grounded Theory et la sociohistoire, ouvertes à la théorie des relations dominants-dominés avec les stratégies de la résistance à la domination. Ainsi, les résultats auxquels aboutit cette sociologie de l´action collective et des mouvements sociaux antirévolutionnaires, débouchent sur l´innovation dans la contestation de la révolution et la synergie d´action retrouvée entre élèves et étudiants pendant les soulèvements populaires de 1985, sur la généralisation et la radicalisation de la résistance contre l´État-commando en 1989, sur la multisectorialité des niveaux d´implication d´acteurs clés réunis au sein de la Convention du peuple sous l´impulsion du Parti Communiste du Dahomey (PCD), et sur l´ingéniosité syndicale avec la trouvaille des « Bureaux de liaison ».

  64. Rahul Nayan and A.K. Thakur

    Numerous heavy metals show significant mutagenic, teratogenic, and clastogenic. Most of the heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury, and cadmium affect on male reproductive function, including sperm head morphology and spermatogenesis. Several studies have reported that heavy metals caused testicular oxidative stress, which has been linked to infertility. The aim of the present research his to investigate the cytotoxic effect of lead acetate on production of sperm cells and behavioural pattern during dosing period of two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg body weight/ per day) of lead acetate for 40 days in male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus). For the research Adult Male Mus musculus of same age and average body weight 25 -30 gm taken and were divided into three groups one group was considered control group and other two were considered treated groups. Sperm counting and behaviour pattern parameter were included in this research to investigate the cytotoxic effect of lead acetate. After 40 days of treatment, the experimental animals were sacrificed and epididymal part were taken for study of sperm counting. The result shows that in both lower dose and higher dose of lead acetate were significantly decline the sperm counting (p < 0.05). The number of sperms was 150.4 ± 3.12 (control), 87.08 ± 2.21 (lower dose), and 48.1 ± 1.4 (higher dose) million cells/ml. In behavioural pattern feeding habits were not changed. However, aggressiveness, sleeping time, and loss of body hair increased in all treated groups as compared to the control group. In the present research, lead acetate administration shows significant on behavioural dysfunction and cytotoxic effect in germinal cells by disturbing sperm production.

  65. Rakesh Ashok Kadam, Hussam Aldeen Ahmed, Melita Rodrigues and AreebaTajammul

    Background: To create a 3D representation of the white matter bundles in the brain, dMRI uses the diffusion of water molecules along axons. This function is very helpful for planning a surgical approach and seeing how a tumor affects the surrounding white matter. Objective: This article examines the various applications of dMRI in improving brain surgery, as well as its advantages and drawbacks. We discuss surgical methods that can be used in conjunction with dMRI to enhance the impact of the procedure on the patient’s recovery, such as loading 3D tractography into the neuronavigation system and using direct electrical stimulation to confirm the location of the targeted white matter bundles. Methods: We looked at research that support dMRI results with other anatomical study methods, like postmortem dissections, manganese-enhanced MRI, electrical stimulations, and phantom experiments with established ground truth, in recent meta-analysis, research articles. We will talk about the parts of the brain where dMRI works well and where the obstacles lie in the future. Results: Tractography has lots of potential. Preoperative Tractography can assess the neural pathways and assist surgeons for optimal surgical approach. The technology is still in development. Conclusion: The review will be concluded with recommendations and key takeaways for neurosurgeons, on how to advance the discipline and reap the rewards of using tractography in clinical practice.

  66. Mukul Chandra Kalita

    In general, B: C ratio is not very much promising in most of the Cereal, Pulses and Oilseeds. But if we go for seed production system of cereal, pulses and Oilseeds than B:C ratios will be high. This is because of higher output values of crops. Applications of FYM@5.0t/ha and 50% recommended dose of NPK fertilizer plus Rhizobium inoculation help in saving 50% chemical fertilizers and increased yield to about 30%. In Assam, the total biomass in the crop field is more and after it’s decay; it releases a little quantity of NPK nutrients to the soil system. That is why the recommended fertilizer dose of cereal, pulses and oilseeds are found less in Assam. Fertilizer have contributed significantly towards, increasing agricultural productions world wide ).

