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June 2022

  1. Kamran Quddus and Aayush Anand

    Despite India witnessing an 88% decadal drop in the weighted price of solar installation, which is among the highest in the world, the share of Solar Roof Top installation has not grown proportionately compared to ground-mounted solar rooftop projects. As per Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) data, the overall installed capacity as of November 2021 was 6 GW, and it is likely to miss the target of 40GW set by the Government Of India by December 2022. One of the major areas for increasing the rooftop installation is the residential segment, given the incentives given by MNRE. The government has tried to do course correction by simplifying the solar installation process in January 2022. However, as previous studies have suggested, this is only one of the problem areas for the slow uptake of Residential Solar Power Plant. In our study, we focus on addressing the financing gap, which is one of the major hurdles in the adoption of solar through decision-based modelling with distribution companies as an aggregator.

  2. Senthilkumar, E. and Saravanakumar, K.

    Walsura is a plant genus of the family Meliaceae. Walsura have high medicinal importance and theselected species W. trifoliolatais used traditionally to treat various diseases. In the present study was undertaken to analyze the chemical composition, the crude methanolic leaf extract of W. trifoliolata was subjected to phytochemical screening for the presence of various phytochemicals. About 22different compounds were identified using GC-MS. From the present findings Lupenol an active phytocompound identified and it is having the qualities of anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal and anti-cancer and correlated with earlier studies. Isolation of Lupenol from the W.trifoliolata which were fascinating manyscientists to work on this group of plants.

  3. Senthilkumar, E. and Saravanakumar, K.

    Breyniais a plant genus of the family Euphorbiaceae. Breyniahave high medicinal importance and theselected species vitis-idaeais used traditionally to treat various diseases. The crude methanolic leaf extract of B. vitis-idaeawas subjected to phytochemicalscreening for the presence of various phytochemicals. The present study was undertaken toanalyze the chemical composition of methanolic crude extract from the leaves of B.vitis-idaea by usingGC-MS. About28different compounds were reported. Also two important components Breynin A and Breyniaionoside A identified.

  4. Flores-Encarnación, M., Valentín-Aguilar I., Martínez-Alvarado K., Aguilar-Gutiérrez G.R., Arellano-López K., Cabrera-Maldonado C. and García-García S.C.

    Most bacteria of medical interest grow and develop at pH values around neutrality (pH 7). However, many of these bacteria are also capable of maintaining themselves for long periods of time in acidic environments. The same goes for bacteria that thrive in the environment. Such is the case of some rhizobial bacteria associated with plants, where the acidic pH of the soil could represent a limiting aspect of their growth, however this is not the case because these bacteria can grow at low pH. These bacteria have different mechanisms to survive in acidic environments, which are presented in a general way in this work.

  5. Gopal Roy, Dharmshila kumari and Ava Rani

    The food preservatives play an important role in the food industry which increases the life of food and protecting them from spoiling cause by micro-organism. Several investigation have been found that the food preservatives have various health problems leading to liver, kidney, etc. damages, it has genetic effect also if consume long time. The present investigation is carried out to study the effect of food preservative (sodium benzoate) and its amelioration by fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum) seed extract in mice (Mus musculus) sperm morphology. Twenty four adult male mice with average weight 25-35 gm have been used. They have been divided into four groups (6 mice to each group).First group included control© with normal diet. The second group was treated with sodium benzoate at a concentration (1.125 mg/ml). The third group was treated with ameliorating agent fenugreek seed at a concentration (200 mg/kg) and the fourth concurrent (sodium benzoate + fenugreek) group with same concentration. After given the treatment of 35 days, the animals were sacrificed and samples were taken for the study of sperm head morphology. The result shows that the sperm abnormalities in sodium benzoate (E211) were significantly higher (11.08 %) than control (2.23%). The concurrent treatment of fenugreek seed extract with sodium benzoate (E211) has (2.28%) value. This value is highly significant then sodium benzoate treated group and almost equal to the control group. Different types of cytological abnormalities were observed in this investigation. The various abnormalities including pin-headed, funnel shaped, hook-less, club-headed, banana shaped, coiled tailed, double-headed, hammer shaped, spear shaped were observed.

  6. Vinay Kumar and Vikrant Chauhan

    Background and aim: Hypertension during pregnancy and their complications are one of the most common causes of maternal morbidity in world. In India, the incidence of Hypertension is reported to be 8-10% of the pregnancies. Methods: A prospective analysis of 50 cases of pregnant womenat Dr RPGMC Tanda. Results: Regular ANC visits and follow-up in patients of pregnancy with hypertension will reduce the morbidity and mortality in nearly 70-75%. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to detect hypertension early to improve maternal morbidity.

  7. Dr. Vipul K. Prajapati, Dr. Kartikey Singh, Dr. Apeksha Agrawal and Dr. Smit Shah

    Purpose: To study the outcomes of various intervention in high risk preterm with retinopathy of prematurity along with its incidence and risk factors. Materials and Methods: High risk preterm infants with gestational age ≤ 34 weeks and birth weight ranging from 500 grams to 2.0 kg were examined for ROP. Neonates having unstable neonatal course along with risk factors were referred to ophthalmology department for screening and appropriate interventions were undertaken. Results: Amongst 208 high risk babies(102 female child, 106 male child) ROP was detected in 77.88% of babies. 29.62% had ROP with Zone I vascularization, 62.96% had ROP with Zone II vascularization and 07.40% had ROP with Zone III vascularization. After grouping and staging, 114 were kept under observation, 22 needed anti-VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors) agents, 22 needed intervention with laser photocoagulation and 4 were referred after explaining the nil visual prognosis. Timing of intervention for anti-VEGFs: 12 of 22 were treated on presentation, 10 of 22 within 1 week. For laser treatment, 8 of 22 were treated on presentation, 4 of 22 between 1 to 2 weeks, 2 of 22 between 2 to 4 weeks and 8 of 22 after 4 weeks. Conclusion: Major risk factor in our study which contributed to high risk preterm were oxygen therapy, NICU admission with ventilation and multiple pregnancy which predisposed these babies to ROP. Favourable outcomes: Were noted in 87/114 babies under observation, 21/22 babies in anti VEGF treatment group and 18/22 in laser photocoagulation treated babies.

