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Table of Contents: Volume 15; Issue 09; September 2023

Life Sciences

  1. Swamy, K.R.M.

    Kodo millet belongs to the Family: Poaceae, Subfamily: Panicoideae, Tribe: Paniceae, Genus: Paspalum and Species: Paspalum scrobiculatum L. Poaceae –The grass family is the fourth largest family of the flowering plants. It includes about 700-800 genera and 11000-13000 species distributed worldwide. Apart from a high degree of taxonomic diversity, the. family has unmatched ecological and economic diversity. Kodo millet is divided into three races (regularis, irregularis, and variabilis) based on panicle morphology. In southern India, there are small (karu varagu) and large seeded (peru varagu) varieties recognized, often grown together in the same field. Cytological studies have revealed the chromosome number as 2n =4x = 40. Kodo millet is indigenous to India, and it is believed to have been domesticated some 3000 years ago. It well adapted in the tropics and subtropics. Kodo millet is generally cultivated with its weedy species and no distinction is made between the species during harvest. It is also reported to be native to West Africa. It is grown as a minor crop in most of these regions, except in the Deccan Plateau of India, where it is grown as a major food source. It is a very hardy crop, drought tolerant, can survive in marginal soils where other crops cannot survive, and can provide 450-900 kg of grain per hectare. Vernacular names of Kodo millet is in Hindi - Kodon, Kodava; English - Kodo millet; Kannada - Araka,Haraka; Marathi - Kodra,Kodru; Tamil – Varagu; Malayalam – Varaku; Punjabi - Kodon,Kodra; Oriya – Kodua; Telugu – Arikelu; Gujarathi – Kodro; Bengali – Kodoaa dhaan ; ; Urdu – Kodon. The cultivation of kodo millets started in India about 3000 years ago. Apart from India, it is cultivated in Russia, China, Africa and Japan. In India, it is widely grown in Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat and Chhattisgarh. Among all millets available, it is well known for the highest drought resistance and produces high yield in a short duration thus is of great economic value. India is the world leader in the production of kodo millets, and thus its cultivation is of great economic significance. Kodo millets are cultivated in the kharif season (monsoon season) and Kodo millets are processed into high-value foods and drinks. Apart from economic and culinary benefits, kodo millets have numerous health benefits. Kodo millet also has considerable production potential in marginal, low fertility soils and chronic moisture deficient areas of the country and plays an important role for the food security of the people inhabiting dry and marginal lands. The seeds have an excellent storage life and can be stored for several years. Kodo is a popular fast or upvas food in some parts of India. The millet is certainly superior to rice, gluten free and rich in fiber, vitamins and minerals. It has large potential to provide nourishing food to subsistence farmers in Africa and elsewhere. It is eaten as a famine food in Africa. Kodo millet is ground into flour and used to make pudding in India. In Africa it is cooked like rice. It is economically important. Its uses include: human food (cereal), animal food (fodder, forage) and medicine. It is harvested as a wild cereal in West Africa and in India. Widely cultivated as a minor millet in Africa and Asia, especially India. Also used for forage and as a feed supplement. In India, it has been used as a substrate for mushroom production and for medicinal purposes. The plant is used to clear the corneal opacity, to treat stiffness of lower limb, polyuria, diabetes, obesity, epistaxis, wound, indigestion, excessive hunger, in diabetes, eye infections, dysuria, hydrocele. Typhoid and its leaf and root paste are used to relieve labour pain. The paste of the whole plant and grain flour is taken as anti-dysenteric and to cure the skin diseases. Tribal of southern Rajasthan in India boil the grains as rice and use in diabetes and dysentery. It is also used as delivery convalescence. Most interestingly, the Santal tribes use the grain to prepare a country liquor. In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Breeding, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Kodo Millet are discussed.

  2. Akalazu J.N.

    Weed is a terrible pest that has a negative impact on biodiversity and agricultural production, and the application of natural mycoherbicides represents one of the most innovative and promising strategies to suppress invasive weeds and improve crop productivity. During the 2020–2021 growing seasons, the efficacy of a Fusariumoxysporummycoherbicide against Mimosa diplotricha weed was examined in the field. The mycoherbicide application significantly (p 0.05) reduced Mimosa diplotricha percentage emergence, and infection rate, and increased garden egg yield. These results encourage the need to search for new mycoherbicides that replace synthetic herbicides and pesticides.

