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Table of Contents: Volume 15; Issue 01; January 2023

Life Sciences

  1. Renji Francis, N. and Jyoti S Kabbin

    Context: Corneal ulcer is one of the major causes of ocular morbidity in developing countries and fungi are the main etiological agents of corneal ulceration in India. Risk factors for fungal keratitis are male gender, history of ocular trauma, chronic use of corticosteroids and systemic diseases, that impair the host immunity Aims: To determine microbiological profile of fungal keratitis2 .To determine the epidemiological profile of fungal keratitis. Settings and Design: Descriptive – cross sectional study. Methods and Material: A retrospective study was done for the period of six months. Corneal scrapings taken from the clinically diagnosed cases of fungal keratitis and processed by direct microscopic methods and standard culture techniques Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was done by using MS Excel sheet. Descriptive statistics like percentage calculation was done in the study. Results: Among the 23 fungal keratitis positive cases, males outnumbered females. The maximum number of positive cases were seen in the age group of 31-40 years, followed by the age group of 51-60 years. The most common cause of fungal keratitis was found out to be Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium (31.25 % each), followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus calidoustus (17.39 % each), and Acremonium (8.69 % ), Curvularia, Rhizomucor, Aspergillus niger (4.34% each). Aspergillus species were found to be isolated from 43.4% of cases of keratomycosis. Amongst the fungal keratitis cases, 91.3% cases were positive for fungal growth on culture and 8..6% cases were positive for the presence of fungal elements on direct microscopy. Conclusions: Lack of early diagnosis and treatment lead to the onset of complications, which may compromise the patient's vision and thereby the quality of life.

  2. Rabindra Kumar Mishra, Bhagyabati Rana, Susree Sangita and Soumyashree Rath

    The objectives of this paper are to examine general knowledge of FXS as well as knowledge of FXS pharmacotherapy. This overview may help pave the road for greater knowledge and understanding of NDDs, with a focus on FXS.Intellectual incapacity and behavioural abnormality, consisting of fear, ADHD symptoms, and Bio Neurological Disorder traits, are all linked to Fragile X syndrome (FXS). We noticed that a large number of patients with FXS had High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein readings while following up on them, therefore we started a systematic chart analysis of drug molecules development This study has implications for evaluating one's health with FXS, treatments .Therefore, his study identifies additional risks associated with FXS, such as genetic and environmental variables that contribute to increased brain dysfunction in addition to the FMR1 mutation.

  3. Shailendra Kr. Dwivedi and Parwati Mahato

    The Electronic and electrical equipments made up of mild steel especially small assembly rusted in different environments and time intervals, mechanically these are fails in performance so, as to avoids these circumstances some polishing chemicals are used, but in some cases polishing is not possible in small assemblies so vapors’ are used at the time of packaging in wooden boxes . An invisible layers are formed over the surfaces, after that woods emitted acid vapors because the cell wall is made up of cellulose. Failure of electronic equipments and assemblies in extremely adverse climate. e.g. having wide variation of temperature between day and night, high degree humidity(coastal areas),wide variation of temperature between day and night coupled with low humidity atmosphere is full of dust focus the attention of the worker on the deterioration of electronic equipment. These are made up of mild steel and forming the layer of ferrous sulphate, due to polishing of metal surfaces by conc,0.5N sulphuric acid dumped in packing cases .In most of the cases due to packaging woods. It accelerate the rate of corrosion in temperate region by emitting acid vapors.

  4. Santosh Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar Kakodia, Shiv Lal and Ravindra Choudhary

    Rajasthan is desert state in India and the most of population is depends on the groundwater. The average annual rainfall is 580 mm with 30 rainy days. Groundwater level is in range of 250 feet to 400 feet. The level of groundwater is going down due to the growing population and per capita increase of consumption by urban and rural area.The testing and monitoring of water is very important and the water impurities are time varying parameter and it is also affected by the use of chemicals in agriculture, mining activities and industrialization. In the present study corrosivity of water is selected for the determination of suitability of source for drinking purposes.

  5. Uwumarongie, A.M.D., Emuedo, O.A., Uzunuigbe E.O., Ohikhena, F.U., Chukwuka, A. N., Ugiagbe-Ekue, U., Omoruyi, J.I., Omorogbe J.A., Ehiwe, O.D. and Edoma E.E.

    The land available for agriculture to feed the population that is growing geometrically, has reduced drastically due to urbanization. This has led to the use of arable land for industrial purposes. Industrialization has reduced the arable land available for agriculture to feed the ever growing population. To remedy this situation and ensure that the people don’t starve, there is the need to intensify agriculture by adopting a cropping system that utilizes the available resources on the land by increasing input on that available land to bring about increase output. Intercropping is one of the methods of intensifying agriculture. It involves the growing of two or more crops on a particular piece of land for efficient use of the resources available in that land for increase productivity. for a successful intercropping enterprise, there is the need to have knowledge of crop management techniques like spacing, spatial arrangement, planting density, varietal selection, understanding the physiology of the plants to be grown together, their growth habits, canopy and root architecture, water and nutrient use in order to manage interaction that occurs in favour of the component crops. This review tends to study the role of plant spacing, spatial arrangement, plant density, plant architecture in agricultural intensification for food sustainability and availability.