  8. Perez Mbiire Batwine Mujuni, Assoc. Prof. Adrian R. Mwesigye and Assoc. Prof. Charles Tushabomwe – Kazooba

    The purpose of this research was toestablish the relationship between human capital as one of the key factors and performance of government aided primary schools in Isingiro district, Uganda. A cross sectional research design and post-positivist paradigm were used to collect data from 118 government aided primary schools in Isingiro district, Uganda where 475 respondents participated in the study. The study used closed-ended questionnaires, interview guide and checklists. The schools to be included were selected using simple random sampling and were considered as unit of analysis while the respondents who included District officials, head teachers, teachers and school management committee members formed the unit of enquiry, these were selected purposively based on the knowledge they had on the subject matter. Each school selected, provided the information from the respondents who in this case were the head teacher, two (2) teachers and a chairperson of school management committee member. The research was guided by the null hypothesis, Ho1: Human capital has no relationship with performance of government aided primary schools in Isingiro district, Uganda assuming other factors constant. The findings of the study revealed a positive significant relationship between human capital issues and performance of government aided primary school at 99% level of confidence (r=.385, p<.01), thus rejecting the null hypothesis (Ho1). The results signify that improvedhuman capital is highly associated with good performance of government aided primary schools in Isingiro district, Uganda. The Unique contribution of this studywas, to suggest to planners and managers of government aided primary schools that, since human capital is important for the improvement of primary school performance, it is advisable that the government should impose the human capital law for government aided primary school teachers which possibly caters for teachers’ productivity when given some due care and attention. In addition, the Ministry of Education & Sports should create social benefits for government aided primary school teachers as a means to enhance their wellbeing and motivate them. Moreover, it is also recommended that government aided primary schools’ teachers be given some training and professional workshops to increase their experience and productivity which could probably motivate them and hence perform better at schools.

  9. Amala Joseph, Aiswarya Thomas, Jilbi Josey and Rosmin Jacob

    Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which defects in insulin secretion or action result in elevated blood glucose. It is a major public health issue that affects over 285 million people globally. Diabetes is sighted as one of the leading causes of blindness, kidney failure, cardiovascular events and lower limb. Data from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) and the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) shows that controlling hyperglycemia is critical for the reduction of negative clinical outcomes in diabetic patients. AGEs, oxidative stress, low grade inflammation and neovascularization of vasa vasorum paves the way for developing diabetic complications. The aim of the article is to review the published studies that examine the complications of Type 2 diabetes and the role of pharmacists on diabetes prevention and care. Pharmacists should identify the patients having diabetes and patient education should be provided. Humanistic outcomes like quality of life must also be taken into account while considering the clinical outcomes of the diabetes patients.

  10. Simon Koma Okwute and Anastasia Amaka Nwosu

    The root-bark of Dalbergia saxatilis (Fabaceae), a plant used traditionally in ethnomedicine in Nigeria, was extracted with 95% ethanol to give the crude extract. The crude extract was partitioned into acidic, basic and neutral polar and non-polar fractions. Preliminary phytochemical screening of D. saxatilis root bark crude extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and glycosides. The antimicrobial screening was carried out on the crude extract and the fractions and all the samples were active against the test organisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella .typhi, Escherichia coli, Bacillus substilis and Candida albicans .The basic fraction was the least active against S. typhi while the neutral non-polar (hexane) fraction was the most active against B. substilis. Column chromatographic separation of the biologically active hexane fraction gave fractions which on GC-MS analysis and by comparison with the standard library computer MS data led to the identification of two azulene-type sesquiterpenes,1, 2,3,5,6, 7,8,8a-octahydro-1,4-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl)azulene,and1H-3a,7-methanoazulene,2,3,4,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3,6,8,8-tetramethyl-.The presence of these constituents in the plant extract may account for the antimicrobial properties of the plant. Thus, the root bark of D. saxatilis can be harnessed for anti-infective purposes.

  11. Tomoyuki Nishizaki and Akihiro Gotoh and Akinobu Gotoh

    Restraint stress significantly prolonged immobility time in forced swim and tail suspension tests for mice, indicating that restraint stress causes depression-related behaviors. Moreover, restraint stress significantly prolonged the retention latency in the water maze test, indicating that restraint stress causes spatial memory impairment. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) in the hippocampus and hypothalamus from mice with restraint stress was significantly reduced as compared with that for mice without restraint stress, indicating that GSK-3β is activated by restraint stress. In contrast, tau phosphorylation was not affected both in the hippocampus and hypothalamus from mice with restraint stress. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that GSK-3β is a pivotal factor for stress-induced depression and dementia, independently of tau phosphorylation.

  12. Sk. Mahammad Abbas, Noorjahan, A., Sandhya, H. and Mohammad Ishaq, B.

    Fatty liver is a reversible condition in large vacuoles of triglycerides fat accumulates in the liver cells via the process of steatosis. It occurs in two forms, they are Alcoholic fatty liver and Non- alcoholic fatty liver. Alcoholic fatty liver is a condition in which excess fat is stored in the liver due to heavy alchol use. Non alcoholic fatty liver is a condition in which excess fat is stored in the liver This accumulation of fat is not caused by heavy alcoholic use.In this study our main main objective is to assess the efficacy and comparision between vit-E and metadoxine + L –Asparagine. In our study total 110 patients were included.out of 110,55 pa patients were prescribed with Vitamin E AND 55 patients were prescribed with metadoxine +L –Asparagine.To assess the efficacy of two drugs Fishers exact test was used.The drug vitamin E in 55 patients shows the reduced size of liver when compared to Metadoxine +L-Asparagine. Our study concludes that treatment of fatty liver with vitamin E is more effective when compared with treatment of Metadoxine +L-Asparagine.

  13. Bassémory KONE and Yeboue ALLANGBA

    The main objective of the study is to measure women's perceptions of women's empowerment strategies by promoting women's entrepreneurship in Côte d'Ivoire. It is the result of a quantitative study conducted with a sample of 380 women divided according to the quota method. The analysis of the data shows that the entrepreneurial impulse of women stumbles on sociocultural and structural constraints. At the level of socio-cultural barriers, their perceptions of the company, their different roles in society, their levels of education and the perception of the very management of activities by their family members or their communities are crucial in the success of their activities. Structurally, women's entrepreneurial initiatives are hindered by (i) lack of information on the financing procedures of banking institutions, (ii) ignorance of formalization procedures or statements by companies, (iii) low motivation in the desire to formalize or declare his business among women, (iv) the lack of follow-up of women by the rulers, and (v)the national communication strategy on inappropriate female entrepreneurship In order to stimulate the entrepreneurial dynamic among women, it is up to the various actors not to underestimate the importance of the socio-cultural dimension in the communication on women's entrepreneurship and to organize regular awareness-raising activities. Training in the field of women's entrepreneurship.