  3. Swamy, K.R.M.

    Foxtail millet or oodalu belongs to the Family Poaceae, Subfamily Panicoideae, Genus Echinochloa and Species Echinochloa frumentacea Link. Two barnyard millet species namely Echinochloa frumentacea and E. esculenta are under cultivation in the different parts of world. Echinochloa frumentacea (Indian barnyard millet, sawa millet, or billion dollar grass) is a species of Echinochloa. Both Echinochloa frumentacea and E. esculenta are called Japanese millet. This millet is widely grown as a cereal in India, Pakistan, and Nepal. Its wild ancestor is the tropical grass Echinochloa colona, but the exact date or region of domestication is uncertain. Echinochloa frumentacea is generally known by a few names like sanwa and jhangora (Hindi), shyama (Sanskrit), oodalu (Kannada), kuthiravaali (Tamil), kavadapullu (Malayalam), udalu and kodisama (Telugu), shamul (Marathi), sama (Gujarati), shamula (Bengali), kira (Oriya), bhagar or varai (Marathi & Chhattisgarh) and swank (Punjabi). Indian barnyard millet most probably originated from India where it has been domesticated from the wild E. colona. Wild E. colona originated from the tropics and subtropics of the Old World but can now be found in the tropics and subtropics all over the world and is very common in South-East Asia. Indian barnyard millet is known from ancient Egypt and East Africa but is at present widely grown as a cereal only in India, Kashmir and Sikkim. It has been introduced into the United States, Canada and Australia, especially as a forage. In continental South-East Asia, Indian barnyard millet is quite commonly cultivated but in Peninsular Malaysia it only occurs as a rare weed in cultivated fields. Japanese barnyard millet most probably originated from Japan where it was domesticated from the wild E. crus-galli some 4000 years ago, and was later introduced into Korea, China and adjacent Russia as a cultivated cereal. Wild E. crus-galli is native to temperate Europe and Asia but has spread to temperate and tropical areas all over the world; it is also very common in South-East Asia. Japanese barnyard millet is only extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea and northern China. Barnyard millet is an ancient millet crop grown in warm and temperate regions of the world and widely cultivated in Asia, particularly India, China, Japan, and Korea. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Bihar are among the Indian states where it is cultivated. Barnyard millet has a sweet, nutty flavour, and is easy to cook with different spices. Apart from being delicious, Barnyard millet benefits heart and kidney health. The presence of a high amount of fibre, iron, and phosphorus in Barnyard millet is helpful in controlling blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels. It has gained more popularity in the Sattvic movement to embrace native gains that are good for both humans and the environment. It is the fourth most produced minor millet, providing food security to many poor people across the world. Globally, India is the biggest producer of barnyard millet, both in terms of area (0.146 m ha-1) and production (0.147 mt) with average productivity of 1034 kg/ha during the last 3 years. Yields of Indian barnyard millet amount to 700-800 kg/ha of grain and 1000-1500 kg/ha of straw. It is believed that it can reach a grain yield of more than 2 t/ha. As a forage crop in the United States it can produce as many as eight crops per year. Average yield of Japanese barnyard millet is 1.65 t/ha. The milling process of Foxtail millet may include husking, debranning and grinding. The husked grains are polished. Polished grain may be ground to flour. The grain can also be cooked like rice or processed for flaking. In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Breeding, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Barnyard Millet are discussed.

  4. Mr. Om Prakash Shukla and Mr. Libin Babu

    Background: The majority of individuals view tobacco use as an adult issue. Most tobacco users start doing so before the age of 25. Use of tobacco negatively impacts oral health. This study aims to assess the current oral health status as well as their awareness of the detrimental consequences of tobacco usage on oral health. Objectives of the Study 1. To assess the oral health status of adults consuming tobacco using observational checklist. 2. To determine the knowledge on hazards of tobacco consumption on oral health. 3. To find an association between oral health status and knowledge on hazards of tobacco consumption on oral health. Research Methodology: A descriptive correlative approach was used. Study was conducted in Primary Health Centre, Gwalior, M.P. Total sample 100 tobacco-using people, including 50 smokers and 50 chewers were selected using purposive sampling technique. Data was collected using a structured interview schedule and observation checklist. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (unpaired t-test and chi-square test). Result: The findings revealed that there was no significance difference in knowledge scores between tobacco chewers and smokers (t 98= 0.7, p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between oral health status of the tobacco smokers and tobacco chewers (t 98 = 1.85, p >0.05). There was no correlation between knowledge on hazards of tobacco consumption on oral health and oral health status of the smokers. Chi square value showed significant association between occupation of tobacco smokers and oral health status (21 =9.09, p< 0.05). Interpretation and Conclusion: The study revealed that even though the adults had good knowledge on hazards of tobacco consumption on oral health they had poor oral health status. This confirms the necessity for undertaking educational programs to raise individuals' understanding of tobacco use and issues it causes in Youth.