  67. Dr. Rupal Bhatt, Dr. Swati Bhattacharjee, Dr. Surveen Kaur Arneja, Dr. Vaidehi C. Shah, Dr. Nitisha N. Khare

    Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis(VKC) is a chronic inflammatory bilateral external eye disease affecting mainly patients in the first and second decade of life and keratoconus is a bilateral, asymmetric, non-inflammatory and slowly progressive corneal ectatic disease and characterized by corneal thinning and protrusion, progressive myopia, and irregular astigmatism, Here in this study we are calculating the prevalence of keratoconus in pediatric patients presented with vernal keratoconjunctivitissince this condition’s progression can be delayed with adequate treatment and keeping the patients in a close follow up

  68. Renuka Nagarale, MandarTodkar, Fatima Shaikh, Najiya Shaikh, Kanshini Waghmare and Sanaya Ahmed

    Introduction: The ‘guided endodontics’ technique was introduced in 2017 as a substitute for the conventional access cavity preparation for teeth with canal obliteration, apical pathosis or irreversible pulpitis. With the help of cone-beam computed tomography and a digital surface scan, an optimal access to the calcified root canal orifice can be planned virtually with suitable software. AIM: The aim of this review was to provide with an update on the application of guided endodontics for calcified root canals. Materials and Methods: A search of the particular literature was performed on four electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science until October 2022. Studies that answered the research question were included (i) application of guided endodontics for calcified canals, (ii) case reports and (iii) in vitro or ex vivo studies assessing types, advantages, disadvantages, and outcomes of its use and the accuracy as well as limitations of guided endodontics for calcified canals. The exclusion criteria were as follows: (i) Articles in any language other than English, (ii) Articles before the year 2017 (iii) experts’ opinion and (iv) guideline reports. The researchers reviewed the complete list of articles and selected the articles that were potentially relevant. Later, full-text screening was performed and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded. The articles those dealt with a topic other than that of interest to this literature review were also excluded. Conclusion: GE seems to be extremely promising. Favorable laboratory-based results regarding the accuracy of guided endodontic access cavities for both static and dynamic navigation provided better insight towards it being more accurate and safer.

  69. N'DA Amalan Sylvie, LOZO Roméo N'Guessan, KONE Naminata, ODOUKPE Kadio Saint Guillaume and BERTE Siaka

    Many small dams for agropastoral purposes have been initiated in various regions of the country, with the aim of promoting economic and social development, particularly to facilitate rice yields. These aquatic environments are home to an important biodiversity, including phytoplankton, which are not well known and likely to be impacted by human activities. The objective of this work is to know the phytoplankton population of the Yamoussoukro rice-growing dams in order to prevent the risks of eutrophication. The physico-chemical parameters of the water were measured with a multi-parameter HANNA model HI 98194 in three stations (Nanan, Subiakro and Zatta). Nutrient salts were measured using HANNA digital mini-photometers model H1781. Taxa were sampled with a plankton net of 20 µm mesh size. A photonic microscope was used to observe the different samples collected. In total, one hundred and fourteen (114) phytoplankton taxa were inventoried and divided into for (4) phyla: Chlorophyta (44 taxa or 39%), the Euglenophyta (41 taxa or 36%), Cyanoprokaryota (16 taxa or 14%) and Heterokontophyta (13 taxa or 11%). Water reservoirs could be considered rich in taxa. Chlorophyta and Euglenophyta contain the greatest diversity and constitute more than half of all taxa collected. The study also revealed that the reservoirs are warm (29.86°C) and acidic with low dissolved oxygen (2.25 mg/l) and high nutrient values (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and ortho-phosphate). This mineralization of these waters explains the high diversity of taxa in the Yamoussoukro dams.

  70. Rabindra Kumar Mishra, Ankit Kumar Jena and Sanjay Kumar Dey

    The biological data warehouse is shown here, and it is stored locally. It provides the most comprehensive forum for (a) biological sequence integration, (b) interactions among molecules, (c) Understanding of homology, (d) annotations for gene sequence, and (e) biological ontologies. For bioinformatics research and development, this framework provides both data and application infrastructure. This study defines an internet frame of reference for building database warehouses that incorporate multiple gatherings of bioinformatics datasets into a particular database managing model. A description of Atlas, Biowarehouse, BIOZON, COLUMBA, and VINE dBs to the data warehouse design has been given to validate t(DBMS), allowing queries to span multiple database servers. This paper is based on data extraction and Integration from varied sources and alternative proposals for processing the consolidated data, data warehousing, and integrating data into information. Data source as well as the architecture of a biological data warehouse proposition.

  71. Geethalakshmi, I ., Punitha, A., Sumathi, T., Vadivel, N., and Adeline Vinila, J.E.

    The experiment was carried out during 2016 - 2018 on rabi season to evaluate the qualitative parameters in different forms of fenugreek. Seven different forms viz., young seedlings (7-10 days after germination), fresh leaf at matured stage (30-40 days after sowing), dry leaf at matured stage (30-40 days after sowing), fresh leaf at matured stage (60-70 days after sowing), dry leaf at matured stage (60-70 days after sowing), dry seed and sprouted seed were studied. The results revealed that the sprouted seeds and the dried seeds were found to be best with high quality parameters, chlorophyll contents (a, b and total), catalase activity, soluble protein content, total carbohydrate content. On the other hand, the fresh leaves at matured stage (60-70 days after sowing) recorded higher ascorbic acid content.