  14. Dr. Krishnaprabha C., Ancy KF., Angel Paul, Dilna Christopher and Jeswin Jose

    Myocardial infraction is characterized by necrosis of heart cells because it doesn’t get enough blood flow to heart due to blockage of blood clots. Depression is one of the common, frequent complications occur after an attack of myocardial infraction, its impact affects long term quality of life to a higher incidence of mortality of myocardial infarction patients. Thus, the present consensus statement aims to provide an overview of the prevalence, risk factors associated with depression followed by a myocardial infarction, impact of depression in a myocardial infarction patient, diagnosis and its treatment options. Overall research studies show that patients with myocardial infarction have higher risk of all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality and recurrence of cardiac events if they have post-myocardial infraction depression. The patients with history of either myocardial infarction or depression, complication that occurs during hospitalization, patients with infirm social relationships, biological imbalance and physical illness are the contributing risk factors of depression among myocardial infarction patients. Future studies are required to find out the exact relationship between depression and myocardial infraction. Selective Serotonin Receptor Inhibitors are the better drug of choice among all anti-depressive drugs. Cardiac rehabilitation is also very effective. Early diagnosis and management of depression after myocardial infarction attack take the edge of future complications.

  15. Rini Retnowati

    Kale land (Ipomoea reptana Poir) is one type of vegetable crop that is short-lived, has economic value, and also has a high nutritional content, namely vitamins A, B, C, protein, calcium, phosphorus, sitosterol, and mineral materials, especially iron that is useful for the growth of the body and health. Hydroponics is an alternative technology in the cultivation by using media other than soil and nutrient substrate. One alternative nutrient that can be applied, namely liquid fertilizer derived from the fermentation of waste from the manufacturing process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of planting medium and the concentration of waste liquid manure out of the land kale growing hydroponically. The research was conducted in field trials in Suco Manleuana (Dili) began on 29 April 2018 until May 30, 2018. This study is a field experiment with the design used was a randomized block design pattern group with 2 factors. The first factor is the media's treatment plant consists of three types of growing media: M1: rice husk charcoal, M2: Sand rivers, and M3: Sand river + rice husk. The second factor is the provision of waste liquid fertilizer know which consists of four levels: P 0: Provision of waste liquid manure out of 0%, P1: Provision of waste liquid manure out of 10%, P 2: Provision of waste liquid manure out of 20%, P 3: Provision of waste liquid manure out 30%, and P 4: Provision of waste liquid manure out of 40%. Variables to be observed consist of plant height (observations on the first week to the fourth week), the number of leaves (observations on the first week to the fourth week), and the fresh weight of plant kale land (observations on the fourth week). The data obtained will be analyzed for variance and if necessary it will proceed with Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at the 5% significance level. Based on the results of further tests using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) showed significant differences among treatments. Treatment shows the growth and yield of kale best land indicated in the treatment M1P3 (rice husk growing media and the concentration of waste liquid manure out of 30%) with a mean value of 10.83 the number of leaves, plant height 33.85 cm, and a wet weight of 14.33 grams.

  16. Alice de Fatima Freitas

    This research was conducted in a study at the Ministry of Education Dili, Timor Leste with the title The influence of Human Resource Competence and Budget Planning on Budget Realization and Its Implications on State Apparatus Performance. The research objectives are 1. To determine the competence of human resources that affect the performance of the State Apparatus 2. To determine the effect of Budget Planning on the Performance of the State Apparatus. 3. To find out the Realization of the Budget affects the Performance of the State Apparatus. And in chapter II the theoretical basis the author cites theories of experts to support the author's title such as the theory of human resource competence, the theory of budget planning, and the theory of Budget Realization and Performance of the State Apparatus. While in chapter III the author uses data analysis techniques, namely using multiple linear regressions. While the results of research from processing show that; Test Results, The T-count value of the independent variable, Human resource competence (X1) is 3,905 > and the T-table value is 1,986. or T-count > T-table, the null hypothesis is rejected and Ha (alternative hypothesis) is accepted, meaning that there is a positive and significant influence between human resource competence (X1) on Apparatus Performance (Y). Test Results, the T-count value of the independent variable, budget planning (X2) is 3,190 > and the T-table value is 1,986. Or T-count > T table, the null hypothesis is rejected and Ha (alternative hypothesis) is accepted, meaning that there is a positive and significant influence between planning (X2) on Apparatus Performance. (Y). Test Results, the T-count value of the independent variable, Budget realization (Z) is 3,160 > and the T-table value is 1,986. or T-count > T-table, the null hypothesis is rejected and Ha (alternative hypothesis) is accepted, meaning that there is a positive and significant influence between budget realization (Z) on the performance of the state apparatus. (Y). Coefficient of Determination, Based on the value (R Square) of 0.710 or 71.0%. This shows that the percentage contribution of the influence of the independent variable competence of human resources, budget planning and budget realization to the performance of the state apparatus is 0.55 or 5.5% of the two independent variables used to be able to explain 5.5% of the variation of the dependent variable performance of the apparatus. country. While the remaining 100% - 5.5% = 4.5% is influenced or explained by other variables that are not included in this research model.

  17. Moses. V. G. Isaiah, Mangalam, G. and Hamsavalli, G.

    In this present study, nanocomposite polymer films are prepared based on PVP and MgBr2 with doping of additive plasticizers (Al2O3) with different ratios using olution cast technique. XRD pattern confirms the semi crystalline nature of the polymer films. The ionic conductivity of the prepared films was measured by using AC impedance spectroscopy and it is found to be at 10-2 S/cm. The electrical conductivity studies were carried out by DC ionic conductivity set up and for the composition of 85 (PVP):15(MgBr2):0.1(Al2O3), the highest ionic conductivity was found to be at 1.2510-2 S/cm at room temperature. The conductivity is found to increase with increase in temperature. The temperature dependent conductivity of the polymer electrolyte follows the Arrhenius relationship which shows hopping of ion mechanism in the polymer matrix.