  6. Uwumarongie, A.M.D., Emuedo, O.A., Uzunuigbe E.O., Ohikhena, F.U., Chukwuka, A. N., Ugiagbe-Ekue, U., Omoruyi, J.I., Omorogbe J.A. and Edoma, E.E.

    A field study was conducted in 2018 and 2019 cropping season to determine the comparative effects of some soil amendments on the growth and fruit yield of snake tomato in a newly established rubber plantation in Iyanomo. The treatments involved a combination of sole and intercropped combination with NPK and rubber effluent application rates laid out in a randomized complete block design in three replications. Data were collected on vine length, vine girth, number of leaves, leaf area, fruit yield and its components. Results showed that soil amendment had significant effect on growth and fruit yield of snake tomato (P<0.05). Soil amendment significantly (P<0.05) improved snake tomato growth characters. The fertilized plants were higher in all the characters accessed than the unfertilized plants. Sole and intercropped snake tomato fruit yield with or without treatments had similar values. Unfertilized sole and intercropped snake tomato had the lowest fruit yield. The highest fruit yield were obtained from sole and intercropped snake tomato treated with NPK (STNPK and RSNPK).

  7. Azra Kamal

    Diatoms are microscopic algae which are present in all aquatic environments. The primary application of the study of diatoms in forensic investigations is in the diagnosis of drowning as the cause of death. Extraction and identification of diatoms present in the tissue samples can be used as supportive evidence in drowning and also for site specific diatoms. Whenever there is drowning the diatoms along with the water enter the blood circulation and reach the distant organs like bone marrow. In this present work few selected drowning death examination cases were mentioned .The biological sample as well as the water sample from the place from where the dead body was recovered examine in the laboratory by acid digestion method, centrifugation and presence or absence of diatoms were studied under trinocular microscope. 13 cases were selected in which 5 cases showed positive result for diatom test and the rest 8 that showed negative results are mentioned here. Finding also revealed the occurrence of various varieties of diatoms in Bihar region. Thus the study concluded that diatoms test is a valid tool to support the diagnosis of drowning which have a great forensic significance. Further research on molecular level and new methods are required for diatom testing and recognition.

  8. Pragati Pandey and Tulika Mishra

    Organic farming is a knowledge intensive system and has been developed by practitioners themselves over the years. Organic farming is one such system which provides healthy and safe food without ecological harm. Hence, the Indian Government started promoting organic farming through various schemes like National Project on Organic Farming (NPOF), National Horticulture Mission (NHM), Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) etc. This farming is a modern and a sustainable form of agriculture that provides consumers fresh natural farm products. Organic farming works in synchronization with nature. The objective is achieved by using techniques to improve crop yields without harming the natural environment as well as the people who live and work in it. Organic agriculture offers an exclusive amalgamation of environment-friendly practices, which require low external inputs, thereby contributing to increased food availability. It has a very positive influence especially on birds, insects, weeds, wildlife, and soil flora and fauna. As compared to conventional agriculture, organic farming produces cost-effective food products, free of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. It also provides employment opportunities and economic benefits to local communities. Organic systems give higher animal immunity and increased disease resistance to plants, with 50 % less mycotoxins in crops and a persistent shelf life. This Chapter emphasizes on use of bio-pesticides in place of chemical agents and drugs that are not only harmful for the environment but they also enter inside the food chain through the edible products and then by biological magnification continuously go on increasing in percentage. There are various plants that have potential in being used as insecticidal agents and they can prove to be an arsenal in crop management both post and pre- harvesting. Farmers need an awareness to use these biological agents as tools to enhance productivity and also increase their profits over time rather than spending heavy amounts on toxic chemicals that deteriorate the soil quality and make it unfit for future farming practices.

  9. Rahul Nayan and A.K. Thakur

    Numerous heavy metals show significant mutagenic, teratogenic, and clastogenic. Most of the heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury, and cadmium affect on male reproductive function, including sperm head morphology and spermatogenesis. Several studies have reported that heavy metals caused testicular oxidative stress, which has been linked to infertility. The aim of the present research his to investigate the cytotoxic effect of lead acetate on production of sperm cells and behavioural pattern during dosing period of two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg body weight/ per day) of lead acetate for 40 days in male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus). For the research Adult Male Mus musculus of same age and average body weight 25 -30 gm taken and were divided into three groups one group was considered control group and other two were considered treated groups. Sperm counting and behaviour pattern parameter were included in this research to investigate the cytotoxic effect of lead acetate. After 40 days of treatment, the experimental animals were sacrificed and epididymal part were taken for study of sperm counting. The result shows that in both lower dose and higher dose of lead acetate were significantly decline the sperm counting (p < 0.05). The number of sperms was 150.4 ± 3.12 (control), 87.08 ± 2.21 (lower dose), and 48.1 ± 1.4 (higher dose) million cells/ml. In behavioural pattern feeding habits were not changed. However, aggressiveness, sleeping time, and loss of body hair increased in all treated groups as compared to the control group. In the present research, lead acetate administration shows significant on behavioural dysfunction and cytotoxic effect in germinal cells by disturbing sperm production.

  10. Mukul Chandra Kalita

    In general, B: C ratio is not very much promising in most of the Cereal, Pulses and Oilseeds. But if we go for seed production system of cereal, pulses and Oilseeds than B:C ratios will be high. This is because of higher output values of crops. Applications of FYM@5.0t/ha and 50% recommended dose of NPK fertilizer plus Rhizobium inoculation help in saving 50% chemical fertilizers and increased yield to about 30%. In Assam, the total biomass in the crop field is more and after it’s decay; it releases a little quantity of NPK nutrients to the soil system. That is why the recommended fertilizer dose of cereal, pulses and oilseeds are found less in Assam. Fertilizer have contributed significantly towards, increasing agricultural productions world wide ).

