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December 2021

  1. Sharon Praise A. Samuel and Dr. Sanjay Kumar

    It was undertaken to know the effect of e – commerce on offline vegetable retailers from the period of outcast of Covid-19 in Delhi. The study compares the costs and returns of retailers at various periods of Lockdown (Pre-Lockdown, Lockdown, Post Lockdown) along with the rising trends of E-greengroceries. The study has undertaken in Punjabi Bagh Block of West Delhi district. By this thesis we can understand, how Covid-19 has affected the local vegetable retailers, who got affected in all ways. Due to covid, then the customers, the digitalization etc. All these brought the local mandi retailer’s sales down. From various charts and figures we can observe the shift of people is more toward e-greengroceries rather local retail shopping. All these have affected the retailers. The risen shift of habit of buying vegetables online is mostly initiated from the age group between 20-30 age. E-greengroceries has affected some part of the retail market considering, sanitation, social distancing, offer prices all such trends and attracted the people over local purchases.

  2. Dr. Ajab Singh

    It has been made endeavors to explain the variation in exports via regression model in the present paper. These variations are explained by G.N.I. and N.N.I. in India from 2005-06 to 2019-20, using some statistical tools like Multiple Regression, R Squared, adjusted R Squared, Standard Error, ANOVA and t-test. In this paper, on account of empirical analysis the results found that the relationship between value of GNI and value of exports is positive. The greater the GNI, the higher the value of exports. The coefficient of 0.109320617 indicates, on average, an additional one crore increase in GNI the value of exports raised by Rs.0.1093 crore or Rs.10.93 Lakhs. Similarly, the relationship between value of NNI and value of exports is also positive. Similarly,larger the NNI, the higher the value of exports. The coefficient of 0.122317 indicates, on average, an additional one crore increase in NNI the value of exports rose by Rs. 0.122317 crore or Rs.12.23 Lakhs.

  3. Jemal ABAGISSA

    Informal settlement is usually referred to residential areas where a group of housing units have been constructed on land to which the occupants have no legal claim, or which they occupy illegally. The causes of such squatting activities are population growth, inefficient land provision, high cost of urban living standard, and illegal land grabbing by urban speculators. These settlements create challenges for planners and urban politicians. The relationship between informality and urban land use planning is complicated. On the one hand, informal spaces have been perceived as undesirable and illegal on the other hand, there has been attempts to improve and integrate such spaces. The study aims to examine the trends and challenges of informal settlements in Addis Ababa. The study is presented in a descriptive manner. The study is based on secondary data collected from different sources. The findings confirmed that the prevalence of informal settlement and land invasion scenarios in Addis Ababa. The primary causes range from increasing rural-urban migration coupled with a high rate of urbanization beyond the current capacity of the city administration to provide affordable housing;; shortage of land supply as compared to its demand; the prevalence of land speculators; inefficiency of the city administrations’ land administration and management are among others. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that there is a need to strengthen the institutional capacity of various institutions working on land management and its administration; taking strong measure to crackdown on already mushrooming illegal land sell and speculative network, and come up with innovative solutions (modality) for affordable housing scheme.

  4. Amelia Morgillo and Edoardo Marovino

    Objective: The purpose of this article is, starting from pharmacological aspects, to evaluate the central and peripheral neurotoxicity of some chemotherapy compounds and also some possible neuroprotection strategies. Methods: both personal knowledge of pharmacology and the use of both paper books and international website databases such as pubmed, scopus, google scholar, researchgate were used to develop the article, typing in keywords such as "chemotherapy neurotoxicity" or "neurotoxicity" associated with specific compound names. Results: Chemotherapy-induced neurological complications, while overall rare and non-fatal, can be disabling and even lead to serious difficulties in grasping and manipulating objects or the inability to perform the most common daily gestures. The duration of these symptoms, although usually regressing in part between one treatment cycle and the next, is cumulative and, sometimes, the limiting factor for the tolerability of the therapy itself. Due to neuropathy, therapy must necessarily be reshaped or even stopped. Conclusions: chemotherapy-induced iatrogenic neuropathies remain rare overall, around 10-15% of treated subjects, but can be disabling. Early treatment and neuroprotection strategies are essential, such as supplementation with antioxidant and lipophilic substances such as vitamin derivatives or the use of systems to better convey the drug in tumor tissues, reducing systemic exposure and their side effects.

  5. Rami Ghazi Ahmad, Amal Y. Alhazmi, Alaa A. Alesa and Aisha E. Yaghmour

    Background: Training physicians usually face a great amount of stress. Their jobs are demanding and have intense work requirements with a little rest. The aim of this study to investigate the prevalence, attitude, and coping strategies toward burnout among residents and fellows in different training programs in king Abdulaziz medical city in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 140 residents and fellows in different training programs in King Abdulaziz Medical Cityin Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used that includes questions about demographic data, psychiatric history, Risk factors of burnout. Maslach Burnout Inventory scale was used to assess the burnout level and a brief coping scale was used to measure different coping strategies. Questions about Da’em service, a program held by Saudi Commission for Health Specialties were included as well. Results: 62.1% of participants were males with age ranging from 25 to 28. The level of burnout according to the MBI scale showed emotional exhaustion was high in 48.6% of participants, 28.6% exhibited high depersonalization and 78.6% with low personal accomplishment. Religion was the most common approaching strategy while self-distraction was the most common avoidant strategy. Most of the Brief Coping domains were significantly correlated with the MBI scale. Da’em service was found to be helpful only in 19.5% of participants. Conclusion: Burnout prevalence was high among trainees. Despite having a well structured supporting program, most of the participants showed poor appreciation or understanding to the services provided.

  6. Dr. Rajesh Jambure, Dr. Pooja Muley and Dr. Naina Jambure

    Mucormycosis, caused by saprophytic fungi is a rare opportunistic fungal infection, which has a rapidly progressive and fulminant course with fatal outcome. The most common form of mucormycosis is rhino-cerebral and is usually seen in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus or in immunocompromised patients. Recently it has been linked with the COVID 19 infection and the rapidly rising cases are alarming. It’s the need of the hour to diagnose and treat the increasing cases urgently. This article deals with a clinical workflow for general dentists dealing with patients of mucormycosis. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the clinical presentation and pathogenesis of mucormycosis and to highlight the need for high degree of suspicion in its diagnosis and management.

  7. Dr. Sharad Sharma, Dr. Asheesh Sawhny, Dr. Saurabh Sharma and Dr. Neha Singh

    Purpose:-The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the efficacy of 20% and 50% concentration of magnesium sulfate and ketorolac in increasing the effectiveness of inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with symptoms of irreversible pulpitis. Materials and method :- Fifty-six subjects with symptoms of irreversible pulpitis in mandibular molars were included in the study. Heft-parker visual analog scale (HP-VAS) was used to evaluate the initial pain and pain during access cavity preparation. Fifty six patients were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=14). 1 hour before administration of conventional IAN block one group received 1 ml magnesium sulfate USP 20% and the other groups received 50% magnesium sulfate, ketorolac and distilled water (placebo) respectively. After IANB injection when the patient reported of lip numbness and showed two negative responses to the electric pulp tester endodontic access cavity preparation was started. The patient’s pain during access cavity preparation and initial instrumentation is evaluated by using HP-VAS. Result:- There was no statistical difference for the effect of gender, age and initial pain between the four groups. Anesthetic success for IAN block was more for ketorolac followed by 50% magnesium sulfate and 20% magnesium sulfate. Conclusion:- Ketorolac is more effective in increasing the efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block followed by 50% magnesium sulfate and 20% magnesium sulfate.

  8. Dr. Neha Singh, Dr. Richa Singh, Dr. Asheesh Sawhny and Dr. Sharad Sharma

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare between Calcium hydroxide, Propolis and Triple Antibiotic Paste as root canal medicaments in eradication of Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods: for this study, 45 extracted human teeth were used. After their decapitation, they were initially instrumented to reach 20 K-file, later they were separated into 3 sets according to the medicament used; Group 1: Triple antibiotic paste, Group 2: Propolis paste, Group 3: Calcium hydroxide paste (15 specimens in each group). After sterilization of all samples inoculation was performed with Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212) over a period of 21 days. Preparation of all samples was done using protaper files till F2 size, irrigation using sodium hypochlorite solution of 2.5% concentration and 17% EDTA, then intracanal medicaments were applied. First sample was collected after inoculation of bacteria into root canals. Second sample was collected after applicated medicament is rinsed. Muller Hilton Yeast agar was used for culturing of samples then went under incubation to count CFU’s. Results: There was a significant difference between different samples where (p ≤ 0.05) and there was a continuous decrease of (mean ±SD) value. Pairwise comparisons for all three medicaments showed all samples to be significantly different from each other. Conclusion: Antimicrobial activity of Propolis against E. faecalis was found to be greater than that of TAP and Calcium hydroxide.

  9. Lujain Nasserallah Gari and Fahad Saqib Lodhi

    Introduction: The timing has a critical role as an early diagnosis and proper management of foreign body aspiration can decrease the occurrence of complication and mortality. But prevention is the best way to protect the child from injuries and the awareness is the first important step in prevention. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge and behavior of mothers regarding FBA and the determinants of this knowledge in order to increase their awareness. Methods: This is a cross sectional study included mothers attending Al-Zaher primary healthcare center in Makkah. Inclusion criteria were mothers speak Arabic, mothers of children who don’t have a serious or sever disease. Exclusion criteria were mothers cannot give informed consent or illiterate mothers.A self-administered questionnaire, that designed in the Arabic language and contained 14 Questions, were distributed to a random sample of the mothers. The descriptive statistics were calculated for qualitative variables. The questionnaire contains16 questions about knowledge were summed into a total score that ranges from 0 to 16 and then dichotomized into poor and good knowledge. Results: A total of 281 mothers participated in the study. Among them 87% were Saudi and 13 % were non-Saudiand about a third of the mothers were employed, were included in the study. Around two thirds of the mothers had bachelor or higher level of education whilst only 9.6% had less than high school education.About 30% of the included mothers had poor knowledge about foreign body aspiration.Healthcare providers were considered as the best source of information about FBA by 78.6% while social media was preferred by 16.4% of the mothers.Saudi nationality, young age, high education, and having first aid training were significantly associated with good knowledge about FBA. Conclusion: Knowledge about foreign body aspiration among mothers in Makkah was inadequate as about a third lack the essential knowledge about the problem that could be lethal.After adjustment of the confounding effect, nationality, age, and previous first aid training was significantly associated with knowledge about FBA.