  18. Dr. Anjali Singh, Dr. Deepak Bhargava, Dr. Puja Bansal and Dr. Khushboo alam

    Today, 3D printing is most commonly used in dentistry for the manufacture of drill guides for dental implants, study models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. However, we are yet to see forensic odontologists, lawyers, and expert witnesses appreciate the advantages of 3D printing for its use in court of law. The major application of 3D printing in forensic odontology includes bite mark analysis, 3D-computed tomography facial reconstruction, dental age estimation, sex determination, and physical models. The use of 3D digitizing systems such as laser scanners, structured light scanners, photogrammetry, etc. has revolutionized the field of forensic sciences. The application of these technologies also allows prompt collection of data with minimal degradation and reduction in human errors. Thus, these 3D digitizing technologies can be wisely adapted to advance forensic sciences. Though, the applications in this domain are in the stage of infancy, it definitely has a promising future

  19. Anestis Charalampopoulos, Efstratios Kofopoulos-Lymperis, George Bagias, George Kirkilesis, Marcos Perdicaris, Nikolaos Koliakos, Georgia Bobetsi, Savvas Papagrigoriadis and Dimitrios Papaconstantinou

    Background: Reversal of ileostomy after surgery and chemoradiation creates a new group of patients with the potential for eventual postoperative complications. We aim to compare the postoperative morbidity of colorectal cancer patients with that of patients who underwent reversal of ileostomy for benign colorectal conditions. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing ileostomy reversal was performed. Demographic, clinicopathologic features of patients, morbidity, initial diagnoses as well as rates of postoperative complications were analyzed. All complications after reversal of ileostomy were registered and classified according to Clavien-Dindo severity score. Results: 61 patients were divided in two groups; group A (21/61, 34.4%), included patients with benign colorectal diseases. The average time interval to reversal was 5.6±2.3 months and the in-hospital stay was 9.6±4.64 days. The overall complication rate was 33.3% (7/21) with wound infection rate at 14.3% (3/21). In group B (40/61, 65.6%), patients with malignancies maintained the ileostomy for an average of 8.2±3.3 months. In-hospital stay was 15.47±24 days and the overall complication rate was 65% (26/40). Wound infection was the most common complication with an incidence rate of 22.5%. The majority of complications in both groups was classified as Clavien-Dindo II and IIIa (14/61, 23%) while 9 patients (9/61,14.8%) had Clavien- Dindo score IIIb and IV. Conclusion: Reversal of ileostomy in cancer patients is correlated with a high complication rate. Wound infection and postoperative ileus were the most common complications. Cancer patients with reversal ileostomy had increased hospital in stay and delayed closure compared to patients with benign diseases.

  20. Andressa Martins Ribeiro and Andréa Cristina Marques de Araújo

    Este trabalho apresenta uma análise acerca da política de drogas adotada no Brasil e seus efeitos em diversos campos da sociedade, que a caracterizam como uma verdadeira guerra. Por meio de um apanhado histórico, verificou-se como essa ‘guerra às drogas’ surgiu, e como ela influenciou no aumento da violência, no encarceramento em massa, e na violação de direitos humanos. A metodologia de pesquisa foi quali-quantitativa, e sob uma perspectiva de direitos humanos, com levantamento de dados e análise de discursos. Tais resultados apontam o quanto os dispositivos proibicionistas são imprecisos, e dão margem a preconceitos sociais e racismo em sua aplicação, o que resultam em superlotação de pessoas selecionadas, nas penitenciárias. As drogas devem ser levadas apenas como um problema de saúde pública, que é o que elas são.

  21. Mrs. Manjula, K. V., Mrs. Manasa H.S. and Mrs. Renuka, Devi D.N.

    Background: Diabetes is a major illness among the worldwide. In south Asia every year Diabetes affects 1 in 11 adults and cause 747,000 preventable deaths. The causes and risk of Type 2 DM is multifactorial and genetic factors and also food quality is having an effect on diet and influence on obesity, high living standards and changes in life styles. Affordable, quick and easily available validated tools are required for assessment of risk factors for type 2 DM. Using one such questionnaire tool we have conducted a descriptive study in among the Police at 5th KSRP, commended office, jockey quters, Mysuruto identify and assess the risk of development of Type 2 DM. Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus among the Police at 5th KSRP, commended office, jockey quters, Mysuru and to find the association between risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus with their selected personal variables Methodology: Questionnaire on demographic proforma. Finnish diabetes risk score was used to collect data. An explorative descriptive method has been adopted and 100 patients were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique. Results: The result of the study revealed that 51.1% of participants have moderate risk, 33.3% of participants have high risk and 15.6% of participants have slightly elevated risk. Conclusion: The participants of this study have moderate risk of getting type 2 DM and Gender, Age, Occupation and BMI are significantly associated in contributing the risk of developing type 2 DM.

  22. Reader Dr Siddhesh Bandekar, Dr Pavan Tryambake, Dr Sanika Pawar, Dr. Prashant Moogi, Dr. Asmita Sonawane and Dr. Kalyani Ahirrao

    Background: The action of sodium hypochlorite is to form an oxidative layer in radicular dentin. Antioxidant not only removes the oxygen species but also increase the bond strength of sealer. Aim: To compare and evaluate the push out bond strength of resin-based sealer to the radicular dentin treated with antioxidants and diode laser to decrease oxidizing effect of sodium hypochlorite. Methods: Sixty single rooted permanent teeth were selected and decoronated. All the teeth were prepared with ProTaper Universal rotary system up to F3 and canals were irrigated using 3 mL of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite during instrumentation. The canals were flushed with normal saline as a final irrigating solution. Then samples were treated with antioxidants and diode laser according to following group: Group I – Cocoa bean extract (CBE), Group II – 10% Sodium ascorbate, Group III – 1.5W Diode laser, Group IV – 5ml Saline. All samples were obturated with Gutta percha and AH Plus sealer. Samples were sectioned to obtaining disc thickness of 2mm. Push out bond strength was performed using universal testing machine. The data was analysed using one way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test. Results: Cocoa bean extract and Diode laser showed significantly higher bond strength values compared to control group (P < 0.05) even so, sodium ascorbate showed equivalent bond strength. Adhesive failures were predominant in all groups. Conclusion: cocoa bean extract as an herbal antioxidant can give better treatment outcome when treated with resin based sealer.

  23. Clément AHOUANNOU, Didier B. APOVO, Sibiath O. G. OSSENI and Pierre C. GBADO

    The well-being of building occupants depends primarily on their health, comfort and the safety conditions in which they can carry out their activities. The search for comfort by building occupants means that the building sector remains a major source of energy consumption and pollutant emissions worldwide. Countries in tropical regions, such as Benin, have a relatively warm climate, which requires appropriate technologies and comfort prediction models to provide the desired level of comfort for building users. It is commonly accepted that good comfort conditions require the coexistence of four main components: hygrothermal, acoustic, visual and olfactory. The simultaneous study of these four components proves to be complex due to the poor knowledge of the relationship between measurements and the subjective evaluation of physical and chemical parameters or the lack of consensus on certain indicators. This paper focuses on a literature review on the overall comfort of building occupants in the tropical climate. A synthesis of the different models and characteristics of comfort components was presented as well as approaches to global comfort indicators.