  11. N'DA Amalan Sylvie, LOZO Roméo N'Guessan, KONE Naminata, ODOUKPE Kadio Saint Guillaume and BERTE Siaka

    Many small dams for agropastoral purposes have been initiated in various regions of the country, with the aim of promoting economic and social development, particularly to facilitate rice yields. These aquatic environments are home to an important biodiversity, including phytoplankton, which are not well known and likely to be impacted by human activities. The objective of this work is to know the phytoplankton population of the Yamoussoukro rice-growing dams in order to prevent the risks of eutrophication. The physico-chemical parameters of the water were measured with a multi-parameter HANNA model HI 98194 in three stations (Nanan, Subiakro and Zatta). Nutrient salts were measured using HANNA digital mini-photometers model H1781. Taxa were sampled with a plankton net of 20 µm mesh size. A photonic microscope was used to observe the different samples collected. In total, one hundred and fourteen (114) phytoplankton taxa were inventoried and divided into for (4) phyla: Chlorophyta (44 taxa or 39%), the Euglenophyta (41 taxa or 36%), Cyanoprokaryota (16 taxa or 14%) and Heterokontophyta (13 taxa or 11%). Water reservoirs could be considered rich in taxa. Chlorophyta and Euglenophyta contain the greatest diversity and constitute more than half of all taxa collected. The study also revealed that the reservoirs are warm (29.86°C) and acidic with low dissolved oxygen (2.25 mg/l) and high nutrient values (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and ortho-phosphate). This mineralization of these waters explains the high diversity of taxa in the Yamoussoukro dams.

  12. Geethalakshmi, I ., Punitha, A., Sumathi, T., Vadivel, N., and Adeline Vinila, J.E.

    The experiment was carried out during 2016 - 2018 on rabi season to evaluate the qualitative parameters in different forms of fenugreek. Seven different forms viz., young seedlings (7-10 days after germination), fresh leaf at matured stage (30-40 days after sowing), dry leaf at matured stage (30-40 days after sowing), fresh leaf at matured stage (60-70 days after sowing), dry leaf at matured stage (60-70 days after sowing), dry seed and sprouted seed were studied. The results revealed that the sprouted seeds and the dried seeds were found to be best with high quality parameters, chlorophyll contents (a, b and total), catalase activity, soluble protein content, total carbohydrate content. On the other hand, the fresh leaves at matured stage (60-70 days after sowing) recorded higher ascorbic acid content.

  13. Elexis A. Richardson and Dr. Marianne Robertson

    Energy is a limited resource that is used in reproduction, growth, and maintenance. For organisms to reproduce, energy may be transferred from maintenance to reproduction. We studied the effect of a single mating period on adult lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster to examine whether exposing female D. melanogaster to 0, 1, 2, or 6 male(s) for a 48-hour time interval would impact female lifespan while also examining how male competition during these intervals would impact male lifespan. We assigned females (n=20) to one of the four above treatments and exposed them to the designated number of males for a 48-hr time period, and we then isolated both males and females and monitored them daily for survival. There were no significant differences in the number of days survived between treatments for either males or females when comparing 0 versus 1 male or when comparing 2 versus 6 males. All four treatments could not be statistically compared because they were not conducted at the same time due to the number of virgins required for trials These results suggest that lifespan is not affected by the number of mates a female is exposed to or the number of competitors a male is exposed to. Further research could investigate whether 1 versus 6 males results in statistical significance.

Physical Sciences and Engineering

  1. MassouroudiniAKOUDJIN, KounboDABIRE, Martin Bienvenu SOMDA, Abdoul MalickKINDA, Olivier BADO et Chantal Yvette KABORE-ZOUNGRANA

    Le niébé, Vignaunguiculata (L.) Walp., est une légumineuse d’importance alimentaire et économique en Afrique. Cependant, le rendement de cette culture est faible en raison d’attaques des insectes ravageurs au champ et en stockage. Cette étude a été conduitepour tester l’efficacité biologique de trois biopesticides à base d’extraits de neem (Zadirachtaindica (A.) Juss.) contre les insectes ravageurs du niébé au champ.Pour ce faire, un dispositif en carré latin d’une superficie de 400 m2 constitué de 4 blocs contenant chacun 4 unités expérimentales, a été mis en place. Quatre traitements ont été appliqués : le T0 (témoin, sans traitement), le T1 (solution aqueuse à base d’huile de neem), le T2 (solution aqueuse de feuilles de neem) et le T3 (solution aqueuse de graines de neem). Les résultats ont montré trois ordres d’insectes capturés dans les parcelles d’étude : les Hemiptera (punaises et pucerons), les Lepidoptera (Marucavitrata) et les Thysanoptera (thrips). Ces insectes étaient plus abondants dans les parcelles témoins non traitées (T0) par rapport aux parcelles traitées aux extraits de neem (T1, T2 et T3). En outre, les résultats obtenus avec les extraits de neem, ont montré des taux d’infestations différents au niveau des feuilles (5,75% à 10,33%) et des fleurs (8-10,25%) (p<0,01) de niébé. Les comparaisons multiples des taux d’infestation, ont révélé que les unités expérimentales ayant été traitées avec le T2 ont enregistré moins d’attaques sur les feuilles et fleurs de niébé par rapport aux autres traitements (p<0,05). De plus, le rendement en grains de niébé était également amélioré avec le traitement T2 (p<0,001). En somme, l’ensemble des résultats semblent confirmer que le traitement à base de la solution aqueuse de feuilles de neem ou traitement T2 est plus efficace. A l’issue de cette étude, l’utilisation de la solution aqueuse de feuille de neem comme stratégie de lutte alternativeaux pesticides de synthèse contre les insectes ravageurs du niébé, est à encourageren milieu paysan.