  10. Manal H. Alabdali and Hussein M. Borie

    Background: For the organization's success, it must work with employees who must behave faithfully and be committed to improving its performance. Justice is considered a sound investment in our organization, and no one can deny the fact that a just organization is where the employees are more engaged and productive. Aim: The study aimed to investigate the impacts of three dimensions of organizational justice (distributive, procedural , interactional) on healthcare workers’ performance. Method: To achieve the aim of this study, the researcher adopted a descriptive analysis cross-sectional design. The study population was the workers in King Abdullah Medical City (KAMC), in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. In 2021, The questionnaire was used to collect the needed data, and the response rate was 100%. Data were analyzed by using SPSS, and Three hypotheses were tested based on data collected. Result: Results of the Chi-square analysis demonstrated that a significant relationship was found between healthcare workers’ performance and the three dimensions of organizational justice (distributive justice, procedural justice, and Interactional justice) (P-value <0.05). Conclusion and recommendation: Organizational justice has an important influence on healthcare workers’ performance. The recommendations made from this study are the following: Decisions must be based on accurate information and participation of employees in decisions related to their work. Also, hospital managers should openly describe the fair procedures they are using and explain decisions with dignity and respect

  11. Maisaa Hamza Al-Sharif and Hussein Mohammed Borie

    Aim: This study aimed to assesspatient acceptance & trust for DTC telemedicine for outpatient services at King Abdullah Medical City, Makkah. Method: The researcher adopted the descriptive analysis cross-sectional design. The population of the study was the number of scheduled outpatients in King Abdullah Medical City- outpatient clinics, Makkah city, Saudi Arabia during 2021. To collect the needed data, the questionnaire is used as a tool for collecting data. The response rate was 100%. Data were analyzed by using SPSS. Two hypotheses were tested based on data collected. Result: The results of the Chi square analysis revealeda significant relation between telemedicine services and both patients trust and acceptance of direct to consumer telemedicine (P value <0.0001). Conclusion and recommendation: Telemedicine was proved to be a valuable addition to usual care. Patients were generally showed a great trust and acceptance in telemedicine service implemented. The recommendations made from this study are the following: • the healthcare organization should increase telemedicine services with taking care of quantity as well as quality. And focus on providing the healthcare workers with the appropriate information and training about telemedicine.

  12. Ms. Mary Catherin.D.E., Prof. Prabavathy, S. and Dr. Renuka.K.

    Background: Ageing of population is increasing dramatically around the world. Ageing is a gradual process of growing old and it is a global phenomenon. Ageing of people is highly affected due to downward trends in mortality and fertility. Homes for the aged are ideal for elderly who are alone and they face many health problems and loneliness. Stress and anxiety because of functional dependency is common among elderly people and many would need assistance in their activities of daily living. In senior citizens stress can lead to relief activities such as excessive drinking, drug use, overeating which in turn leads to risk for heart problems. Anxiety is usually common in older adults, affecting 10-20% of the older population and it is often undiagnosed. For a number of reasons elderly people with anxiety disorders often go untreated. Due to stress and anxiety the elderly may not have a good quality of sleep. Therefore Chamomile oil aromatherapy is given to elderly at old age home to reduce the levels of stress and anxiety and improve the quality of sleep. Objectives • To assess the level of Stress, Anxiety and Quality of Sleep among Elderly in selected old age home • To evaluate the effectiveness of Chamomile oil Stress, Anxiety and Quality of Sleep among Elderly • To associate the level of Stress, Anxiety and Quality of Sleep with selected socio demographic variables Materials and methods: Quasi-experimental research design with one group pre-test and post-test was adopted and 60 elderly people with moderate stress and anxiety and poor quality of sleep were selected by purposive sampling technique. The data was collected using Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and analyzed in terms of both descriptive and inferential statistics. Result and discussion: The study result show that the pretest mean values of stress, anxiety and quality of sleep were 23.27, 18.95 and 10.35 and standard deviation were 2.69, 2.47 and 1.7 respectively. The post-test mean values of stress, anxiety and quality of sleep were 7.13, 8.22 and 5.55 and standard deviation were 4.99, 3.42 and 0.75 respectively. The obtained p value of stress, anxiety and quality of sleep is highly statistically significant at p<0.0001 indicating differences in pretest and post-test values. Conclusion: Thus this study concludes that Chamomile oil is effective in reducing the stress and anxiety and also improving the quality of sleep among elderly living in old age home.

  13. Efstathios K. Metaxas, Ioannis Karampinis, Theodoros Mariolis-Sapsakos, Antonios Katsipoulakis and Nikolaos Anastasiou

    Background: Left thoracotomy and Belsey Mark 4 operation for diaphragmatic hernia repair considered another option for treatment. Aim of the study to present, strategy for treatment, operative technique and literature review. Methods: During a 20 year period a retrospective study took place. Seventeen(17) patients underwent left thoracotomy and Belsey Mark 4 operation for diaphragmatic hernia repair at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Oncological Hospital of Kifisia-Agioi Anargyroi, Athens Greece. Results: During the years 2001 to 2021, seventeen (17) patients 12 male 5 female underwent left thoracotomy and Belsey Mark 4 operation for diaphragmatic hernia repair, aged 33 to 76 years mean 55 years and hospital stay 4 to 7 days. All patients underwent preoperative gastro esophageal studies included ph studies, manometry and oesophagogastroscopy. The majority (70%) developed oesophagitis grade 3 -4. Also two of seventeen patients no significant oesophagitis diagnosed but reflux episodes reported. All these seventeen patients underwent left lateral thoracotomy, immobilization of oesophagus to aortic arch, hiatus mobilization fundoplication of oesophagus 2700 and Belsey Mark 4 procedure. No death or any other complication recorded. The hospital stay was 4 to 7 days. All patients underwent postoperative gastro esophageal studies included ph studies, manometry and oesophagogastroscopy. The majority of the patients had significant improvement. The follow up was from 1to 20 years mean 7 years. Only one male patient to seventeen did not attend. Conclusion: Left thoracotomy and Belsey Mark 4 operation for diaphragmatic hernia repair considered another option for treatment with lower complication rate. No thoracic pain has been recorded. Needs to be done by experience and well trained team.

  14. Dr. Santhya S.T., MBBS, MD, Dr. Ramya B,MBBS, MD and Dr. Bhaskaran K, MBBS, MD

    Background: The morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 positive cases has been associated with changes or fluctuations in inflammatory markers. However, the predictive power of each of these indicators in disease classification and prognosis remains largely unclear. Objectives: To validate the laboratory parameters at the time of admission in prognosis of the disease and also assess its relevance in short term mortality. Methods: We retrospectively collected information on the below parameters in 182 patients with COVID-19 classified them into survivors and non-survivors. Parameters such as Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio(NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Ferritin, D-Dimer, Liver function tests, COVID-19 RT-PCR Cycle Threshold (CT) score and Computed Tomography (CT) scan lung involvement were studied among both the group at the time of admission and its influence in mortality was studied. Results: NLR, CRP, D-Dimer and CT score were significantly raised in survivors compared to non-survivors. NLR was the most significant indicator and can be considered as an early warning signal to differentiate critically ill from moderate or mild illness. Conclusions: NLR at the time of admission can be used as a predictor for the assessment of severity of infection in remote areas.

  15. Saptarshi Mukherjee, Prem Kumar Singh and Sweta Chaudhary

    Objective: To study non-tolerance to spectacle prescriptions in a tertiary eye care hospital. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis in the healthcare services on clinical governance and on causes of adverse reactions. This study was an evaluation of non-tolerance cases in a large volume optometric practice. The main aim was to determine the most common reasons for a patient to return un-satisfied with their new spectacles. Methodology: The project was based at a busy community optometric practice in Dr Shroff's Charity Eye Hospital, Delhi., Prescription non-tolerance was defined as a patient who had collected spectacles from the optical, agreed to try them in their habitual environment, but had subsequently returned within 1 month because they were either having problems with, or were unable to wear, their new spectacles. If the non-tolerance persisted or the spectacle dispensing was felt to be correct, the patient was sent for a retest or non-tolerance examination with an optometrist. Where possible, this was arranged with the initial prescriber. Inclusion criteria: We were included those patients who were more than 18 years. The fitting of the frame, inappropriate type of lens (e.g. single vision bifocal or progressive addition lens), positioning of lens (e.g. bifocal at incorrect height) and wrong refraction were considered for study. Exclusion criteria: We were excluded those had pathological condition and developmental disabled. Result: A total of 5715 Spectacles dispensed during the 15 month study period. Of these, 47 were non tolerance examinations, which accounts for 0.82% with 95% CI LL 0.59% and with 95% CI UL 1.06% of eye examinations. Conclusion: In summary, non-tolerance examinations comprised a 0.7% of eye examinations. In a climate where clinical governance and auditing are increasingly important, an understanding of the norms for prescription non-tolerance can help optometrist to determine best practice.