  5. Kharode, B.G. and More, M. S.

    The Present workdivided in five part in first the coumarin was synthesise from resorcinol and ethyl acetoacetate in acidic medium. In second step coumarineacylated by reacting with chloroacetyl chloride, which on further react with hydrazine and finally the Schiff base of some aromaticaldehyde with amine containing coumarine moiety were synthesized. The physical measurement and structural elucidation by spectrum like FT-IRand 1H-NMR, used in this work.

  6. Dr. Marwa Ibrahim Abd Al-Janabi, Dr. Saad D. Oleiwi and Dr. Entisar D. Mustafa

    The study was conducted in the laboratories of the College of Agriculture, Department of Food Science, and included the production of cupcakes from oats with different types of sugar, with the aim of comparing the physical, chemical and rheological properties, the degree of turbidity, and the degree of gelation for the different treatments. Various samples were taken from the cupcakes produced from oats by replacing white sugar with brown sugar, dansin, and stevia sugar. The results of the physical characteristics showed a high moisture content in oat cupcakes with stevia added. And a reduction in cupcakes with added brown sugar. The percentage of fat also increased in cupcakes to which brown sugar was added, and decreased in cupcakes with white sugar. The highest ash value was found in white sugar cupcakes and the lowest in students. The highest value of carbohydrates was found in the brown sugar cupcakes. We also notice that the brown sugar cupcakes had superiority in turbidity and the lowest in the students’ cupcakes. As for the measurement of gelation, the standard treatment cupcakes surpassed them, and the lowest value of gelation was in the academics’ cupcakes and stevia sugar.

  7. Barrial-Lujan, A. I. and Rodríguez-Paucar, G. N

    Environmental valuation allows calculating the value provided to society by the ecosystem services of the environmental asset generated by a natural space. The objective of the study was to determine the total economic value of the ecosystem of the high Andean of the Chumbao River basins, Andahuaylas province, Perú. For this purpose, the methodology of Analytic Multicriteria Valuation Method, which combines two methods: AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and the method of updating rents; For data collection, a paired comparison questionnaire was used, in which 39 people with vast knowledge of the environmental asset in reference participated. In this way, the results are expressed that the total economic value associated with the ecosystem of the environmental assets of the high Andean basin of the Chumbao River the sum of $ 774,163,167.16 calculated with a relationship of random consistency acceptable, where the experts prioritized the value of direct use (42.43%), followed by value of indirect use (24.22%), In terms of option value and stock value are relatively similar that are below 13% and, finally, the legacy value was relegated (8.12%). Thus, quantifying and reporting the importance of environmental assets means providing a more effective tool for government management to achieve environmental conservation and sustainability goals.