  24. Gniondjibohoui M.OUNNEBO

    Les attaques terroristes sont à l’évidence aujourd’hui, un des défis majeurs des institutions de sécurité publique en Côte d’Ivoire. En l’espace de quelques mois, la Côte d’Ivoire a été victime de plusieurs attaques terroristes dans les zones frontalières avec le Burkina Faso et le Mali faisant des morts de façon récurrente parmi les forces armées ivoiriennes. En dépit du système sécuritaire mis en place par les autorités pour prévenir ce phénomène, la menace devient de plus en plus persistante et insaisissable. La Côte d’Ivoire demeure pourtant, une plaque tournante du trafic international des drogues et stupéfiants depuis plusieurs décennies. Cette contribution scientifique a pour objectif d’analyser la corrélation entre le trafic illicite des drogues et stupéfiants et le développement du terrorisme en Côte d’Ivoire. La méthodologie comporte un guide d’entretien semi-structuré auprès des acteurs des systèmes sécuritaires de lutte contre le trafic illicite des stupéfiants et du terrorisme, les responsables administratifs, les leaders communautaires et religieux, les responsables d’organisations non gouvernementales nationales et internationales de promotion des droits humains et de prévention des conflits, les responsables d’organisations de jeunesses, vivant dans les villes deKorhogo, Ouangolodougou et Tengrela. Les résultats indiquent que le développement du terrorisme en Côte d’Ivoire est certes, lié à l’endémie du trafic illicite des drogues et stupéfiants, mais aussi, à la porosité des frontières et à la faiblesse du système sécuritaire, la pauvreté, le chômage, la récurrence des conflits communautaires et le phénomène de l’orpaillage clandestin qui sévissent dans ces zones frontalières.

  25. Drs. Bourguiba Emna, Ourtani Hend, Jegham Hela, Azouzi Ines, Aouini Walid and Khattech Mohamed Bassem

    A supernumerary tooth is a development anomaly of number characterized by the presence of tooth in addition to the normal series. The prevalence of this anomaly varies between 0.15% and 1.9%. Clinical and radiological signs are constant. Surgial extraction is an unavoidable therapeutic step that can be associated to interceptive or orthodontic treatement. Methods: We performed a review of literature about diagnosis and management of supernumerary teeth in pediatric population. PubMed, Cochrane library and Google scholar were databases used. We reported 4 clinical cases of young patients with different types and numbers of supernumerary teeth, treated at the principal military hospital of Tunis. We noticed clinical signs, radiological ones and detailed treatment plan. Results: Thirteen articles (13) were reviewed. Boys were more affected than girls with sex ratio 2:1. Mean age at diagnosis was 9.76 YO. Clinical signs associated were respectively delayed dental eruption (N =) 61.53 %, swelling (N=4) 30.76 % , space loss (N=3) 23.07% and over-retained primary teeth (N=3) 23.07%. Besides , impacted tooth (N=5) 38.46% and radio-opaque images ( N=10) 76.92 % were the most radiological findings associated. Mean number of supernumerary teeth diagnosed per patient was 1.69. Mesiodens (N= 5) 38.46%, odontoma (N= 3)23.07% , dens invaginus (N=1)= 7.69% and tooth like appearence (N=1)7.69 % were most subtype described. Regular follow-up of 5.92 months, was mentionned in (N=9) 69.23% of the retained articles. Conclusion: Supernumerary teeth requires a multidisciplinary management Ideally, examination and treatment planning should be undertaken within pediatric dentist , oral surgeon and orthodonstist.

  26. Shafiq Ur Rehman Natnoo, Guddi Devi, Ayaz Farooqi, Tahir Rehmatullah, Shruti Sharma and Shahid Mir

    BACKGROUND: General anesthesia is needed for caesarean section in situations such as obstetric emergencies (ecclampsia, acute fetal distress etc) or when spinal anesthesia is contraindicated (patient refusal, thrombocytopenia etc). Regardless of indication, it is desirable to keep dose of volatile anesthetics to a minimum so as to decrease their effects on the neonate without causing a risk of awareness in the mother. OBJECTIVES: To compare efficacy of Sevoflurane 1% and Isoflurane 0.5% as inhalational anesthetic for maintenance of general anaesthesia in cesarean section. PARTICIPANTS: 50 term parturients with ASA II and III planned for elective LSCS under general anesthesia. METHODS: Patients were divided into two groups. Group A received 1% sevoflurane with N2O for maintenance of anesthesia while group B received 0.5% isoflurane with N2O. Bispectral Index (BIS), HR, NIBP, SpO2, EtCO2 and Etsevo/ Etiso were recorded at 16 designated points throughout the procedure. Post-operatively patients were interviewed for any recall of intraoperative events. RESULTS: From the time of skin incision until uterine closure, average values for BIS were higher for group A (Sevoflurane 1%) than for group B (Isoflurane 0.5%) but values in both groups were below 60. From abdominal mopping till the end of procedure, values for group A continued to be higher than that for group B and values in group A reached above 60 in some patients. None of the patients had any intraoperative awareness as confirmed by post-operative interviews. CONCLUSIONS: Isoflurane 0.5% with N2O for maintenance of general anesthesia seems to be adequate for preventing intraoperative awareness during LSCS under while Sevoflurane 1% may be inadequate for maintenance of anesthesia in some patients.

  27. Rajaonarison Lala Andriamasinavalona, Ramarokoto Mijoro, Rasaholiarison Nomena Finiavana, Injakanasy Innocent, Dan-Chebut Octavia, Razafimahefa Julien and Tehindrazanarivelo Alain Djacoba

    We report a case of a 40-year-old man who had been seen for a sudden onset of a vertical binocular diplopia in the left lateral gaze. The patient had high blood pressure, was an active smoker and overweight. His clinical examination showed a complete paralysis of the left VI cranial nerve. Brain MRI in vascular sequence with injection showed a left pontine hypersignal in diffusion (left pontine stroke). Also the presence of mega-dolicho basilar artery associated with a fusiform aneurysm, with parietal thrombus measuring 20 mm in axial section with circulating lumen of 8 mm and a significant mass effect on the left protuberance, without any signs of rupture or bleeding. A surgical therapeutic abstention was decided, the patient was treated by antihypertensive and antiplatelet drugs. Brain MRI with angio-MRI sequence is important for the diagnosis and the search for mega-dolicho basilar artery complications (ischemia, hemorrhage and compression). Complex aneurysms of the basilar artery represent a therapeutic challenge, both neurosurgical and endovascular.