  16. Ariane Marta de Lima Silva, Marianne Ramos Feijó, Mário Lázaro Camargo and Hugo Ferrari Cardoso

    The inclusion of people with disabilities (PwD) in work is encouraged by legislation, with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommending the provision of vocational guidance (VG) and training programs for them. The aim was to investigate the family perception and participation in the process of vocational choice and inclusion of PwD, through interviews and completion of a questionnaire with 19 family members of PwD referred for inclusion in a Vocational Education and Rehabilitation Program of a Specialized Rehabilitation Center. The qualitative data were evaluated through Content Analysis using the NVivo software. We concluded that the family members of the PwD knew the importance of work for the development, however, understood the difficulties that the PwD would encounter and their need for support in the process of vocational choice and inclusion.

  17. Dr. Umapathy Thimmegowda and Dr. Sanchitha Venkatahanumaiah

    Babies drool, old men dribble, and some individuals spit when they talk; the rest of us would rather not be reminded that saliva exists; practicing dentists consider it a nuisance that must be sponged, evacuated, or dammed. Saliva has shown remarkable potential as a diagnostic fluid over the years, as numerous illness biomarkers may also be identified in entire saliva, in addition to blood and other bodily fluids. Saliva has been examined intensively as a potential diagnostic tool over the last decade due to its easy and non-invasive accessibility, as well as its richness of indicators such as genetic material and proteins. In this review, we'll look at some of the new ways saliva can be used as a diagnostic tool in paediatric dentistry, spanning the "omic" spectrum.

  18. Dr. Sreelatha, M., J.V. SASI KUMARI. and Dr. Sudha Rani, P.

    A study to identify the contributing factors for living in selected geriatric homes by elderly at Tirupati. OBJECTIVES: To identify the contributing factors for living in Geriatric home by elderly. To find the association between contributing factors for living in Geriatric home by elderly with their selected socio demographic variables. METHODOLOGY: By using Non probability-Convenient Sampling Technique, Non experimental-Descriptive Research Design was adopted, 100 school teachers were taken for the study and data was collected by using a self structured questionnaire and analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULT: Pertaining to the level of contributing factors of elderly regarding selected geriatric homes. Out of 100 elderly majority 64 (64%) were female followed by 36 (36%) were males. Out of 100 samples, 23 (23%) were strongly disagreed, 37 (37%) were disagreed, 18 (18%) were neutral, 19 (19%) were agreed and only 3 (3%) were strongly agreed. CONCLUSION: In this study, contributing factors for living in geriatric homes by elderly, 50 (50%) were disagreed, 23 (23%) were strongly disagreed, 17 (17%) were agreed, 7 (7%) were strongly disagreed and 3 (3%) were neutral. The obtained mean value for contributing factors was 2.46 and standard deviation was 0.79.

  19. M.H. Béchir, Arafat O. B., A. Awat, M.I. Boukhari and Yaya D.D.1

    In this paper, our aim is to develop an electrical model of a two-layer inductor made of magnetic materials. The model developed must take into account the magnetic layers properties as a function of frequency. An electromagnetic simulation, by HFSS software, and an optimization calculation allow to develop an electric model for passive component such a planar inductor. In order to validate the developed model, a recalculation from extracted elements (resistances, capacitors and self-inductors) of the admittance parameters Y11 and Y12 is necessary. Then, a comparison between the recalculated admittances and those obtained by simulation must show a good agreement between these results.

  20. Avinash Pandey

    In this paper, the author has explained the definition of Bailment as defined under S. 148of Indian Contract act,1872. The author also explains various essentials necessary to form a contract of Bailment and important precedents surrounding including the four important precedents of Bailment, the authors also discuss the nature of bailment, the responsibilities of the Bailee as mentioned under The Indian Contracts Act, 1872 and also the rights that the bailee has under the Indian Contracts Act.”“The paper further explains the provisions of Section 151 and Section 152 of the Indian Contracts Act, 1872. As the paper proceeds it explains with reference to several case laws the obligations of bailee under the Indian Contracts Act as well as explains the identification of common carriers as well as Air and Sea Carriers, and if the carrier act as a bailee and is responsible for the lost goods.”

  21. Adolfo Eduardo Obaya Valdivia and Raul Javier Revilla Vazquez

    Polymer Chemistry is a subject in the Chemistry Programs, student have a natural curiosity about polymeric materials, that we use in our everyday activities. Our proposal is to apply cooperative learning in the Interfacial polymerization of Nylon 6,10 experimentation. The specific objectives of our project can be summarized as: To identify the origin of the raw materials used for industrial synthesis, to become acquainted with the most important processes used for the synthesis, To identify the most important variables related with the control of the polymerization process, To correlate the physical chemical properties with the final applications of this material. The reader will find in the text a series of questions that will make him reflect —so-called complementary activities— promoting the development of competences complementary ones based on research exercises. Through to synthesize unsupported membranes of Nylon 6,10 by unstirred interfacial step polymerization of hexamethylene diamine (HMDA) and sebacoyl chloride. To observe the quality of the nylon film produced as a function of the rate of removal and of the concentrations of diamine and diacid chloride in their respective phases. The reader will find in the text a series of questions that will make him reflect —so-called complementary activities— promoting the development of competences complementary ones based on research exercises

  22. Hakkou Soukaina, Sabir Mohamed and Machouri Nadia

    Moroccan truffles, relatively well known ecologically, their potential and spatial distribution at regional and national scales remain unknown. The aim of this study is to determine and define the geographical area of truffles in the north-eastern zone of the Kingdom in order to produce their distribution map and assess their productivity. The study area includes the Oriental High Plateaus and pastoral plains, High Moulouya and part of Tafilalet. The methodology was based on a documentary analysis, field surveys, interviews and workshops with the various stakeholders. The maps were produced by a GIS and verified in the field. The region is characterized by 5 species of truffles: Tirmania nivea, T. pinoyi, Terfezia boudieri, T. claveryi and Picoa juniperi. They are associated with host plants of the genus Helianthemum on sandy soils. Their distribution concerns almost the entire region. The production of truffles is linked to several factors, including the development of host plants, the amount of rainfall and the type of soil. The highly productive sites are located in the north-eastern part with flat relief. This knowledge of truffles and their distribution is decisive for the use of this product in the sustainable development of the country.

  23. MAHAMAT NOUR Abdallah, DJONMBE Hounsala, SIDDIG Ahmed Abbas Adam and LOUKMAN Bichara

    The management of flooding in the city of N'Djamena in general and that of the 7thdistrict, using GIS software and remote sensing, requires a multi-criteria analysis based on four main factors which are rainfall (rainwater), soil permeability (pedology), relief (topography), slope and land use. The study carried out on these factors shows that flooding in the 7th arrondissement is exclusively of a pluvial nature with an annual rainfall total reaching 200 to 300 mm. The topography factor is unevenly distributed and therefore the altitudes oscillate from 295 to 304 m with an average of 294 m. The slope is weak and is in the order of 0.10 to 2.02% with an average of 1.6% and is oriented towards the north-west instead of the south of the commune to flow into the Chari River. The results observed according to the altitudes of the 7th arrondissement reveal that the bank of the Chari River is higher than the interior of the commune. The other determining factor that causes flooding in the commune is land use with a high level of urbanization that has increased from 13% (926.45 ha) to 77.5% (5471.61) in 2020, i.e., an increase of 64.5%. The exponential growth of the population and the anarchic urbanization leads to the occupation of lowlands and water runoff paths. The pedological factor is to be pointed out because the commune is built on a soil constituted of hydromorphic soils (clay-sandstone and black clay), which have a low permeability that does not favor the infiltration of water towards the water table and generates flooding.

  24. Anatolii Pavlenko

    The article is The article is devoted to the proof the existence of a special type consciousness in elementary particles based on the ideas of Nikola Tesla. This was done on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of phenomena in which the consciousness of elementary particles plays a decisive role. Our current strategy depends on how clearly we represent the interaction of elementary particles that have their own consciousness. All this can possibly make sense within the framework of some more fundamental picture of physical reality.

  25. Rajalakshmi, G.S.

    Human resource is the important fragment of a business that is commended with finding, screening, recruiting, staffing and training job applicants as well as administering employee benefit program. Employee satisfaction is of utmost importance for employees to remain happy and also deliver their level best. Satisfied employees are the ones who are extremely loyal towards their organisation and wedged to it even in their worst scenario. The employees those who are not satisfied in their work place just quit and will look out for better opportunities which negatively affect the performance of the organisation. The objective of this study is to find out the reasons for employee turnover and the effect of the employee turnover on the organisation.

  26. Divya Singh, Pallavi Anand, Manivi Malik and Vinod Sachdev

    Aim: Nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation offers the clinician a more predictable clinical outcome. The aim of the study was to find the opinion, attitude, beliefs, and existing knowledge of parents about nitrous oxide inhalation sedation. Methods: 50 parents aged 20 to 60 years accompanying a single child aged five to nine years were included in the study. Both parents and children were shown a video in separate rooms regarding nitrous oxide sedation as a pharmacological aid in regular dental treatment. A pretested questionnaire consisting of 21 questions with multiple choice type responses was asked to fill by all participants after the video presentation. Results: Completed questionnaires were statistically analysed using chi square test (P<0.05). A significant declining trend in parental acceptance was noticed with increasing age of parents (P= .001). Parental education also showed a significant association with their acceptance of this sedation technique (P = .024). 93.3% of children liked the content of the video and, would like to get their treatment done in the same way. Conclusion: Education played a role in existing knowledge about sedation and perception about the safety of nitrous oxide sedation. Parents feel sedation is safe in the dental office.

  27. Rajkumar T. Pawar

    The present communication deals with the histochemical studies on the distribution of Glycogen, Protein and Lipid in cestode Gangesia Gangesia) ramkai. The worms were collected from freshwater catfish Wallago attu Bleeker) and observed that histochemically distributed amount of glycogen, protein and lipid is large in parenchyma, reproductive organs, vitelline follicles and longitudinal muscle of tegument, but the concentration differs with the different regions of proglottids. From the observation it is clear that the worm could to acquire the glycogen, protein and lipid from the host.