  2. Massouroudini AKOUDJIN, Soudah BOMA, Martin Bienvenu SOMDA, Lassina SANOU et Chantal Yvette KABORE-ZOUNGRANA

    Les sites forestiers sous la pression humaine se retrouvent confinés sur des sols non cultivables sous forme d’îlots forestiers et sur des domaines protégés et classés. Dans le souci d’un développement durable et pour des services écosystémiques profitables à la population, le suivi de l’environnement est nécessaire à l’aide des indicateurs biologiques d’anthropisation. Ainsi, des suivis écologiques ont été réalisés dans la zone de cultures, la zone de pâtures et dans la forêt classée de la Mou de 2020 à 2022. Ces suivis écologiques ont consisté à faire des inventaires floristiques et entomologiques en début et la fin des saisons des pluies durant deux années consécutives dans la commune rurale de Koumbia dans le bassin cotonnier de l’Ouest du Burkina Faso. La richesse spécifique de la flore et de l’entomofaune était croissante de la zone de culture vers la forêt classée. Aussi, des espèces se sont distinguées comme étant des bioindicateurs des zones de pâtures et des reliques des formations naturelles, qui subsistent à l’intérieur de la forêt. Pachnoda cordata cordata (Drury,1773) et Pachnoda marginata marginata (Drury, 1773), des espèces de Cetoniinae ont eu des densités significatives dans la zone de pâtures (p <0,05) tandis que des espèces de Nymphalidae Charaxes epijasiu sepijasius (Reiche, 1850)et Charaxes viola viola (Butler, 1866) ont eu des densités significativement élevées dans la forêt classée. Il ressort que la forêt classée joue le rôle de refuge pour des espèces à écologie fragile comme Chlorocala guerini (Janson, 1888) et Stephanorrhina guttata guttata (Olivier, 1789) qui sont des espèces de cétoines. Ces résultats encouragent la conservation et la préservation des îlots de formations végétales naturelles pour qu’elles soient des zones de refuge et de transition de la biodiversité des insectes.

  3. Dr. Daouda NDIAYE

    The use of English is growing worldwide as a direct consequence of globalization. This affects many sectors: business, military, science, education, the media and culture in general. Many states are taking actions to strengthen their national or local languages, while investing heavily in English language learning. Given its role on the world scene, English is now used as a foreign or second language in non-English speaking countries. It is the case of Senegal which is a former colony of France, where French has long been the language of education, commerce and the Media. However, with the recent development of tourism, Senegalese society is increasingly realizing the benefits of using English language, which is incontestably rated the most powerful language nowadays. This article focuses on the emergence of English in Senegal and seeks to highlight its use in the Senegalese society.

  4. Geremias Luis Gomes and Alcides Romualdo Neto Simbo

    This article aims to develop the teaching-learning methodology for solving problems related to the Theory of Divisibility at the Higher Education in Cabinda. The study involved three Institutes, namely of Educational Sciences, Polytechnic Institute and Lusíadas Polytechnic Institute. This research arises as our experience as Mathematics teacher and the result of observation in the pedagogical practice of teachers, which contradicts the recommendations expressed in official documents of the Angolan Ministry of Education and Higher Education. Based on Polya's theory of solving problems, were elaborated a methodological proposal for teaching how to solve problems related to the Divisibility Theory in an investigative perspective. A questionnaire was applied in the classrooms, with students aged between eighteen and over twenty-six years old who were not used to working with problems related to the Theory of Divisibility. We chose to work with a quali-quantitative research methodology to understand how students relate to problems and identify the strategies used to solve them in their daily lives.

  5. Waleed Sultan

    This study aims to examine the impact of project management on entertainment sector in Saudi Arabia and how project management contributed in developing of entertainment sector. in addition to being the first study specialized in the correlation between project management and entertainment sector. This study based on qualitative method which collecting the official data like statistics, surveys, and reports and any published articles related to the topic. The results were investigated shows a significant impact for project management on entertainment sector in Saudi Arabia and there is a huge development by comparing with the last decades, project management contributed in organizing and executing the projects and increase its efficiency and effectivity in addition to mitigating the risks and reduce the costs. In general, project management is essential for managing risks, enhancing communication and collaboration, and making sure that activities are finished on schedule and within budget. In the end, this contributes to the success and expansion of Saudi Arabia's entertainment industry.