  28. Aguiyi Nduka Watson, Godday Biowei and Ayibapreye Kelvin Benjamin

    In this letter, millimeter wave attenuation by flat sea surface covered by foam is reported. This was achieved by developing an analytical model of foam-covered sea surface using the finite difference method (FDM) method, which is a solution to the Parabolic Wave Equation (PWE) method. The PWE has been widely used to solving Electromagnetic (EM) wave extinction and radio wave propagation in random media problems. The FDM method investigates attenuation of EM waves propagating through slices of sea foam layer as functions of frequency, foam layer thickness, polarization and angle of incidence. Results obtainedshowed that attenuation increases with the depth of sea foam layers and decreases with increase in propagation angle for various WindSat frequencies.

  29. Dimos Charidimou, Rafail Tzimas, Dionysios Politis, Georgios Kyriafinis, Sophia Aidona, Jannis Constantinidis, Nektarios-Kyriakos Paris and Veljko Aleksić

    Animated pedagogical content when combined with affective tactics aims to stimulate interest, if not enthusiasm, to the learning community. Asstudentscombine both formal learning systems and socio-cultural influences, pledging human figures as models for deploying human-computer interaction processes becomes a commitment strategy appealing to the senses. Therefore, learning objects in their transformational route to acquiring multiagent system characteristics, actively encourage autonomy, socialibility, student models that transfer their universe of discourse to the Internet, adaptability, and intelligent cognitive evaluation. As a result, interactive learning involves the transmutation of classic instructional structures to arrangements that provide incentives for cooperative action over computerized environments, for both special education and regular schooling.

  30. Sathishkumar, D. and Mahendiran P.

    The purpose of the present study is to assess the influence of tennis specific endurance training for twelve weeks on speed, agility and maximal oxygen uptake in male tennis players. Twenty (20) male tennis players were selected at random as subjects, who volunteered to participate in this study. All players were classified randomly into two groups tennis specific endurance training group (EG) (n = 10) and control group (CG) (n = 10). These players were selected from National Tennis Academy, SIPCOT, Ranipet, Tamilnadu during the academic year 2018 – 2019. Speed, agility and maximal oxygen uptake were selected as criterion variables. The twelve weeks of tennis specific endurance training were supplemented to EG and CG carried out their regular training. The result of the study revealed that EG from pre to post test showed significant improvement in speed (F (1, 18) = 32.94, p = 0.000), agility (F (1, 18) =32.12, p = 0.000) and maximal oxygen uptake (F (1, 18) = 36.86, p = 0.000) but the CG failed to show significant changes (p> 0.05). It is concluded that twelve weeks of tennis specific endurance training is likely to improve speed, agility and maximal oxygen uptake in tennis players. This study also displayed the effectiveness of 30-15 IFT audio which can also be used for trainingand it is evident in improving the speed, agility and maximal oxygen uptake in tennis players.

  31. DR. Kavitha. D, DR. Felicia Chitra. A , Ms. Reeva. V and Ms. Susithra. S.

    Background: In worldwide the obesity and overweight has been more than 1.9 billion in adults, 38 million in children under the age of 5 years, and over 340 million in children and adolescents aged 5-19 years. India is widely populated country with a population of 1.3 billion people spread into many states having wide economic and social disparities, health inequalities and distinct cultures. The study was conducted to assess the association of screen time usage with sleep pattern and obesity among school children during COVID-19 lockdown. Objectives: • To assess the screen time usage with sleep pattern among school children. • To assess the screen time usage with obesity among school children. • To associate the screen time usage with sleep pattern among school children. • To associate the sleep Pattern with obesity among school children. • To associate the sleep Pattern among school children with their selected demographic variables. Methods: In this study based on descriptive design using quantitative method to assess the association of screen time usage with sleep pattern and obesity among school children during COVID-19 lockdown by using purposive sampling technique. The data collection period was one week. Total sample size was 51 participants, school children. Samples were collected from selected area of Puducherry (Lawspet PHC). Result: In this study most of school children use the internet on daily basis is 51%, more than once a day 24% and once a day 25%. Majority of the school children 51% had inadequate sleep and 49% had moderate sleep pattern. This result can help to improve the sleep pattern and reduce screen time usage and obesity among school children. Conclusion: The present study reveal that school children have moderated and inadequate sleep pattern, majority of children spend on internet usage and gained overweight during COVID-19 lockdown. It is responsibility of the health care professional to create awareness on screen time usage, sleep pattern and obesity among school children during COVID-19 lockdown.

  32. Baishali Pandit

    The plant microbiome (epiphytic, endophytic, and rhizospheric) is crucial for plant growth, development, and soil health. Plants and rhizospheric soil are rich natural resources that harbor microbial hotspots and play important roles in global nutrient balance and ecosystem function. The varied assemblage of microorganisms are important components of soil-plant systems, where they interact intensely in the rhizosphere/phyllosphere or as endophytes. Plant growth promoting (PGP) microorganisms have emerged as a valuable and promising tool for achieving long-term agricultural sustainability. Plant growth promoting (PGP) microorganisms are bacteria that promote plant growth,they have emerged as a vital and promising instrument for agriculture's long-term viability. PGP microbes promote plant growth and development directly or indirectly, either by releasing plant growth regulators/phytohormones, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc solubilization, biological nitrogen fixation, or by producing siderophore, ammonia, HCN, and other secondary metabolites that are antagonistic to pathogenic microbes.The PGP microbes belonged to different phylum of archaea (Euryarchaeota); bacteria (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria) and fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota), which include different genera namely Achromobacter, Acinetobacter, Agrobacterium, Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Aspergillus, Azoarcus, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Beijerinckia, Brevibacterium, Burkholderia, Collimonas,Curtobacterium, Diplococcus, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Flavobacterium, Flexibacterium, Gluconoacetobacter, Haloarcula, Halobacterium, Halococcus, Haloferax, Herbaspirillum, Klebsiella, Methylobacterium, Microbiospora, Micrococcus, Micromomospora, Nocardioides, PaeniBacillus, Pantoea, Penicillium, Piriformospora, Planomonospora, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Serratia, Streptomyces, Thermomonospora and Xanthomonas. For sustainable agriculture, these PGP microorganisms might be utilized as biofertilizers/bioinoculants instead of chemical fertilizers.