  28. Agastra Arlinda, Najada Kadiasi and Ibraliu Alban

    Common Juniper (Juniperus communis L.) is a coniferous scrub belonging to the Cupressaceae family and it is widely spread throughout the territory of Albania, exportation of berries plays an important role on the economic aspect of the population especially the North part of Albania. Environmental factors and soil composition elements have a significant influence in essential oils content. Five native populations of Juniperus communis L. growing wild are taken in consideration divided in main regions at North of Albania. The Juniper berries are collected manually for two years (2017-2018). Hydro distillationis held on dried berries in a Clevenger apparatusfor 4 h at a distillation rate of 3 mL.min−1.Essential oils content varied at a range of 1.6-2.6 % on the first year based on the dry weight (v/w) and during the second year the essential oils content varied at a range 1.4-2.6%. After EO analysis eleven main elements belonging mainly to monoterpenes class (α-pinene, myrcene, β-pinene, sabinene, limonene, terpinene-4-ol,germacrene D) are identified. The dominant component was α-pinene belonging to monoterpenes. Results assumed that in populations of Juniperus communis L. growing on five sites in North part of Albania, composition of EO was a significantly correlated with soil composition elements, concluding that soil types and composition had affected on chemical constitutions of essential oil in the investigated populations.

  29. Gaurav Singh, Dr. Mohd.Washid Khan, Chandan Singh Ahirwar, Vandana Gupta and Kirti Soni

    Topical delivery is an interesting option because it is convenient and safe. This offers several potential advantages over conventional routes like avoidance of first-pass metabolism, predictable, minimizing undesirable side effects and most importantly, it provides patient compliance as the drug delivery is painless. Eucalyptol is a hydrophobic, anti-inflammatory drug with a shorter biological half-life. In this context, the jellified emulsion was formulated using Na CMC as a polymer, liquid paraffin as oil phase, emulsifying agents like span 80 and tween 80, oleic acid, and clove oil as permeation enhancers. Studies were carried out with the aim to develop Organogel with the different gelling agents for topical application and evaluation of these formulations.

  30. Solomon James Mangalaraj and Nalini Jeyavantha Santha

    Hypertension (HTN) remains a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases globally and it contributes significantly to cardiovascular and renal diseases. It can be controlled by lifestyle modifications, however in poor communities there is lack of awareness, and treatment and control of hypertension is often poor. Despite considerable improvement in increasing awareness, treatment, and control of HTN, undiagnosed and uncontrolled HTN remains a major public health challenge. The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies on knowledge of life style modifications in hypertensive patients. Objectives of the study: 1.To assess the knowledge on lifestyle modifications in hypertensive patients. 2.To find out the effectiveness of intervention strategies on knowledge of life style modifications in hypertensive patients. 3.To find out the association between knowledge and selected demographic variables in hypertensive patients. Methods: A quantitative research approach with quasi experimental nonequivalent pretest posttest control group design was used for the study. 240 subjects with grade I hypertensive patients were selected by convenience sampling method. The tools prepared by the investigator were structured interview schedule on life style and structured interview schedule on knowledge. Results: In the experimental group, 10% had healthy lifestyle in post test-I, 22.5% had healthy lifestyle in post test-II, 48.3% had healthy lifestyle in post test-III. In the control group only 2.5% had healthy lifestyle. In the post test 62.5% and 0.8% had adequate knowledge level in the experimental and control group. The mean pretest knowledge level (9.64) is lesser than the mean post test knowledge (23.86) level in the experimental group. Conclusion: Increasing patients’ awareness and intervention on medication adherence, low salt diet consumption, physical activity, weight management, cigarette smoking cessation, and alcohol consumption reduction are the most important roles of a nurse.

  31. Bolou Gbouhoury Eric-Kévin, Kablan Ahmont Landry Claude, Touré Abdoulaye, Blondé blé Ange Patrick, N'Guessan Constance Désirée Ruth and Djaman Allico Joseph

    Background: In underdeveloped countries, the emergence of microbial diseases is amplified by drug resistance, hence the perpetual search for alternative solutions to fight infectious diseases. Bryophyllum pinnatum and Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae), are two plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various skin diseases in infants. The objective of this work is to study the aqueous extracts of fresh leaves of these two plants to know their composition in secondary metabolites and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potentialities. Methods: Phytochemical analysis was performed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) while 2, 2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the studied extracts. Antimicrobial activities were evaluated by liquid and solid medium dilution methods on Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum. Results: This study revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, sterols and terpenes, followed by a low antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of both plants. Antimicrobial tests showed that both extracts were active on S. aureus. However, B. pinnatum was twice as active as K. crenata. On T rubrum, both extracts are not active because they did not show any inhibition of the germ. Conclusion: This study reveals the presence of natural substances with antimicrobial properties in the plants studied. It justifies the use of both plants in the treatment of Staphylococcal skin infections in infants.

  32. Sudhir Kumar, Neerja Singh and Manjula K Saxena

    An experiment was set up to determine the allelopathic impact of Bt cotton and Non Bt cotton on the growth ofgram seedlings in Petri plates. The aqueous leachate of dry powder of Bt and NBt cotton leaves of different concentrations (w/v) was examined for their allelopathic effect. The experiment was further repeated in plastic disposable pots to confirm the results. The observations revealed that Bt cotton leachate inhibited the germination, and growth of seedlings of gram significantly at P<0.01. This is the first report on toxic effect of Bt and NBt cotton on growth of crop seedlings.

  33. Giulio Tarro, MD, PhD and Mauro Luisetto Pharmd/ Phd

    An electrical charges status has been found in Coronavirus COVID-19 surface. As a result of this research it is possible to look for viral surface properties that may indicate with their electrical feature the possibility to be considered in the prevention as well in the therapy of patients. Vaccine designed strategy has benn already suggested for the ralationship with procoagulated effect due to the spike SARS-CoV-2 protein. Of course other approaches are being valuted as the antiviral activity of cellular glutathione.

  34. Nissy P Jacob and Dr. Krishna Ravi

    Aromatherapy has been used for thousands of years, but it has only recently gained popularity. Aromatherapy has been widely used for dementia but it is also found effective in treating various conditions like, mood disorders, menstrual issues, alopecia and pain. For therapeutic purposes, aromatherapy employs essential oils extracted from plants. The current review discussed the connection between dementia and Alzheimer's disease and also between the olfactory sense and dementia. This review also gives an insight into the mechanism and adverse effects of aromatherapy. Further information has been provided about the common plant essential oils which belongs to different family and it's medicinal use. Even though aromatherapy is considered a promising alternative for many pharmacological medicines, more specific research is needed to understand the pharmacological mechanisms underlying aromatherapy before it can be widely used.

  35. COULIBALY Okayo Alphonsine

    Les pays en développement en général et l’Afrique en particulier sont confrontés à une imperfection voire une absence du marché du crédit. Face à cette situation, les prêts en groupe se développent de plus en plus pour pallier les coûts de transaction élevés qui empêchent une bonne identification de la solvabilité et de la bonne foi des prêteurs. C’est dans ce contexte que s’inscrit la stratégie de réponse de l’ONG IRC à la vulnérabilité des populations dans l’ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire. Cette stratégie enregistre de forts taux de remboursement de 100% des prêts accordés auxassociations villageoises d’épargne et de crédit (AVEC) institués par l’ONG. Il se pose alors la question de savoir : « Quels sont les facteurs explicatifs du remboursement de ces prêts ?». Cet article analyse les déterminants de la performance de remboursement des prêts en groupe dans le mécanisme des AVEC. Pour atteindre cet objectif, nous procédons à une enquête de terrain sur 294 membres des AVEC à partir de la méthode d’échantillonnage volontaire.Les résultats statistiques et le modèle Logit sont utilisés pour analyser les données. Les résultats économétriques obtenus à l’aide du modèle de régression multiple montrent que la surveillance mutuelle, la pression des pairs, les statuts et règlements, la durée deremboursement, les taux d’intérêt, la solidarité, les pré-prêt, l’implication personnelle, le mythe du chef et le sexe favorisent le remboursement des prêts en groupe. Les effets marginaux indiquent que la probabilité que les prêts en groupe soient remboursés est de 96,10% lorsque l’individu est une femme. Le mécanisme de prepret, la solidarité, la durée de remboursement et la surveillance mutuelle augmentent la probabilité de remboursement de respectivement 77,2%, 63%, 53,2% et 50%. Les prêts en groupe constituent donc le canal par lequel l’inclusion financière des populations vulnérables en Côte d’Ivoire peut se faire. Pour atteindre ces objectifs de réduction de la pauvreté, la politique de microfinance devrait être plus orientée vers les prêts en groupe.

  36. Dr. Anjali Chaudhary , Dr. Umesh Varma, Dr. Shubhra Jaiswal, Dr. Praveen Upadhyay, Aditya Varma and Dr. Kanika Gupta

    PURPOSE: The study is aimed to analyse the effect of different pre-treatments on the IVF outcome of expected poor ovarian responders patients according to POSEIDON criteria. Method: Retrospective analysis of 364 cycles of expected POR patients who had IVF-ET from jan18 to jan20. Pre-treatment was given prior to gonadotrophins stimulation. The cycle were divided into OCP group A (N=167), estradiol valerate group B (N=56), no pre-treatment group C, (N= 141). Result: Demographic profile and controlled ovarian stimulation were nearly same for all POR patients where antagonist protocol was used with recombinant HCG for trigger and progesterone supplement in luteal phase. The Implantation rate was higher in Group A (26.2%) and in Group B (26.8%) as compared in Group C 14.5% (p 0.001).The clinical pregnancy was higher in Group A 36.1% and in Group B 42% as compared to Group C 21.2% (p 0.001). The abortion rate was lowest in Group A 11.4% as compared to 28.6% in Group B and 35.5% in Group C. Although biochemical pregnancy rate was lowest in Group B 19.6% as compared to Group A 31.1% and in Group C 34.0%. Conclusion: Pre-treatment prior to GnRh antagonist regimen in expected POR patient with OCP or estradiol valerate in luteal phase can improve clinical pregnancy outcome of POR patients. Estradiol valerate seems to be more effective than OCP. Although it may be associated with longer stimulation and higher gonadotropin consumption.