Physical Sciences and Engineering

  1. Moirangthem Thoibi Devi

    Introduction: The use of tobacco is one of the main factors for several diseases which include cancer in various parts of the body. In India implementation of pictorial warning was enforced on May 31, 2009. India has been ranked fifth in the listing of countries that have implemented pictorial warning label on tobacco product. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), Government of India has notified new theme of health warning for all tobacco products for the period of 12 months, after which the second set of images will be used by 2018. Materials and Methods: A descriptive survey research study was conducted in urban and rural area of East Sikkim. The samples of the study were tobacco users.100 samples were selected using convenient sampling technique. Out of which 50 samples were taken from rural area and 50 from urban area of Gangtok, East Sikkim. Data was collected by administering self-report structured questionnaire on awareness and attitude towards pictorial warning label on tobacco product and the data obtained was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: Out of 100 samples, 50 samples belonging to urban area their demographic data findings shows that majority of the samples 50% (25) belonged to the age group of 21-30 years, 66% (33) were Muslim by religion, 64% (32) were male, 60% (30) of the sample were unmarried. Majority of the samples 84% (42) belonged to APL category, 40% (20) had secondary education qualification. Findings regarding awareness of samples residing in urban area shows that majority 86% (43) had high awareness (aware of pictorial warning label on tobacco product and harmful effects of tobacco use) and 14% (7) had moderate awareness. 44(88%) had favorable attitude regarding initiative taken by the government in implementing pictorial warning label on tobacco product to create awareness about harmful effects of tobacco use and 12%(6) had unfavorable attitude (pictorial warning label does not bring any thought of quitting tobacco use, consume tobacco even after seeing the picture, pictorial warning label on tobacco product has no meaning). Findings regarding the demographic data of rural area shows that majority of the samples belonging to the age group of 31-40 years were 28% (14), 48% (24) were Hindu by religion, 68% (34) were male, 37% (17) of the sample were married. Majority of the samples 54% (27) belong to BPL category, 26% (13) had secondary education qualification. Findings regarding awareness of samples residing in rural area shows that most of the sample 48% (24) had high awareness, 40% (20) had moderate awareness and 12% (6) had low awareness towards the pictorial warning label. Similarly, 80% (40) of the samples had favorable attitude regarding initiative taken by the government in implementing pictorial warning label on tobacco product to create awareness about harmful effects of tobacco use and 20% (10) had unfavorable attitude towards pictorial warning label on tobacco product. Conclusion: The present study revealed that majority of the samples had high awareness towards pictorial warning label on tobacco product and most of them believed that pictorial warning label on tobacco product create awareness about probable health hazards of tobacco use and that these health warning positively assists in reducing or quitting tobacco usage.

Health Sciences

  1. Jacinta, N. Akalazu

    Medicinal plants hold significant value for researchers engaged in the study of plant and animal disease management.The objective of the study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antifungal activities of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) leaf extracts on cucumber fruit rot fungal pathogens.Garcinia kola leaf methanol extract at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25mg/ml concentration was employed to assess the fungal inhibition, while the extract diluted with 1 mL of potato dextrose agar broth at 100, 50, 25, 20, 20, 15, 15, 10, and 5 mg/Ml, was utilised to assess thein-vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the compounds present in the G. kola leaves. The study found Botryodiploidiatheobromae, Fusariumoxysporium, and Aspergillus flavus in diseased cucumber fruits.As extract concentrations decreased, fungal mycelial growth inhibition decreased linearly. Synthetic fungicide, Mancozeb had the highest inhibition, having a specific inhibition value of23.0 mmon Aspergillus flavus, 26.23 on Fusariumoxysporium, and 26.70 on Botryodiploidiatheobromae, this was followed by 25mg/mlof the extract,having inhibition zone of 19.567 on Aspergillus flavus, 20.57 on Fusariumoxysporium, and19.01mmon Botryodiploidiatheobromae. Garcinia kola extract with lowest MIC was 100 mg/Ml, having a specific MIC value of 7.40 for Aspergillus flavus, 9.40 for Fusariumoxysporium, and 6.40 for Botryodiploidiatheobromae. However, 5 mg/mL of Garcinia kola extract had the highest MIC. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, revealed the presence of 30 bioactive compounds with a variety of pharmacological activities. The predominant compounds include 2,5-Methanofuro[3,2-b]pyridine, octahydro- (21.416%), 5-Amino-2-methoxy phenol (17.539%), 2,5-Methanofuro[3,2-b]pyridine, oc (17.465%), and 8-Azabicyclo[5.1.0]octane (22.035%). Hence, the inhibitory effects of bitter cola leaf on Cucumber fruit rot fungal pathogens may be attributed to the presence of these compounds, suggesting their potential as a viable substitute for synthetic fungicides.