  33. Dr. Rupali Kaur Sachar, Dr. Hemashanker Rao, Dr. Sunita Yadav, JR., and Dr. Apurva D. JR-3

    Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become the gold standard treatment for gallstone disease. Though mostly safe occasionally it can be difficult due to various problems faced during surgical procedure. Anticipation of likely difficulty can help in avoiding complications. Methods: With the aim of identifying various predictors of difficulty and their correlation with likely difficulty this prospective study on 50 adults undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis was undertaken. Various clinical, radiological and biochemical predictors and frequency and type of intraoperative difficulty was recorded. Results: In present study adverse clinical factors only showed significant predictive value (p value - 0.005). Adverse radiological predictors although showing trend towards, did not achieve statistical significance (p value 0.065). In clinical predictors duration of symptoms >1yr, History of acute cholecystitis and BMI >30 showed statistically significant association. Age >50yrs, Male gender, radiological predictors (Thickened gall bladder wall, small contracted gall bladder, Single large impacted stone) and deranged LFT did not show significant predictive value. Conclusions: Clinical predictors are most reliable factors. Use of good clinical judgement regarding possibility of and likely difficulty along with understanding of available resources is important in making decision in each case.

  34. Dr. Kshirsagar Shirin P., Dr. Ahirrao Kalyani I., Dr. Moogi Prashant P., Dr. Bandekar Siddhesh D., Dr. Tryambake Pavan R. and Dr. Sonawane Asmita A.

    Background: Fiber reinforcement of conventional dental composites is introduced with the aim of enhancing their physical and mechanical properties and increasing their resistance to fracture. Aim: To compare the fracture resistance of class II MOD cavities restored with Filtek z350 composite with and without dentapreg fibre inserts on premolars. Materials and method: Forty non-carious permanent human maxillary premolar teeth were taken. Class II MOD cavities were prepared and divided into two groups 1) Group 1: teeth with class II MOD cavities restored with Filtek z350 composite using horizontal incremental technique. 2) Group 2: teeth with class II MOD cavities restored with Filtek z350 composite and dentapregfiber inserts using horizontal incremental technique. Then fracture resistance test was done using universal testing machine. Data analysis was done by applying Independent Sample t test. Results: Mean Fracture Resistance of teeth in Group II was higher than Mean Fracture Resistance of teeth in Group I (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Insertion of Dentapregfibers under composite restoration significantly increased the fracture resistance of the restored teeth.

  35. Dr. Anuradha Mishra

    Media activism has been playing a significant role to bring forth several keys issues such as sexual abuse, rape, female feticide, communal riots, etc. in the recent past. Media deserves a fair share of appreciation for mirroring societal, cultural and political issues to the forefront of our society from time to time. Perhaps, in the absence of proactive media such issues may not have come to the cognizance of the public. However, there are instances of media over emphasizing less important issues or extending more publicity to trivial issues or ignoring verification of facts. The proposed chapter will focus on selected case studies to identify, understand and explain the significance, applicability and effect of different communication theories in respect to media activism. The chapter includes relevant and authentic secondary information available in public domain such as newspaper and magazine articles, blogs, social media posts, etc. The qualitative analysis technique incorporates 16 cases of media activism for discussion and result. The cases –Save Tigers (1973), Assam Movement (1979-1985), Sikh Riots (1984), Kargil War (1999) , Jessica Lal Murder (1999),Gujarat Riots (2002), Greenathon (2008), Anti-Corruption Movement by Anna Hazare(2011), Nirbhaya Movement (2012), Loksabha Elections (2014), #Selfie with daughter (2015), #Metoocampaign (2018, in India), Anti CAA-Protest (2019), #RightToBreathe (2020) ,SSR Case (2020) and Farmers Protest (2020) are included for the study. The outcome of the study is expected to throw some lights to comprehend the media strategies and techniques applied and the effect of dissemination of information on the targeted audience from the perspective of communication theories. The result of study may help to identify and understand the extent of the effectiveness of media to nourish the society.

  36. Vaidehi Pasumarthi, S. Savitha, M. Chandrasekar

    Uremic encephalopathy is a toxic metabolic disorder rarely associated with acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease. It is more readily recognized when the onset of uremia is rapid as in acute kidney injury but it can also be severe in chronic kidney disease. Post renal azotemia is a common urological condition that presupposes prompt treatment. A 4.5 year old male Domestic short hair cat weighing around 5.2 kg was presented to Small animal Critical care unit of Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with the history of vomiting, not voiding urine, and seizures. General clinical examination revealed reduced appetite, dull attitude,pale mucous membrane and normal temperature. On palpation of abdomen turgidurinary bladder was noticed. The blood sample was collected and sent for hematology and biochemistry profile evaluation which revealed relative neutrophilia, azotemia and hyperphosphatemia. On radiography, no cystic and urethral calculi were visualized. Tom cat catheter was fixed using standard protocol and urine was relieved. Urine sample was collected and sent for urine analysis which revealed proteinuria. Owner was advised to drain the urine frequently. The animal was treated with fluid therapy and broad spectrum antibiotics. On review the animal condition was improved.

  37. Dr. Sanae Boumaghzel , Pr. Chakib Boukhalfa, Pr. Smail Hafidi Alaoui and Dr. Laila Maghfour

    Smoking is an essential factor in coronary heart disease. In 2018, the total cost of coronary heart disease attributable to smoking at Cardiology B level in Rabat, Morocco was estimated at 2,446,402 MAD. Indirect costs accounted for 51% of total costs. More than 69% of direct medical costs are attributable to invasive treatment during hospitalization. The magnitude of the estimated cost highlights the urgent need for Morocco to implement comprehensive tobacco control measures to address these costs.

  38. Dr. Shivasubramaniyam, R., M.D., Dr. Barkha Gupta MSc, PhD , Dr. Vikram MBBS Tutor and Dr. Shiv Shankar M.D.

    The pandemic out break of noval corona virus disease (covid19) was initially noticed in a seafood market in wuhan city in china in mid December, 2019, has spreader to 215 countries world wide. 2020 january 7th and was temporally named 2019 n- co.v Corona virus belongs to a large family of virus that causes illness ranging from the common cold to more severe disease, A noval corona virus is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans on January 30th 2020 declared the noval corona virus out break of public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). At that time there was 98 cases and no death in 18 countries out side china. The official name covid-19 and SARS –COV2 was issued by the WHO on 11th February 2020 Viruses are named based on their genetic structure to facilitate the development of diagnostic test, Vaccine and medium. Virologist and the wider scientific committee do this work, so virus is are named by the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. A recent review of the survival of human corona virus on surface found large variability ranging from 2 hours to 9 days. The survival time depends on number of factors, including the type of surface, temperature, relative humidity and specific strain of viruses. March 11th 2020, the rapid increase in the number of cases out side china. 118000 cases had been reported in 114 countries and 4291 deaths had been reported. Middle of the march 2020 corona out break could be characterized by “Pandemic” reporting over 40108 globally confirmed cases. As of 28th April 2020, 63% of global mortality from the virus. The impact of the dieses on the world has been staggering both from public health and economic perspective. we evaluated whether prior or active corona virus infection influenced hematological, Biochemical and Clinical parameters of the such patients. But active corona fever resulted in higher hospitalization rate. Our data support the nation that SARS- COV-2 and co morbidity weather affects an important percentage of covid 19 pateints and leads to worse parameters, requiring greater attention from health authorities.