  37. Xueting Li

    Coronavirus (COVID-19) has caused more than millions of death globally. All sorts of media are of significant concern about current news, perceptions, and opinions on the pandemic. It is found that Chinese news reports focused on describing the Chinese government's attitude and measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the wording was objective and neutral. However, the American media adopts language strategies, and the low modality value in the report content is used more frequently, with uncertainty. Part of the word selection is non-neutral. The different social cultures of China and the United States, China's rising international status, and the U.S. election are all crucial factors affecting news discourse on the outbreak. Based on a self-built small corpus, this paper combines the two dimensions of the vocabulary classification system and the systemic functional grammar modal system to compare and analyze the Chinese and American mainstream media reports on the COVID-19 pandemic. The article explores news discourse and the ideological differences behind it and examines the reasons behind it.

  38. Anjali Yadav, Ajay Vir Singh, Shweta Kushwah, Rajbala Yadav, Davuluri Kushma Sai, Rakesh Kumar Sharma and Devendra Singh Chauhan

    Drinking water has been identified as an important source of various infectious diseases including opportunistic infections caused by Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) in humans. In this study the occurrence of mycobacterium species were examined in drinking water samples (n=198) collected from reverse osmosis water and tap water systems of hospital and household settings in Agra region of Uttar Pradesh using Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture on Lowenstein–Jensen medium method. Acid-fast isolates were identified by PCR amplification and analysis of restriction endonuclease digestion fragments of the heat-shock protein 65 (hsp65) gene. Of the 198 drinking water samples, 22 (11.11%) samples were found positive for the presence of mycobacterium species. The presence of mycobacterium species was found higher in tap water (17.07%) as compare to reverse osmosis water (6.89%) systems and the difference was statically significant (χ2: 5.548, p-value: 0.018). The result of hsp65PCR revealed the presence of seventeen mycobacterium species predominated by M.chelonae, M.flavescenes and M. intracellulare in drinking water. Present study reported the occurrence, distribution and diversity of mycobacterium species in drinking water systems in Agra region of Uttar Pradesh and highlights the need of health policies aimed at mitigating the risk of NTM exposure through drinking water in India.

  39. Dr. Saba Mansoor Qadhi

    Background: In higher education, the trainer required some essential competencies. The term competence is understood as skills, knowledge, and characteristics that enable tasks to be carried out effectively and objectives to be accomplished effectively in a given role in the context of the organization's strategic goals. The study's primary purpose is to understand the ongoing educational reforms aiming to facilitate student competencies demands clarification, development, and evaluation of what competencies are required for teachers, university instructors, and trainers. Methods: The present study was carried out as a systematic review and meta-analysis. This review adhered to guidelines set by the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and meta-analysis. We systematically searched Google Scholar, ERIC (education), Scopus, ProQuest, EBSCO HOST, Sociological Abstracts (sociology), and Psych INFO (psychology) with the appropriate key terms databases to identify eligible articles on trainer competencies in HEI with the appropriate key terms. Heterogeneity in effect sizes was assessed for the single-level analyses using Cochrane's Q for significance testing and I2 to indicate the level of heterogeneity in interpretable form. Results: In an initial literature search, a total of 1282 articles were found on the trainer competencies in HEI.Fifty-three studies with measurable skills were finally included for meta-analyses. A total of 23 outcome measures were included in the current review. Many studies reported that the communication skills that developed Teacher competency were 14.63% (95% CI 8.92%-22.10%) followed by interdisciplinary/ collaboration work, which created teacher competency 16.86% (95% CI 10.08% - 24.96%). Conclusion: A teaching competency framework that can be used as a starting point for teacher assessment in higher education has been developed and validated. In contemporary society, the career of an academic trainer is special in both place and role. In addition, there is an association among learning materials, teachers, and students in the educational process, so it is essential to train teachers for the career, which should concentrate on equipping them with relevant skills and competencies.

  40. Mohammad Jahedul Islam, Abdullah Al-Mamun, Md. Arzo Mia and Farida Siddika

    Introduction: Early detection of health issues can prevent the development of diseases in human which plays an important role in betterment of life. Improvements of public’s health make the community health. Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria Mycobacterium Tuberculosis which spread the TB disease among the community through air. If tuberculosis is untreated, it can be fatal. Objectives: The aims and objectives of this study are assesses the knowledge of the TB disease among the respondents, to find out the socio demographic characteristics of the respondents, to find out the attitude related factors, to explore preventive measure and treatment realated variables on TB of the respondents and explore the association between socio-demoghraphic and awareness related factors among the respondents. Method: Data was collected from different community people of Chattogram City. All of the respondents participated in this study willingly. By interview method the data was collected. The data was analyzed by using Microsoft excel 2016. The association was analyzed by using chi-square test. Results: Total 161 respondents were assessed of tuberculosis from Chattogram city with the age of 20 years to 60 years. Among them, 69% is male and 31% is female. The patients were from different area. About 17% of them were from slum area, 45% were from rural area and 29% were urban area. In our study, about 90% of the patients had knowledge of TB and its related factors and 10% had no idea before about TB. About 30.40% respondents had no knowledge about the risk factor on TB and rest 69.60% had proper knowledge about it. In this study 74% respondents had knowledge on DOTS program and 65% of respondents visited DOTS. The sources of information of TB are TV, radio, newspaper, community health workers etc. Family income is associated with visiting health care center. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease, and it is airborne disease. Proper knowledge and awareness on TB can protect the community from this life threatening disease.

  41. Amany M. Abou El-Soud, Mohamed M. Mortada and Doaa S. Atta

    Background: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are chronic autoimmune connective tissue disorder which involve dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM). Objectives: To study abnormal changes in affected muscles in dermatomyositis and polymyositis patients. Methods: The study sample comprised 27 patients (9 males, 18 females) ages 8–16 years who were diagnosed with PM or DM according to of Bohan and Peter criteria. In each case, age, sex, duration of the disease, clinical symptoms, cutaneous manifestations, clinical morphology, laboratory investigations, electromyographic findings, musculoskeletal ultrasound, histopathologic features in the skeletal muscle biopsy, treatment and response were recorded. Results: Musculoskeletal ultrasound and Doppler showed that 21 patients (77.8%) had hyperechoic muscle, fatty tissue infiltration, decrease of muscle thickness and hypervascular changes on power Doppler in active early disease and six patients (22.2%) showed decrease of muscle thickness only. Conclusion: Fat substitution and fibrosis can be developed in affected muscles, that is transformed into hyperechoic due to increased amount of muscle reflective surfaces. Alterations in muscle thickness throughout the affected muscles might also take place.

  42. Ismaël Ben OUATTARA, Assiè Aristide KOUAO, Koré Elysée GUEDE and Zéli Bruno DIGBEHI

    With a view to establishing a reliable palynostratigraphic scale of the Cenomanian and the Turonian in the eastern margin of the Ivory Coast basin, around 20 drill cuttings samples from the BENO-3X well were studied. The lithological study of these excavations revealed an alternation of gray marl with whitish laminations, massive gray clays to subfissile, friable sandstones with calcareous cement, fine to coarse sands, a small proportion of friable and sandy limestones. These cuttings have undergone a classical palynological treatment using strong acids (37% hydrochloric acid and 70% fluoridric acid) to make thin sections. The blend made up of palynomorphs; Classopollis classoides, Ephedripites barghoornii, Classopollis spp, Classopollis triangulatus, Classopollis jardinei, Ephedripites barghoornii, Pemphixipollenites inequiexinus, Tricolporopollenites sp S. 152, Cretaceisporites polygonalis, Cretaceisporien sp., made it possible to highlight the Frankish Cenomanian. This study also revealed the presence of Galeacornea clavis that Jardiné and Magloire (1965) could not find in the sediments of the Ivory Coast during the years 1965. As for the Turonian reworked following the great Turonian regression, it was brought to light thanks to the palynomorphs; Droseridites senonicus, Droseridites baculatus, Tricolporopollenites sp. SCI 141, Tricolpites giganteus, Tricolpites microstriatus sp. SCI 107, Tricolporopollenites sp. SCI 428, Tricolpites sp SCI 427, Tricolpites sp SCI 348-155, Tricolpites sp. SCI 13.

  43. Seema Tripathi and Srivastava, A. K.

    The radical copolymerization of methyl methacrylate with vinyl pyrrolidone in dioxan at 60 ± 0.1°C for 1 hr. in the presence of triphenylbismuthonium 1,2,3,4-tetraphenylcyclopentadienylide follows ideal kinetics and results in the formation of alternating copolymer. The activation energy is 51 kJ/mol. The FTIR spectrum of the copolymer(s) shows the bands at 1730 cm–1 and 1681 cm–1 for methoxy group and carbonyl group of methyl methacrylate and vinyl pyrrolidone, respectively. The 1H-NMR spectra of the copolymers show peaks in the range 3.70-375  due to methoxy protons of methyl methacrylate. The values of reactivity ratios calculated by Kelen-Tüdos method are r1(VP) = 0.0035 and r2(MMA) = 0.081. The ESR spectrum shows that the ylide dissociates to form a phenyl radical, which brings about the polymerization. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the copolymer determined by DSC, is 130°C.