  6. Dr. Rajashri Ramesh Chavan and Mst. Shubham Siddeshwar Jadhav

    The paper aims to understand the awareness of customers and government efforts to promote e-vehicle and also to understand customers' product perception. This study is conducted in Satara city with 125 samples which consist of both existing customers and potential customers. A stratified disproportionate sampling technique is adopted to select the sample. The Schedule is designed to collect the feedback from the sample. The nature of the research study is descriptive. The study identified and evaluated the consumer perception of various factors about the electric bike. The result reveals that Government is taking rigorous efforts through FAME Amendment and PLI Scheme for the Auto sector. Satara customers are well aware of e-vehicle. There is a growth in both e-bikes and e-cars in Maharashtra. There is a combination of both positive and negative perceptions about e-vehicle. Most of the respondents consider the cost and the mileage in purchasing a bike, so there is ample potential for an electric bike in two-wheeler sectors. But their battery performance, speed, and appearance are the major factors that are affecting the sales of electric bikes.

  7. Leontine Tekoum, Doumnang Mbaigane J.C. E. Kadjangaba, Ye Qian, Da Wang Guang and Fengyue Sun

    The Mayo kebbi mafic-ultramafic intrusions are represented by gneiss–amphibolite complex, which is exposed east of the Zalbi Group. They consist mainly of gabbro-diorite, amphibolites, gneiss amphibole, hornblendite and pyroxenite. The mineral assemblages are characterised by amphibole (hornblende), plagioclase, pyroxene and chlorite. Our electron microprobe analysis showed that, the most of mafic –ultramafic rock mineral are calcic-amphoble. Where hornblende are more Magnesio (Fe2+

  8. Mamadou Lamine, L.O., Fatimetou Zehra Eba and Djibril, S.O.W.

    Like the countries of the sub-region, the Mauritanian context is characterized by the absence of a local road design guide. Thus, classic methods developed elsewhere and based on parameters whose relevance is debatable, given the climatic context, are used. This research, a pioneer in geotechnical engineeringin Mauritania, aims to determine the correlation between the CBR and the Young's modulus of the two most commonly used shell quarries, PK23 NDB and PK35 AKJT, in order to determine objective geotechnical characteristics for road design. The geotechnical characteristics of the materials studied were determined in the laboratory after a cement treatment with a dosage of 3 to 3.5%. Thereafter statistical analysis of the experimental results via computer tools like Python, Numpy, Pandas, Matplotlib, Scipy and Sklearn, showed that the widely used equation “E= 5*CBR” relation is not always appropriate in the local context and it varies between quarries. For the PK23 NDB quarry, the correlative relationship is established as follows: E = 3,55*CBR while for the PK35 AKJT quarry it is given by this equation: E = 3,76*CBR. The results obtained in this study are an important step towards the development of a pavement design guide that is appropriate to the local context, and they reinforce the idea of using these materials in pavement base layers.

  9. Rabindra Kumar Mishra, Ankit Kumar Jena and Sanjay Kumar Dey

    The biological data warehouse is shown here, and it is stored locally. It provides the most comprehensive forum for (a) biological sequence integration, (b) interactions among molecules, (c) Understanding of homology, (d) annotations for gene sequence, and (e) biological ontologies. For bioinformatics research and development, this framework provides both data and application infrastructure. This study defines an internet frame of reference for building database warehouses that incorporate multiple gatherings of bioinformatics datasets into a particular database managing model. A description of Atlas, Biowarehouse, BIOZON, COLUMBA, and VINE dBs to the data warehouse design has been given to validate t(DBMS), allowing queries to span multiple database servers. This paper is based on data extraction and Integration from varied sources and alternative proposals for processing the consolidated data, data warehousing, and integrating data into information. Data source as well as the architecture of a biological data warehouse proposition.

Health Sciences

  1. Kusum Meena and Gazi Sakina Rauf

    Objectives 1)To measure serum leptin level in patients with carcinoma breast 2)To study the correlation between metabolic syndrome as well as its individual parameters and grading and receptors in patients of carcinoma breast 3)To evaluate rise of serum leptin levels in patients with carcinoma breast with metabolic syndrome(MS) in comparison to values in patients with breast cancer without MS. Method: A cross sectional study was carried out with 66 patients of proven carcinoma breast. Serum leptin of all the patients were analysed using ELISA. All the parameters of MS were recorded individually as defined according to NCEP-ATP3(National Cholesterol Education Program and Adult Treatment Panel). Histopathological grading was done by using SEER and modified bloom Richardson grading. The data was carefully tabulated in a proforma and statistically analysed by statistician using SPSS. Results: In our study out of 66 ,38 (57.57%) patients were in TNBC group and 28 (42,42%)in receptor positive group.The mean age in receptor positive group was 49.32= 14.56 and in TNBC 51.16=10.47.in receptor positive group 85.7% had waist circumference >80cm and in TNBC group 73.7% had WC >80 cm . Total 32 (48.48%) patients had MS, in receptorpositive group 13/28(46.43% had MSand 15/28(53.57% did not fall in MS category, however in TNBC 19/38(50%) had MS and equal no 19/38(50%)did not have MS and the P value obtained was 0.716 which was statistically non significant. Inreceptor positive group 28.57% had grade 3 histological grading and in receptor negative group 52.63% patients had grade 3 histology.In receptor positive group 6/28 (21.4% )had serum leptin levels were <11.1 pg/dl and 22/28 (78.6%) had serum leptin level >11.1%.In TNBC group 4/38 (10.5%) patients had serum leptin level <11.1pg/dl and 34/38(89.5%) patients had serum leptin level >11.1 pg/dl and the P value obtained was 0.03 which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Thus the increased serum leptin levels have strong correlation with TNBC and high grade breast cancers and correlation with MS was equivocal .The correlation with Ki 67 was also statistically significant while comparing both groups.