  39. Chinnadurai, V., Madhanraj, S. and Thayalan, S.

    In this article, we define the concept of complexintuitionistic fuzzy soft matrices (CIFSMs) and define some operations on these matrices. Also, we investigated some theoretical properties onCIFSMs. In final, we develop an algorithm for complexintuitionistic fuzzy soft matrices and apply it to a decision making problem using different types of T-norm operators.

  40. Manikandan, P. and Kalaiarasu, S.

    A study related to different formulations of vegetative cell of Pseudomonas fluorescence (Pseu-4) and Bacillus polymyxa (B.pol-15) together with challenge inoculation of pyricularia oryzae in the enhancement of IRS in Rice. Pyricularia oryzae disease patho systems was studied under pot culture with ADT-36. “It was observed that the application of (Pseu-4), (B.pol-15) as co-aggregates altered the biochemical and physiological parameters viz., reducing sugar and non-reducing sugars, Phenol content and defence mechanism by means of producing enzymes such as perocidase, polyphenol oxidase, (PPO) of rice plant to a significant level followed by co-inoculation and vegetative cell applications of PGPR”. When compare to that the co-aggregates of PGPR was found to augment all enzymes for the defence enzymes of rice plant, where as reduction and non-reducing sugar level also recorded, there by leads to reduction in Pyricularia oryzae incidence in rice grown of Tanjore regions of Tamil Nadu. EPS biosynthesis of PGPR cells during co-aggregation process might act as the defense mechanism of ISR, pathosystem, where as vegetative forms and co-inoculation processes does not produced of EPS and also responded poorly for the ISR pathosystem.

  41. Rohini P. and Jaya D.S.

    The Kollam coast in South India is a thickly populated area where the possibility of exploitation groundwater sources and contamination is high. The quality of groundwater is very important for various purposes. For the analysis of groundwater, fourteen dug wells in the seven coastal wards of Kollam Corporation were selected randomly and water samples were collected for the physico-chemical analysis. It was found that all physico-chemical parameters in the well water except total alkalinity, total hardness and, calcium are under permissible limits according to BIS (2012) drinking water quality. Based on the hardness values obtained, 42.9% of the wells are with moderately hard water and 35.7% of the wells in the coastal area are with hard water. Saltwater intrusion in groundwater sources was calculated using Base Exchange Index (BEX) and results show that 42% of wells are having saltwater intrusion. Irrigation suitability of the groundwater samples was measured by calculating magnesium hazard, sodium percent, and sodium adsorption ratio. Magnesium hazards of all well water are below 50%. Based on the sodium percent values obtained, 7% of the well water samples in the study area are under excellent class, 78% of the samples are under good class and 14% of the samples are under permissible class. The values of the Sodium adsorption ratio of all well water samples studied are under excellent class. It indicates that the groundwaters in the dug wells of the coastal area are suitable for irrigation purposes. The study shows that well water in the Kollam coastal area can be consumed after purification. Water purifiers with reverse a osmosis systems can be used to remove hardness and coliforms from the groundwater.

  42. Dr. Utkarsha Rajendra Shelke, Dr. Vijaykumar L Shiraguppi and Dr. Bharat Anantrao Deosarkar

    Dynamic as the name suggests is a real-time navigation digital imaging. The innovative concept of Dynamic Navigation has an honest approach to induce a safe and reliable outcome in Minimally Invasive Endodontic procedures. It integrates instrumentation and radiologic images with the help of an optical positioning device controlled by an infatuated computerized interface. These features aids in reducing the prospect of unintentional iatrogenic damage to anatomic structures. In endodontics, it is employed for localization of calcified canals and perform flapless surgery, allows conservative and more accurate access opening, minimally invasive bone trephination for apicoectomy surgery, resulting in reduced patient postoperative discomfort and improved healing. Treatment planning and surgeries may be performed in the same appointment, supported data from patient’s cone-beam computerized axial tomography. This technology can be the foundational pillar of endodontics. Relevant literature published between 2004 and 2021 were collected from Pub Med database, Google scholar, and hand-searched journals of Endodontics and prosthodontics, which helped in writing of this review.

  43. Karmal Vincent, Deepa Mathew, LuluNazar and Jisna Jose

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) affects 1% to 2% of primary arthroplasties and in 4% of revision arthroplasties.The frequency of PJI cases continues to climb in tandem with the increasing number of implantations. Complex treatment options, including numerous surgical modifications and long-term antibiotic treatment, arerequired to manage PJI. It’s crucial to have a correct diagnosis, which includes identifying the infecting microorganisms and their antibiotic susceptibility, before deciding on the best treatment method to get rid of the infection. When PJI is ignored or undertreated, it causes infection to persist and repeated surgical revisions, resulting in poor function or impairment and a significant reduction in quality of life. ¹ This review article provide an insight about the risk factors, diagnostic methods, treatment options for Periprosthetic infection.

  44. Jennifer Klein MD MPH and Sunil Gandhi MD

    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a small subset of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. It can only be differentiated from the other subtypes by exclusion of extracutaneous involvement and correlation of the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features. This case presentation describes a 76 year-old man with an abdominal mass larger than 5 centimeters that was found to be primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

  45. Cornelia Richardson-Boedler

    Arthropod-borne infectious viral diseases continue to plague mankind and are not causally treatable. The source of infection is often unknown, and the initial symptoms of patients may be vague, merely influenzalike, though progression to severe disease and, potentially, death may follow. This review selects and presents five such diseases, borne by mosquitoes: Dengue and yellow fever of the tropics and subtropics; West Nile virus disease, St. Louis encephalitis virus disease,and disease caused by encephalitic California serogroup viruses, which all three affect inhabitants of temperate zones (but not limited to). These currently relevant diseases are described regarding transmission highlights, viral reservoir animals and mosquito vectors, symptoms, and regions affected, aiming at raising the preventive and early clinical awareness.

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