  44. Yoshinori Nakai, Kyoko Bessho, Yuko Shono, Kaori Taoka and Yoshihide Nakai

    AIM: To compare the imo perimeter, a new portable head-mounted perimeter unit that enables both eyes to be examined quickly and simultaneously, with the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA) perimeter to investigate correlations and their diagnostic ability in glaucomatous eyes. METHODS: The performance of the equipment in 128 glaucomatous eyes and 40 normal eyes were tested. We investigated the correlations of mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, visual field index, and the sensitivity. RESULTS: Measurements of mean deviation (r=0.886, P<0.001), pattern standard deviation (r=0.814, P<0.001), and visual field index (r=0.871, P<0.001) in both perimeters were strongly and positively correlated. The sensitivities in the imo perimeter were 80.5% for mean deviation, 81.2% for pattern standard deviation, and 80.5% in visual field index; those in the HFA were 63.3% for mean deviation, 74.5% for pattern standard deviation, and 80.5% for visual field index. Both perimeters demonstrated high diagnostic ability. CONCLUSION: The parameters by the imo and HFA in glaucomatous eyes show strong positive correlations with favorable sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic ability. However, the difference between imo and HFA results increases with the increase in visual field disturbance.

  45. Chhaya Goyal and Dinesh Chandra Rai

    With ever expanding population, food safety and maintenance of its quality remains one of the biggest challenges for agriculture and food processing sector in the present time. Its high time to look for new antimicrobial agents and their implementation through better technologies to control microbial spoilage and foodborne diseases. Bio-protection of food products especially fermented ones, via lactic and propionic acid bacteria has gained much attention in the last few decades. Recent research has shown the anti-fungal potential of lactic acid bacteria, and propionibacteria for the protection of fermented dairy products such as yogurt, cheese and sour cream. In-situ antagonistic activity of these bioprotective cultures in food matrix itself has tremendous capacity for reducing the wastage of fermented dairy products. Deep and extensive studies have shown that metabolites of LAB and propionibacteria act in synergy to inhibit fungal contamination in fermented dairy products. However, availability of such cultures or their metabolites at commercial scale, play a critical role in their widespread use at different stages of food chain. In this review, recent literature on the potential of lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid bacteria as bioprotective culture, their mechanism of action has been summarized. Recent applications of bioprotective cultures in dairy products and constraints in this field, have also been discussed.

  46. Jayaraman, P., Vetrikkani, K., Selvakumar, A. and Nagarajan, R.

    In this paper,we study fermaten fuzzy soft topological structure on KU-algebra based on Senapati and yager,2019.A characterization theorem of the fermaten fuzzy soft strongly conneceted and c5 conneceted spaces is given. Also,we future study preimage,image induced of fermaten fuzzy topo- logical structure and it is homomorphism.

  47. Prof. Dudheshwar Mahto and Dr. Bakshi Om Prakash Sinha

    Frame of reference, would have to be formulated like: Only the water “rotates” with a certain angular velocity, its surface is a plane. The deviation from a plane increases with the deviation from this particular state of motion. The state of rest produces also a paraboloid. Again the rotation of the Pail is immaterial. Newton’s Pail experiment brings out very clearly what is meant by “suitable” Frame of reference. We can describe nature and we can formulate its law using whatever Frame of reference we choose.

  48. Haydeé Parra Acosta PhD, José López LoyaPhD, Andrei Alonso Ramos Sosa, Norma Pizarro Dra. C. Enf, Eliazar González Carrillo PhD, B. Leticia Moriel Corral, M.en Admón. Carmen O. Lara Pizarro, M. E.

    Determining the relationship between insomnia and developing mental symptoms is the objective of this study. Its method consisted of a cross-sectional design study, in which a survey of medical students belonging to the International Federation of Medical Student Associations of Mexico (IFMSA) was conducted. The instrument was validated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.92. The presence of symptoms related to insomnia, sleep quality and mental disorders were evaluated. Data analysis was carried out through descriptive and inferential statistics, with a power level of p 0.05. Out of 4,576 medical students, a sample was obtained by simple randomization with a total of 401 students (42.89% men, 57.11% women) who participated in 48 medical schools. The three most prevalent symptoms found in students were: 25.19% of major depressive disorder (MDD), 18.95% of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and 13.22% of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that symptoms of GAD and social phobia (SAD) presented the highest correlation with insomnia. MDD was associated with poor sleep quality (RN = 14.78 95% CI: 1.97-111.04). Therefore, medical students run the risk of incurring on mental disorders if there are disturbances in their sleep. In that case, pedagogical interventions will be required to treat this problem.

  49. Dr. Pranita Das

    Groundwater is one of the primary sources for drinking in Nalbari district of Assam, India. Nine water quality parameters have been considered as important indicators to evaluate water quality status in 09 tube well water samples located in the Pub Nalbari Block of Nalbari District. The parameters considered for evaluation are pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium , chloride and alkalinity. Groundwater was well within the permissible limit for the different water quality parameters. The model predicts status of groundwater quality along with measure of its sustainability. The ranking of the tube wells corresponding to drinking uses also provides clarity to the decision makers to formulate suitable policies for treatment processes and sustainable planning of groundwater resources in the region. The study reveals that the water quality is mainly influenced by natural weathering process.

  50. Dr. Narahari Venkata Susmitha, Dr Ravindra Shamrao Pawar, Dr. Priti Kamble, Dr. Y Ravi Kiran Kumar Reddy, Dr. Ramesh Nigade, Dr. Anil B Kurane and Dr. Rajashri Mane

    COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect billions of lives world over, and especially during the second wave, India was reeling under a double pandemic of COVID-19 and COVID associated mucormycosis (CAM), with thousands of cases reported daily. The cause of this deadly combination of COVID-19 and mucormycosis still remains elusive, though various theories have been put forth such as extensive use of steroids and immunosuppressants, premorbid conditions such as diabetes, immunosuppressive states such as malignancies, etc. Fortunately, symptomatic acute COVID-19 and its complications are strikingly less in children. We report a child presenting as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), was diagnosed to have type1 DM, was also SARS-CoV-2 RTPCR positive, and landed in worst possible complication of CAM, all within a span of 2 weeks; and was successfully treated for all of these ailments. So acute symptomatic COVID-19 infection, though rare in pediatric age group, can sometimes present as complications of undiagnosed comorbidities, and although challenging, successful management is rewarding.

  51. Victor Riberio de Sant’Ana, Vitória Junqueira Nelli Mota and Leonardo Marzola Hirata

    The objective of this work was to verify the relationship between the iron reserve in the form of ferritin and the amount of physical activity performed by patients with COPD. The study was carried out at the pneumology outpatient clinic of University Hospital Maria Aparecida Pedrossian and in it individuals with a diagnosis of COPD had the concentration of ferritin and blood ferric profile measured and correlated with the amount of physical activity verified through the short version of the International Activity Physics Questionnaire, converted to weekly energy expenditure in Kcal, using the AINSWORTH compendium. It was concluded that COPD patients with higher blood ferritin levels were able to perform more physical activity.

  52. Megha Rastogi, Pragyan Swagatika Panda, Swati Sharma, Nazia Khan and Man Mohan Mehndiratta

    Hand hygiene plays a very significant role in preventing health care associated infection (HCAI). Several outbreaks of HCAI are linked with contaminated hands of health care workers. Normal human skin harbours various bacteria which are both commensals as well as pathogenic. Through hand washing one can get rid of the microbial contamination as well as dirt and organic material present in hands.1 Though water is considered to be the universal solvent, it cannot remove the hydrophobic substances. Therefore, thorough hand washing with soaps or detergent and water is advised because soap or detergent dissolve hydrophobic substance such as fats and oils and facilitate their subsequent removal from hand.2 Careful hand drying after hand wash also plays a critical role in determining the amount of bacterial transfer associated with touch contact after hand washing.2Drying of hands is recommended using clean towel or air drier can also be used. Reusing and sharing of towels should be avoided as there is a risk of cross contamination.3 Alcohol based hand rubs was introduced to make hand hygiene more convenient as washing hands with soap and water is not feasible every time especially in emergency sections of the hospital. The antimicrobial property of alcohol results from their ability to denature proteins. Adverse reaction related to use of alcohol-based hand rub for hand hygiene include dryness of skin, allergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria syndrome.4 Although several studies have demonstrated the importance of hand hygiene in the prevention of HCAI, adherence to hand hygiene guidelines remains uniformly low amongst health care workers. However, education plays a critical role and represents one of the cornerstones for improvement of hand hygiene practices. In literature also it has been well illustrated that education plays a vital role in improving compliance of hand hygiene among health care workers. A successful educational program should be multifaceted as well as multidisciplinary to improve the knowledge of hand hygiene among health care workers.1,3 The present WHO guidelines are accompanied by educational material to convey the key recommendations and support training activities. Apart from educational programs, refresher sessions should also be organised frequently to update knowledge of hand hygiene among health care workers. Furthermore, every 15th October of each year is celebrated as Global Handwashing Day to remind us the significance of hand washing. On 5th May 2019 WHO has organised the annual global hand hygiene campaign.2 This study aimed to observe the hand hygiene compliance pattern amongst health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in North India, with an intention to generate an information that would provide the basis for health educational interventions and technical training of health workers that would significantly improve health worker’s compliance with hospital infection prevention standards.

  53. AyseKok Arslan I

    This study explores the evolution of global AI dynamics by discussing its role in government with a focus on aspects of development and governance of social and technological systems STS. This document reports three research questions, including the extent of the analysis: 1 theories regarding the concept of AI in the public sector; 2 expectations regarding the development of AI in the public sector; and, 3 the challenges and opportunities of AI in the public sector. This experimental study provides an experimental framework for a comprehensive approach to measuring the magnitude of AI policy that allows for the methods of evaluating different governance practices and policy priorities in different countries. The study sheds light onto areas of policy that have the potential to implement AI programs and strategies; administrative functions open to the acceptance of AI applications and strategies; and the challenges / risks that community managers may face in defining AI policies and projects in the public sector including how to deal with cyber-troops.