  2. Fagbohun A.O., Akinyemi S.O, Eke G.N., and Fashina O.A.

    Background: Tracheomalacia is a structural deficit of the tracheal cartilages inducing excessive collapsibility of the trachea. Origin: Acquired conditions more common in adults. Case report: A report of a 23year old lady who presented with a benign, simple small sized goiter of 9 months duration scheduled for thyroidectomy. She had no retrosternal extension, pressure symptoms or features of respiratory insufficiency. Patient had thin, fragile depigmented (bleached) skin with discolouration. She had extensive skin striae (stretch marks) on the trunk, abdomen and pelvic region despite having s slim stature. She had been using a potent skin whitening cream containing two potent topical steroids for about 3 years. Prior to surgery, patient had intravenous exogenous dexamethasone to prevent the potential risk of the suppression of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis with a subsequent inappropriate response to surgery. Intra-operatively the lead surgeons had called the teams’ attention to the abnormal anatomy of the patients’ trachea. The lumen of the trachea appeared narrowed as evidenced by the reduced anterior-posterior airway caliber with associated loss of the semicircular shape of the tracheal rings and bulging of the posterior membranous wall. The diagnosis of tracheomalacia was made and an emergency tracheostomy was performed. The endotracheal tube was extubated after proper suctioning. Surgery was concluded and patient was transferred to the high dependency unit for close monitoring. The serum cortisol and urinary cortisol levels were elevated (28mcg/dl and 55mcg/day respectively). This report highlights the unusual presentation of this patient and emphasizes the place of interprofessional team work required in her management. Conclusion: Tracheomalacia is a life threatening condition that is mostly of acquired origin in adults. Chronic use of topical steroids has been associated with systemic complications such as atrophy, and weakening of airway cartilages but these effects has been sparsely discussed or documented in literatures particularly relating to anaesthesia. This report presents an unusual presentation of suspected tracheomalacia secondary to chronic use of topical steroids.

  3. Dr. Noopur Kulkarni, Dr. Roshini Vinod, Dr. Atul Deshpande, Dr. Sujit Londhe and Dr. Shailesh Gawande

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm hitting the oral cavity . A variety of genomic factors are responsible for this . Early diagnosis is the key to deal with this deadly disease . This dental image is an interesting finding of presence of a ghost keratin pearl in the H & E section of OSCC

  4. Saikat Majumdar

    Nutritional status of children is one of the major components of economic development of the country. According to 2011 censes, there are 472 million children of 0–18 years, comprising 39% of the country’s population and there is a huge burden of under nutrition among children. The imbalance between the nutrients the body needs and the nutrients it receives is known as malnutrition, which may take the form of either undernutrition or obesity. Health and physical consequences of prolonged states of malnourishment among children include delays in their physical growth and motor development, lower intelligence quotient (IQ) scores, greater behavioral problems and social skill deficiencies, susceptibility to contracting diseases, and others. During this crucial period, many factors like low birth weight baby, inappropriate feeding practices, morbidity factors (diarrhea and ARIs), low socioeconomic status and others lead to malnutrition. The study tried to find out the nutritional status ofunder 5 year children and low birth weight(LBW) baby including the child morbidity in Birbhum district, West Bengal using the secondary datasheet for NFHS-4 & NFHS-5.

  5. Marwa Adam Abdelrahman Adam Ph.D., Prof. Osman Khalafallah Saeed; Prof. Magda Alhadi Ahmed Yousif and Amel Yousif Omer Mohamed B. Sc

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are life-sustaining devices but are associated with a risk for infections that can increase morbidity and mortality, Infections associated with intravascular catheters account for 10% to 20% of all nosocomial infections. The mean rate of CVC-related bloodstream infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) is 5.3 per 1000 catheter days From 10% to 70% of all CVC-related infections are preventable. therefore based guidelines have been publish( Galpern, D., Guerrero, 2013).this study was conducted to study The Effect of Nurse Educational Program regarding knowledge, Attitude and practice of intensive care unit nurse regarding care of Central Venous Catheter in Omdurman military hospital, Khartoum State, Sudan,( 2016-2019.Atotal of 150 intensive care unit nurses in Omdurman military hospital were selected, A well-structured questionnaire for interviewing the respondents ,Check list included the nurse's practice regarding central venous catheters and Educational training for intensive care unit nurses use for the study ,data was analyzed using statistical package of social science (SPCC). 55% of the participant using stander precautions in pretest, regarding the hand washing compliancy the participant need more awareness and encouragement to perform proper hands washing only 40% of the participant performing hand hygiene before touching the patients, 53% of the participant performing hand washing after touching patients, in the posttest 39% only performing ,20% of the respondent performing hand hygiene after early procedure which is minimum percentage and it is increased in posttest by 30%,37% of the respondent performing hand washing after removing gloves and the is alight improvement in posttest by 39%,55% of the participant aware about organisms that cause central venous catheter 24% of the participants aware about the factor associated with central venous Catheter infection ,only 40% of pretest and posttest participant aware about the inserting the central venous catheter , the compliancy of hands hygiene increased from 20%in pretest participant to 30% in posttest participant, using of stander precaution increased from 23%-30%.the participant need more awareness regarding hand hygiene and use of stander precaution the study recommended that Cautiously updating the staff of infection control programmes and policies and Determine a clinical resource nurse to update and evaluate the staff regarding their knowledge and practice.