  2. Syed Aaqib Abbass , Naseer Ahmad Khan , Muzafar Ahmed Chopan and Syed Najmu Saqib

    Splenunculus or splenunculi are congenital small asymptomatic benign nodules on spleen, present as splenic tissue mass but separate from the main spleen. They are formed as a result of failure of fusion of the primordial splenic buds in the dorsal mesogastrium during the 5th week of foetal life. Splenunculi are generally asymptomatic. Rarely they can be a cause of left upper abdominal pain. The study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of splenunculi in patients undergoing Computerised tomography of the abdomen in Kashmir division of Jammu and Kashmir. Methods: The study was carried in the Department of Radio-diagnosis and Imaging, GMC Srinagar of Kashmir. 178 patients in the age group 18-70 years (with a mean age of 47.6years) were included in the study. The patients with history of previous abdominal surgery, abdominal trauma, abdominal malignancies and haematological disorders were excluded from the study. The patients that were included in the study were keenly analysed for splenunculi and if present, the number, location, size and shape were noted and analysed. Results: A total of 178 patients with abdominal CT scans were analysed from June 2021 to June 2022. The most common age group was between 41-60 years. Among the178 subjects, 58 had splenunculi (33%). Majority were solitary and small (0.5-1cm) (53%). Most of the splenunculi were located at splenic hilum (50%) and were 0.5-1cm in size and oval in shape. Conclusion: The incidence of splenunculi in kashmiri population was high in the age group between 41-60 years compared to other age groups. Majority of splenunculi were solitary and the most common location being splenic hilum and size of 0.5-1cm with oval shape .

  3. Hao Yue and Gatbonton, Ryan Ray

    This study investigated the intricate relationship between critical thinking and the development of soft skills among college students. The research drew on the Transferability Hypothesis, which posits that skills acquired in one domain can be applied to another, to explore the extent to which critical thinking abilities influence the enhancement of time management competencies. A total of 214 students participated in the survey, responding to a researcher-made questionnaire designed to gauge their critical thinking abilities and soft skills development. The survey results revealed specific patterns. The students demonstrated a high level of agreement in their responses concerning Judgement and Problem-Solving skills (Mean = 2.54, SD = 0.47), ranking it first among the critical thinking skills assessed. Questioning (Mean = 2.51, SD = 0.49) also garnered agreement and was ranked second. Interpretation (Mean = 2.49, SD = 0.51) and Analyses (Mean = 2.47, SD = 0.49) exhibited disagreement and were categorized as low-level skills. The mean score for critical thinking skills overall was 2.50 (SD = 0.24), reflecting a collective inclination towards disagreement and a low-level proficiency. On the front of soft skills development, the students showcased a high level of agreement in Time Management Skills (Mean = 2.54, SD = 0.50), ranking it first among the assessed soft skills. Communication Skills (Mean = 2.53, SD = 0.47) and Adaptability Skills (Mean = 2.52, SD = 0.48) followed suit, with students expressing a collective agreement. Creative Thinking Skills (Mean = 2.48, SD = 0.49) yielded disagreement and were designated as low-level skills. The mean score for soft skills was 2.52 (SD = 0.25), signifying a widespread agreement and a high level of proficiency.

  4. Aashee Verma

    Francis Galton, once asked “What’s in a face?”His main aim was to understand if there was a similar facial appearance for both. To do this, he made photographic composite images of both faces, he overlaid numerous images of faces onto a single plat creating one final composite face that had characteristics of each original face. He noticed that the composite face was much more attractive than the original faces. “This phenomenon is now known as the averageness effect, where attractive faces tend to be indicative of the average traits of the population. There are two main explanations (that follow the symmetric theory) that explain the attractiveness of the composite face. The evolutionary advantage theory proposes that individuals with symmetric faces tend to be more attractive. It draws upon the fact that they look healthier than those with unsymmetrical faces. Human genes are created to develop symmetrically. Asymmetric faces are formed from defects and small imperfections created before and after birth. Most of the people have slight facial asymmetry which in normal but some people have significant asymmetrical faces. Various etilogical factors contribute to facial asymmetry. It has a wide range of possibilities because of structures involved, structures in question and causative factors. Understanding the etiopathology and classifications of facial asymmetry helps for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Various authors have classified facial asymmetry on the bases of etiology or morphology, time of onset, structures involved, whereas some have described facial asymmetry on merely facial measurements. The sole purpose of this article is to provide all the classifications of facial asymmetry by various authors.