  54. Dr. Roshni Mary Prince, Dr. Suman Khangarot, MD, Dr. Qazi Faizanul Haque, Dr. Ashish Ranjan, Dr. Anu Suresh and Dr. Ramdhan Somani

    Background: India witnessed a disaster in the form of covid in 2020-21 crippling the healthcare system like never before. With multiple waves happening consecutively with unexpected death rates, hospitals couldn’t make arrangements for the overspill from the ICU under such short notice. Awake proning which is an accepted treatment modality for mechanically ventilated ARDS patients was adopted into the treatment protocol of most of the hospitals with the hypothesis that it would delay the escalation of respiratory support, ICU admissions ad intubation. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study and evaluated the effectiveness of awake proning in terms of improvement in oxygen saturations, incidence of ICU admissions and death rates in non-intubated patients managed in general covid care wards. Chi square test and paired t test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: All patients who could tolerate prone positioning for at least an hour had significant improvement in oxygen saturation with significant decrease in ICU admissions and death rates. The death rate among successfully proned patients were 6.4% in comparison to 66.6% in patients who couldn’t maintain prone. Best results were obtained in patients who tolerated prone positioning for more than 1 hour. Conclusions: Incorporating awake proning into the treatment protocol has significantly reduced the freight on Intensive care units by being able to manage notable number of patients in the general wards.

  55. Adaebsah Isaac

    The study assess educational qualification and entrepreneurshipof SMEs in the Sunyani Municipality. The study adopted theexplanatory survey based in the use of questionnaire as research instrument.The study was therefore quantitative. The study adopted the simple random sampling techniques to select respondents. In all, 150 SMEs were chosen for the study. Both descriptive and inferential data analysis were used. The study adopted the Chi-Square for the analysis of this study. The study concludes that there exist consequences of individual knowledge of entrepreneurship due to educational qualifications with those who attend tertiary institutions possessing entrepreneurial knowledge than those who could not. However, there was no significance difference of entrepreneurial intention and attitude due to educational qualification. The situation is not good considering the fact that those we expected to gain good entrepreneurial behavior through education rather lack the willingness and the attitude to embark on entrepreneurial activities. It was therefore not surprising that these entrepreneurs are not experiencing performance improvements in their various businesses. It is therefore recommended that the institutions such as the Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations, the Youth Employment Agency and other stakeholders institute various entrepreneurial trainings to help equip the youth and increase their entrepreneurial intention

  56. Palanikumar, M. and Chelvi Rameesh

    An experiment was laid out at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Madurai during 2019-21. The aim of this study is to induce off season flowering (Nov- Feb) in Jasminum sambac Ait. cv. Gundu malli through pruning, chemical manipulation and to find out the suitable chemical for induction of off season flowering in Jasminum sambac Ait. cv. Gundu malli. The following treatments were imposed. The main plot treatments viz., The Pruning was done during the month of August (M1), September (M2) and last week of November (control). The sub plot treatments viz., 0.6 g a.i /m2 of Paclobutrazol (S1), 150 ppm of Mepiquat chloride(S2), 1.0 % of Nitrobenzene(S3), 1.0% of Thio urea (S4) and 1000 ppm and 4% of Cycocel + Humic acid respectively (S4). It was laid out in split plot design with three replications and the results were statically analyzed. Morphological, physiological and yield parameters could be recorded during 2019-21. Among the different pruning and chemical treatments, Among the different pruning and chemical treatments, September pruning (M2) + Thio urea (1.0%) (S4) recorded maximum Plant height (59.50 cm), No. of productive shoots/plant ( 45.50 Nos.), Duration of flowering ( 110.50 Days), Chlorophyll “a” (0.58 mg g-1), Chlorophyll “b”content (0.48 mg g-1), Total phenol content (4.62 µg/g), Corolla tube length (1.21cm), Length of flower bud (2.51cm), Diameter of the flower bud (6.25 mm), Number of flower buds per cyme (8.30 Nos.), Number of cymes per plant (92.50 Nos.), Number of flower buds per plant (230.21 Nos.), Estimated flower yield/plant (55.15 g/plant), flower yield (0.82 kg/plot), estimated flower yield (0.39 t/ha) and shelf life (12.55 days). Whereas, Days taken to initiate flowering i.e. bud initiation (30.50 Days) and Days taken for peak flowering (88.50 Days) were recorded September pruning (M2) +Paclobutrazol (0.6 g a.i /m2)(S1) However, September pruning (M2) + Nitrobenzene (1.0 %) (S3) recorded maximum number of flower bud (8.30 nos.) and weight of hundred flower buds (24.54 g) during 2019-20. During 2020-21 Among the different pruning and chemical treatments, September pruning (M2) + Cycocel + Humic acid (S5) recorded maximum Plant height (46.50 cm), No. of productive shoots/plant ( 25.50 Nos.), Duration of flowering ( 69.50 Days), Chlorophyll “a” (0.59 mg g-1), Chlorophyll “b”content (0.46 mg g-1), Total phenol content (3.62 µg/g), Corolla tube length (1.17 cm), Length of flower bud (2.24 cm), Diameter of the flower bud (6.50 mm), Number of flower buds per cyme (8.50 Nos.), Number of cymes per plant (65.50 Nos.), Number of flower buds per plant (195.50 Nos.), flower yield /plant and flower yield per plot were recorded 0.76 kg 5.75 kg respectively.

  57. Dr. Suparna Sanyal Mukherjee M.Sc, M.Ed, Ph.D

    Physical circumference of our Planet Earth has its specific surroundings where Plant and Animal Kingdom are surviving. These are maintaining symbiotic relationship since time immemorial. Catering to the formation of an environment. Environment plays a vital role to protect life forms. Forest is the most essential environmental benefactor. A vast country like India with all kinds of geographical definitions within it, woodlands cover a substantial land area with its canopy development spreading on us. The climate change and natural phenomenon always create a dichotomy to protect life forms within the environment. Plant and Animal Kingdom are habituating in such natural orientation, where law of nature play its own role, naturally. There are various international attempts to achieve a global solution to climate change that there is little hope of preventing dangerous climate change unless nations take their equal and just obligations into account in setting national responses to climate change. In ratifying the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), nations agreed to adopt policies and measures based upon “equity” to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The Indian Forest Act 1927 and Forest Conservation Act 1980 have a specific jurisprudence of law for conservation of Forest and protection. Indian Forest Policies 1894, 1952, 1988 & 2018 have maintained environmental protection since its inception, still the quadra have not reached its target. Therefore, environmental protections along with its natural phenomenon’s are facing a tremendous tragic situation, while nature and natural creations of the environment is facing its challenge-able conditions. The Forests of all categories are maintaining two tiers canopy lairs to protect environment. Tree the first and shrubs the second canopy which protect environment continuously, while assistance for maintaining livelihood sustenance of the forest dwellers is the other phenomenon, for protection of life and environment, in sighted in the Jual Bhanga village of Jhargram District, West Bengal. The tribes Lodha and the Santal are the residing community with different socio-economic and socio-cultural nomenclature. The present investigation on Indian Boscage and its legal entity peers into the concerning subdue factor, needed delineation of the Environmental Protection rightfully. Forest Floor Management through three tier canopy development is a challengeable counteract, has been peered through community concerned of the village Jual Bhanga. The new method adds herbs at the lower rung of the canopy. The herbs, shrubs and trees are the three tiers Forest Canopy which protect environment, ensure forest floor management and enhance livelihood sustenance with ushering of a new era, though the covid -19 pandemic situation has enhanced and reduces carbon emission to some extent still for protection of rapid climate change and to propagate environmental challenge and its justness.

  58. Mehtab Ahmed, Zain ul Abdin, Siraj ul Haque, Aijaz ul haq and Muhammad Ashraf

    The purpose of this study is to explore the role of Technology Business Incubation centers for the development of socio-economic and establishing of SMEs, because this area is gaining recognition day by day. Plus, the aim is to use the role of Business Incubations for future research. This study is based on the application of Business Incubation centers on the establishment of Small and Medium Enterprises and economic development of any country. A comprehensive literature review and conducted case studies to discover the impact of Technology Business Incubation centers and to apply it for establishing SMEs and developing economy. The Result of the study showed that the main purpose of Business Incubation is to accelerate the growth and success of small and medium Enterprises (SMEs) by providing them physical space, mentoring and expertise to convert the ideas into Business and alter the innovation into Product. It founds that Incubation process is very crucial way to support SMEs resulting socio-economic development.

  59. Sarita Kumari

    Stress is starting from our mind. Stress is an innate reaction embedded from our life. Stress typically begins as pressure from ourselves or others and if we are unable to cope with pressure, feel stressed. The effects of stress will be different every individual. Stress happens when all need to adapt to new or challenging situations, and to manage daily issues. Almost one and all experiences stress periodically, and while a small amount of stress can motivate us, too much otherwise prolonged stress can be damaging to both our physical and mental health. Indeed, there are many things in life that can cause stress, including study, job (work), relationships, personal and professional life, family issues and financial problems. In this connection, therapy recommended for those struggling with stress is mindfulness. This means getting yoga, meditation, exercise, eating well (healthy diet and good nutrition), taking time to relax, positive thinking and positive way of life. Taking time to relax is key part of self care and essential for reducing stress. In fact, relaxation is an essential part of stress management. In this regard, counselling takes place when a counsellor sees a client in a private and confidential setting to explore a difficulty the client is having, distress they may be experiencing or perhaps their unhappiness with life, otherwise loss of a sense of direction and purpose. Acceptance and respect for the client are essentials for a counsellor and as the relationship develops, so too does trust between the counsellor and client. The counsellor may help the client to look at the options open to them.