  6. Mooneer Almadani, Mustafa Alhaj Zeen, Majed Marshad Alanazi, Abdulilh K Alshebaily and Hayfa H Alhayyaf

    Background: As the future of our healthcare system is in the hands of the current medical students, we aimed in this study to deduce the prevalence and determinants of obesity among Al-Maarefa medical students. This is of importance due to society's perspective on medical students, as they are the future doctors. So, we would like to encourage the university to start an educational program. Objective:Our study aims to identify the prevalence and determinants of obesity among medical students at Al-Maarefa University, Saudi Arabia Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students at Al- Maarefa University, Riyadh Saudi Arabia. After obtaining permission from the college authority, self- administered, pre-coded, pre-tested questionnaires were distributed to 450 medical students. Results: The study included 402 medical students who completed the study questionnaire. in which 37.79% were in clinical years and 62.21% were in preclinical years; and the mean age was 22 years. Exactly 51% of participants were female and 49% were male. Conclusions: We found that 10.20% of participants were underweight,21.39% were overweight, and 13.2% were obese. The prevalence of obesity among students in clinical years was higher. Male students had higher prevalence of obesity compared to female students. Risk factors for obesity were age and a family history of the condition. Our study revealed high prevalence of obesity and overweight among medical students at Al-Maarefa university. This shed light on the need for educational programs to encourage a healthy lifestyle, healthy diet, and physical activities to avoid obesity and its related complications.

  7. Salma Gull, Rabia Rashid and Nuzhat Samoon

    Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplasms worldwide, accounting for more deaths than any other cancer cause1.In our population, Lung cancer was reported to be the second most common malignancy in one hospital-based study2 Hukkah smoking was found to be highly prevalent in the lung cancer patients of another small study of 25 hospitalized. Materials and Methods: A 2 year retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College Srinagar. The histopathological records were retrospectively reviewed for CT guided and Endobronchial biopsies of lung lesions between July 2018 to June 2020. There were 238 cases during this period. Results: A total of 238 cases were studied. 92 of these cases were reported as non-neoplastic (table 1). The age varied from 15 to 87 years. Tuberculosis was found to be the commonest non neoplastic pathology among the cases studied and constituted about (29 cases) of non-neoplastic pathology.146 out of 238 cases were reported as neoplastic. Conclusion: To conclude, in our study malignancies predominated over non neoplastic lesions in incidence among young as well as in old patients. The most common histological cell type encountered in this study was Squamous Cell Carcinoma which is against the changing trend in West where Women were increasingly diagnosed with Lung cancer having adenocarcinoma. Granulomatous inflammation with Tuberculosis was the most common non neoplastic lesion followed by nonspecific inflammation.

  8. Dr. Azmat Jahan Mantoo, Dr. Mufeed Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Zohra Younus and Dr. Sabah Younis

    COVID-19 has affected the population worldwide drastically with a tremendous impact on obstetric population which has led to serious concerns regarding maternal and fetal outcomes. Although there are recommended guidelines regarding delivery and management of complications, due to changes in characteristics of COVID-19 infection, they are constantly changing and evolving. Methods: Prospective cohort study done during the covid pandemic from 1st April 2020 to 15th Feb 2022 in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, SKIMS MCH Srinagar J&K.The parameters measured were severity of covid disease, maternal age, gestational age, parity, blood investigations, mode of delivery, APGAR score, neonatal infection status and post-delivery complications. Results: A total of 311 pregnant covid 19 positive patients were included in the study who were actively managed.239 (76.85%)were delivered by casearean section and 72(23.15%) by NVD. 92% patients had mild symptoms only,8% had severe symptoms with 1.6% rate of ICU admission and 1.2% mortality rate.83%delivered at term,17%had preterm deliveries.8% patients had pneumonitis with positive findings on CT scan.24% patients had anemia,12% had GDM,10 % had PIH,12.86% had IHCOP,5% had PPH,1.6% had APH.All the neonates were negative for covid 19. 80% babies had an APGAR score of ≥8/10 at 1 min of birth with a mean birth weight of 2400g±500.No post delivery complication was noted. Conclusion: Our study concludes that SARS‐CoV‐2 infection can lead to unfavorable maternal and perinatal outcomes.

  9. Renuka Nagarale, Neetu Kadu, Saba Sayyad, Shifa Shaikh, Shafiya Khan and Basra Khan

    Introduction- Oral health is an important factor in maintaining sound psychological and physical health. Awareness regarding oral health is considered to be an essential prerequisite for health-related behaviour. Association between knowledge and better oral health has been well document. Aims to assess the oral health awareness and knowledge about periodontal disease among professional students. Materials and Methods- Study was conducted among students of professional colleges. A standardised self-administered questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice questions and the received data was analysed. Result- A substantial lack of oral hygiene undergoes and limited knowledge of oral hygiene practices even in health professional students. Conclusion-Hence there is an urgent need for comprehensive educational program to promote good oral health and impart education about oral hygiene practice at an elementary level.