  5. Sachin Thapliyal Vimal Kumar and Ajay Kumar Gupta

    Vitiated Dosha can be eliminated through the nearest possible route by five internal purification procedures, called Panchakarma. These are Vamana, Virechana, Basti, Nasya and Raktamokshana. Among these Basti Chikitsa is considered ‘ardhachikitsa’ by Acharya Charka, because Basti Chikitsa is the prime line of management for vitiated Vata Dosha. In Ayurveda, descriptions of different types of Basti are available, among which Matra Basti is one of the most important types. Surgical disorders like BPH, Fissure in ano, Osteoarthritis, Post-operative Pain, Sciatica, etc. are not satisfactorily managed by allopathic medicine and surgery. After the surgical management of BPH and Fissure in Ano, there is a high chance of recurrence. On the other hand, in Osteoarthritis, Post-operative Pain, and Sciatica, analgesics may develop many complications. So, in this article efforts are made to present the significance of Matra Basti in the management of surgical disorders.

  6. Kokora Aya Philomene, Moroh Jean-Luc Aboya, Anouhe Say Jean Baptiste, Karamoko Detto, Kouadio Serge-Arnaud Kozi, Angoratchi Ebaley Marius, N’dri Ahou Roselyne, Angoua Amanahan Mauricette Prisca, Kossonou Kouadio François Baudelaire and Coulibaly Adama

    In the north of Côte d'Ivoire, sweet potato is a very abundant raw material. The peelings and leaves which constitute by-products are likely to be enriched in proteins. This study proposes to use the fermentation process as a means to increase the nutritional value of sweet potato by-products. Thus, cultivable bacteria and yeasts from sweet potato leaves and peels were counted and isolated following spontaneous fermentation. Subsequently, a controlled fermentation was carried out with twelve (12) microorganisms isolated on a shredded leaf, a shredded peel then on a proportional mixture of shredded leaf and peelings of two varieties of sweet potato. Samples were taken on day 0, on the 5th and 10th day of fermentation in order to determine the pH as well as the protein content of the various substrates. The results showed a diversity of bacteria and yeasts capable of producing protein from sweet potato leaves and peels. Among these microorganisms used, the LevE03 yeast provided a satisfactory result with an increase in the amount of protein ranging from 2.56g/100g to 17g/100g, i.e. an enrichment rate of more than 500% after fermentation of the leaves of sweet potato by this yeast. The LevE03 yeast is of particular interest for the enrichment of the leaf substrate in protein.

  7. Zahra Kmira, Zaier Monia, Mootameri Wided, Bouatay amina, Ncibi Seif, Dhib Asma, Ben Youssef Yosra and Khélif Abderrahim

    Here we report a case of synchronous smoldering multiple myeloma and Niemann Pick in a 54-year-old man.

Social Sciences and Humanities

  1. Feng Shikai and Gatbonton, Ryan Ray

    This study aimed to explore the potential impact of intelligent network multimedia technology on enhancing the sportsmanship attitude of student-athletes. It employed a combination of descriptive-comparative-correlational design and qualitative research methods that involved 800 participants from two majors: 480 from the Physical Education major and 400 from the Social Sports Guidance major. The sample selected for analysis consisted of 416 individuals, with 216 students from the Physical Education major and 200 students from the Social Sports Guidance major. Additionally, 10 teachers were deliberately chosen to partake in interviews facilitated by a researcher-made questionnaire. The results revealed insights regarding the utilization of multimedia technology and the sportsmanship attitude among student-athletes Furthermore, a weak but significant relationship was identified between the extent of multimedia technology usage and the sportsmanship attitude of athletes, particularly concerning rules, officials, and social conventions (r = –0.10, p = 0.038). Thematic analysis of teacher interviews unveiled key themes encompassing the use of multimedia technology during athlete training and games, perceptions of the technology's impact on sports, and challenges encountered in its application. As a recommendation, the study underscores the need for the formulation of a comprehensive multimedia technology utilization plan, recognizing its potential to influence sportsmanship attitudes and contribute positively to sports education.

  2. Ahmad Kasem Haj Ali

    The use of language by the media to affect the views and preferences of viewers is something that may be decoded by examining the pragmatic functions performed by the various discourse markers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the persuasive applications of discourse markers in the media as well as the pragmatism of their application in this environment. We are going to look at the many sorts of discourse markers that are employed in the media to influence the viewpoint of an audience, and then we are going to explore what this implies for the discourse of the media as a whole.





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