  60. Dr. Vennela Penumur, Dr. Krishna Reddy, K.V., Dr. Rajiv and Dr. Rao, J.N.

    Background: Timely supply of drugs in time to the inpatients is a good indicator to determine the healthcare quality. The time between the doctor prescribing medicines and delivering the drugs to the concerned nursing unit is the turnaround time. The process of drugs being delivered from central stores to nursing units involves personnel from various departments who need coordination among them to deliver the medicines in time. Reduction in Turnaround time of medication will reduce morbidity and mortality and improve the healthcare quality. Aim: To compare the Turnaround time of medication to patients with online indenting of drugs. Methodology: It is a prospective comparative study between manual and online indenting of drugs. It was conducted for a period of 2 months in August and September 2021. Sample of 252 medical indents were studied. The data collection form was designed and validated based on the process of indenting of drugs from the wards and ICUs and the observations were noted down. The collected data was analyzed using MS Excel and SPSS Software. Results: Total number of medical indents studied was 252. The average Turnaround time observed in manual indenting of medicines from wards is 1hr 18 mins and from ICUs is 41mins. The average Turnaround time observed in Online indenting of medicines from wards is 51mins ( p value- 0.017) and ICUs is 34mins(P value-0.026). Conclusion: The online indentation of drugs reduces the cumbersome process of paperwork and saves a lot of time which reduces the morbidity, mortality and improves healthcare quality.

  61. Dr. Shakuntala Bethur Siddaiah and Dr. Divya Vijay Mehta

    Dental caries is a pathological process of localized destruction of tooth tissue by micro-organisms. The disease is initiated via, demineralization of tooth hard tissue by organic acids produced from fermentable carbohydrates by dental plaque and cariogenic bacteria. One of the most important concepts in the field of saving tooth structure is remineralization. Fluoride ions can drive the remineralization of previously demineralized enamel in the presence of salivary or plaque calcium, phosphate ions. Thus, this review aims with the non-invasive treatment of early carious lesions by potential remineralizing agents that has been a major advance in the clinical management of the disease.

  62. Xiaowei Yuan and Ibrohim Usarov

    Nowadays, with the rapid development of international events, major sports events held in China are also increasing day by day. With the booming growth of sports industry in China, the current sports translators is far from meeting the need of the accelerated development of the sports industry, nor can it satisfy the need of the sports industry market. This thesis investigated the present situation of translation talents for sports events, analyzed the reasons for the shortage of translation talents, and put forward the countermeasures to expand the relevant talents, in hope of providing a new perspective for the cultivation of translation talents for international sports events.

  63. Dr. Ravindra Pratap Patel

    Whistler-triggered VLF emission recorded at low latitude ground station Jammu (Geomagnetic Latitude = 220 26/ N, L = 1.17) are reported. The dynamic spectrums of whistler-triggered emissions based on spectral analysis have been carried out. The riser triggered from the bottom side of the whistler spectrum. According to Smirnova theory, the L – value of rising emissions have been computed. An attempt is made to explain the generation and propagation mechanism of these emissions.

  64. Mariana-Alis Neagoe

    Fatigability is an abnormal decrease in muscle strength with a negative impact on the patient's quality of life and socio-professional activity. Since it is a feature of modern society, the doctor must determine whether the patient's condition is the result of physical or intellectual exertion. The approach is complex and requires a multidisciplinary collaboration between the internist, psychologist, psychiatrist, neurologist, rheumatologist, endocrinologist and the infectious disease doctor. We present the case of a 22-year-old female patient who underwent multiple medical examinations for 6 months and whose main symptom was fatigability. The female patient went to the neurology practice where speech and swallowing disorders were found, palpebral ptosis with intermittent diplopia, accentuated by exertion. The female patient performed brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - within normal limits. Electromyography (EMG) - 10% decrease. Histopathological examination of the thymus revealed thymic tissue showing histopathological lesions of thymic lymphocytic hyperplasia. One month after the confirmation of the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis and after the histopathological test result, laparoscopic thymectomy was performed by a left transpleural approach with a favourable postoperative evolution. The patient was subsequently treated with Medrol and Mestinon. In the past, myasthenia gravis was associated with high mortality, and now the long-term prognosis has changed and life expectancy is approaching normal limits.

  65. Sanjesh V., Ansh Vikram Choudhary, Sree Yaswanth, K. and Dr. Abhishek Venkteshwar

    This study aims to explore the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on travel and Tourism industry. The beginning of Covid-19 in India had contrarily affected the travel and Tourism industry. The outbreak has led to serious changes in many businesses. COVID-19 pandemic had brought international travel to an abrupt halt andsignificantly impacted the tourism industry.Tourism-dependent countries will likely feel the negative impacts of the crisis for much longer than other economies, the tourism and travel sectors are disproportionately affected by the pandemic and will continue to struggle until people feel safe to travel again. The COVID-19 proves that pandemic outbreakshave a much larger destructive impact on the travel and tourism industry.Tourism receipts worldwide are not expected to recover to 2019 levels until 2023. In the first half of this year, tourist arrivals fell globally by more than 65 percent, with a near halt since April—compared with 8 percent during the global financial crisis and 17 percent amid the SARS epidemic of 2003, according to ongoing IMF research on tourism in a post-pandemic world.

  66. Amruta Patil-Joshi, B. E. Rangaswamy, Anjali-Apte-Deshpande

    The analysis of potable water quality is important to protect consumers from water-borne or water-based illnesses caused by pathogens like microorganisms, viruses, and protozoa. Rapid identification is critical to ensure water safety. Various detection and identification methods exist; but, they are laborious and time-consuming, so potability confirmation takes longer. This study aims to develop the specific and fast detection of water contamination. We worked on a minimum sample preparation process. In this study, we've got developed a straightforward Paper-based PCR technique. The 16s rDNA primers were used for the detection of microorganism contaminants. LacZ primers were used for coliform detection, which causes serious unhealthiness and hence their detection is crucial for water potability. ITS primers were used for fungal detection. The unique thing about this study is Whatman paper no-1 was used as sample carrier material. We developed and validated the unique paper-based PCR method to detect microbes and coliforms. We evaluated this method for suitability in water potability testing using different water samples.

  67. Mahmoud Al-Masaeed, Muhammad Alqudah, Irniza Binti Rasdi and Albara Alomari

    Aims and Objectives: The literature review aims at examining the most effective risk management strategies to handling nursing fatigue. As such, it seeks to determine the effective methods of managing work-related fatigue among nurses working in a hospital setting. Background: work-related fatigue among nurses has been implicated in decreased performance, concentration, alertness, memory, and decision making. Studies reported excessive workload, unfavourable shift work pattern, inadequate staffing and support from colleague and management as the factors promoting fatigue in nurses. Given different studies reported different contrasting findings about management of fatigue in nurses, an effective method of managing work-related fatigue in nurses need to be investigated. Methods: we conducted a literature search in October 2020 using PUBMED database and manual search from references to find studies related to effective management of work-related fatigue using keywords such Fatigue, Nurses, risk management, intervention, night shift, shift work, circadian rhythm and biological clock without restriction to date of publication. The review quality was checked through the PRISMA tool checklist for conformance with standard systematic review article guidelines. Results: our search yielded 452 articles out of which 16 met our inclusion criteria. we have found that napping for 30-40 minutes during night shift, 8 hours pattern of shift, adequate rest in between shifts, support from co-workers and family, and educational intervention on the fatigue, its effects and management were the effective strategies in managing work-related fatigue among nurse working in hospitals. Conclusion: this review identified napping, adequate spacing in between shift, family, and co-worker support, awareness about fatigue, its management and implications were the effective methods of managing fatigue among hospital nurses. Implementation of these strategies in our hospitals will go a long way in solving the problems related to work-related fatigue in nurses.

  68. Dr. Jyoti Singh and Dr. Parmila

    Philosophy according to Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya the primary concern in India should be to develop an indigenous development model that has human beings as its core focus.it is opposed to both western capital list Indidualism and Marxist socialism though welcoming to western science. Deendayalupadhyaya( 25 Sep 1916-11Feb 1968) was an Indian politician and thinker upadhyaya writing and speeches on the principals and policies of the B.J.P sangh his philosophy of integral.Upadhyaya devised the political philosophy in tune with the nature and tradition of B.J.P. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Thinking essentially fill the gaps in multi-dimensional attempts to visualize the future of India especially post independence.it is a genuine homegrown philosophy which can be guiding light to the indigenous problems and can be equally amendments. His integral humanism presents before us well organized by ancient knowledge traditions of our culture through rigorous dialogues. Discussions debate and discourse a fundamental thinking is developed with the contemporary relevance based on the tradition foundation.

  69. Dr. Sunaina

    A petition has been filed in the Supreme Court of India recently to implement a Uniform Judicial Code for High Courts across the country to adopt a uniform set of procedure, especially for virtual courts. Equality is the hallmark of any country recognising the rule of law. Judicial equality is one of the fundamental facets of the Constitution of India. In a multilingual nation like India how far uniform judicial code is justifiable and sustainable vis-a-vis the notion of equality under the Constitution of India needs contemplation. This article is an attempt to contemplate the concept of uniform judicial code through the prism of judicial equality.

  70. Gnamine Mguéta S. AGAREM, Boussanlègue TCHABLE and Kouamé NGUESSAN

    Ce travail vise à montrer la nécessité et l’intérêt d’introduire l’enseignement de la statistique comme discipline autonome ou à part entière dans les programmes de l’enseignement du secondaire au Togo. Pour ce faire, une analyse de la situation de l’enseignement de cette discipline au Togo à travers le contenu des programmes, dans leur globalité de l’enseignement de ladite matière a été effectuée. Ce qui a permis de proposer des programmes d’enseignement pour rendre ainsi la statistique plus autonome et non une matière souvent annexée aux programmes d’enseignement des mathématiques de l’enseignement du secondaire.





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