  72. Dr. Sanhati Biswas, Dr. Puloma Bagchi, Dr. Amit Vilas Tandulkar, Dr. Anushree Koyande and Dr. Sagnik Bhattacharya

    The most common problems in childhood and adolescence leading to structural damage of primary and young permanent maxillary anterior teeth include early childhood caries and dental trauma. It causes difficulty in mastication and also poor phonetics. With recent advancements in technologies there are various restorative materials available for reconstruction of such damaged teeth. Use of natural tooth is a good alternative to other restorative materials as suggested by various literatures. The present case report shows the successful use of biological post and crown with the follow up period of 1 year. Methods: A freshly extracted permanent mandibular central incisor is sterilised and prepared as biological post for restoration of fractured maxillary permanent central incisor after its root canal treatment. Results: There was no complaint of discomfort with the treated tooth. The follow-up of the patient was continued after every three months for 1 year. Conclusion: Biological post is an excellent alternative over pre-fabricated commercially available posts for the aesthetic and functional rehabilitation of severely mutilated teeth. This case study reports successful management of fractured endodontically treated teeth with biological post.

  73. Renuka Nagarale, Mandar Todkar, Ayesha Patel, Wajeeha Mulla and Vivek Chaudhary

    Background: Implantology is becoming a speciality in thefield of dentistry in the last few decades dentistry appears to have recorded its most sign I cant advancement in the field of dental implantology. Replacement of lost teeth with dental implants are widely accepted as a prosthetic treatment of completely or partially edentulous patients. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of acceptance and challenges among Dental practitioners. Method: The survey was constructed using a convenient sampling method with self administered questionnaires among dental practtioner between October and November 2022. Results: majority of questioned subjects knew about the dental implants and accept it as a treatment option for replacing missing teeth. Conclusion: Dental implant is an accepted treatment modality in India.

  74. Dr. Shilpa Sharma, Dr. Dinesh Kansal, Dr. Dhiraj Kapoor and Dr. Atal Sood

    Aim & Objective: To compare the efficacy of empagliflozin versus teneligliptin on diabetic retinopathy and urine for microalbuminuria as add on therapy to metformin monotherapy in patients of uncontrolled T2DM. Material and Methods: The study was randomized, prospective, open label, comparative interventional study conducted at Dr RPGMC Tanda. Out of total 66 patients, 32 patients (Group A) received empagliflozin 25mg/day and 34 (Group B) received teneligliptin 20mg/day in addition to metformin 1000 mg BD. Total 18 patients, 9 in each group had mild to moderate non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Both the groups were evaluated after 6 months. Statistical Analysis: The data is presented as mean+/- SD. Student’s t test was used for data analysis. The p value<0.05 is significant. Results: After 6 months, In group A only 1 patient had mild NPDR, In group B only 3 patients had mild NPDR. There was statistically significant decrease in urine for microalbuminuria in both groups at 6 months, when compared with baseline (both p < 0.001). Conclusion: Non proliferative diabetic retinopathy improved with both the drugs (empagliflozin > teneligliptin) which also proved their potential role in protection from microvascular complications. Both the drugs showed decrease in microalbuminuria by improving diabetic status.

  75. Osbin Samosir

    Election organizers in Indonesia are often seen as obstacles to the growth of democracy. The presence of election administrators has become a serious problem in the development of democracy in Indonesia. In fact, very high hopes are given to the election organizers as a pillar that will determine the growth of Indonesian democracy. The reason is simple: Indonesian democracy has failed in the past, partly because of the role of the election organizers. The New Order became an opaque record for Indonesian democracy when election administrators became an inseparable part of the authoritarian regime. Even in the early days of reform, the election organizers could not be proud of their work and even became one of the sources of the problem itself. So it is not surprising that the election organizers, namely the Komisi Pemilihan Umum - KPU (General Elections Commission), were asked to supervise their work by establishing the Badan Pengawas Pemilu - Bawaslu (Election Supervisory Body) in 2008. The results achieved did not make the democratization process through general elections better. The poor technical work of election administrators means that election administrators cannot be allowed to work maturely and maturely, but special courts must be prepared for their bad work. The birth of the election ethics body, namely the Dewan Kehormatan Penyelengggara Pemilu - DKPP (The Honorary Council of Election Organizers), shows that the election organizers, namely the KPU and Bawaslu, are doing quite badly in building the electoral process. The big concern is the difficulty of holding a dignified general election in the 2024 national simultaneous elections.

  76. CALL FOR PAPER

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CHUDE NKIRU PATRICIA
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Dr. Swamy KRM
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