  10. Dr. Mahasweta Choudhury, Dr. Akhileshwari, B.S. and Dr. S.S. Koushik

    Background: Two percent of all pancreatitis is accounted by Drug induced pancreatitis. It is a diagnosis of exclusion, a patient can be diagnosed with Drug induced pancreatitis only after alcohol use, and cholelithiasis are excluded. The diagnosis can be made by establishing a temporal link between the drugs and the development of pancreatitis in the patient who does not have any other factors that can contribute to the development of pancreatitis. Case report: Here we present a case of 18 years old female who presented to the emergency room with acute onset severe pain abdomen 7 days after being started on Tablet Orlistat for the treatment of obesity. The patient does not give any history of alcohol consumption habits. Diagnosis of pancreatitis was established by elevated levels of amylase and lipase and CT abdomen showed a bulky pancreas with peri pancreatic fluid with no evidence of gallbladder and hepatobiliary abnormality. Conclusion: Tablet Orlistat is being extensively used for the treatment of obesity. Few studies have shown that Orlistat can trigger Drug induced pancreatitis in certain patients, so it should be prescribed cautiously, especially in patients at high risk of pancreatic injury.

  11. Dr. Atoe- Imagbe Osagioduwa Mike, Dr. Osarenkhoe Osaretin John, Dr. Umuerri Ejiroghene Dr. Aigbe Fredrick, Dr. Aiwuyo Osarumme Henry and Dr. Obasohan Austine

    Background: There is an increasing prevalence of stroke in the young adults as well as older adults in general. Cardiovascular risks are a significant predisposition to occurrence of stroke in both age groups. Various cardiac abnormalities are present in stroke patients either as risk factors or as complications. A relationship exists between these cardiac abnormalities and the prevalence, morbidity and mortality from stroke. The changing pattern of the cardiovascular risk factors among these groups of patients may contribute to a changing pattern of cardiac and echocardiographic abnormalities in stroke patients. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the profile as well as prevalence of various echocardiographic abnormalities in young versus older adult stroke patients of the different subtypes of stroke. Method: Descriptive cross sectional and comparative study was done. 180 subjects comprising of 90 young(less than 45years) and 90 older (45years and above) adult stroke patients were recruited for this study. Echocardiography was done for the patients. Echocardiographic abnormalities were compared among the young versus the older groups using chi-square and t-test tests when necessary. Results: Mean age in the young and older stroke patients were 40.23 ± 2.75 and 65.77 ± 12.34 years respectively. Male to Female ratio was 1.6: 1 among the older group and 1.4: 1 among the young group. Ischaemic stroke was the commonest subtype of stroke in both groups of patients (54.4% in the young and 68.9% in the older group of patients). Intracerebralhaemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage were present in 37.8% and 7.8% respectively in the young while 26.7% and 4.4% of the older group had intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage respectively. Echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy was also the commonest structural abnormality on transthoracic echocardiography in both groups of patients (52.3% in the young versus 47.1%in the older group), and the difference in prevalence was not significant. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was significantly more in the older patients than the young (21.1% versus 6.7% χ2=7.850, p=0.005). Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was slightly more in the older group (86.7%), compared with the young (75.6%). This difference was however not significant (χ2=6.759, P=0.08). The commonest pattern of cardiac diagnosis was hypertensive heart disease in both groups of patients (68.9 versus 65.5%).Others were valvular heart disease (6.7% both groups), ischaemic heart disease (2.2% and 5.5% in the young and old respectively), pericardial diseases (2.2% and 5.5% in the young and old respectively) dilated cardiomyopathy (1.1%) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (1.1%) both in the older group and left atrial myxoma (1.1%) in the young group. Conclusion: Transthoracic echocardiographic structural and functional abnormalities were largely similar among both age groups with slight differences noted. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was significantly more on echocardiography among the older group of patients. It is therefore important to screen adult patients with stroke irrespective of the age at presentation.

  12. Rakesh Ashok Kadam, Hussam Aldeen Ahmed, Melita Rodrigues and AreebaTajammul

    Background: To create a 3D representation of the white matter bundles in the brain, dMRI uses the diffusion of water molecules along axons. This function is very helpful for planning a surgical approach and seeing how a tumor affects the surrounding white matter. Objective: This article examines the various applications of dMRI in improving brain surgery, as well as its advantages and drawbacks. We discuss surgical methods that can be used in conjunction with dMRI to enhance the impact of the procedure on the patient’s recovery, such as loading 3D tractography into the neuronavigation system and using direct electrical stimulation to confirm the location of the targeted white matter bundles. Methods: We looked at research that support dMRI results with other anatomical study methods, like postmortem dissections, manganese-enhanced MRI, electrical stimulations, and phantom experiments with established ground truth, in recent meta-analysis, research articles. We will talk about the parts of the brain where dMRI works well and where the obstacles lie in the future. Results: Tractography has lots of potential. Preoperative Tractography can assess the neural pathways and assist surgeons for optimal surgical approach. The technology is still in development. Conclusion: The review will be concluded with recommendations and key takeaways for neurosurgeons, on how to advance the discipline and reap the rewards of using tractography in clinical practice.

  13. Dr. Rupal Bhatt, Dr. Swati Bhattacharjee, Dr. Surveen Kaur Arneja, Dr. Vaidehi C. Shah, Dr. Nitisha N. Khare

    Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis(VKC) is a chronic inflammatory bilateral external eye disease affecting mainly patients in the first and second decade of life and keratoconus is a bilateral, asymmetric, non-inflammatory and slowly progressive corneal ectatic disease and characterized by corneal thinning and protrusion, progressive myopia, and irregular astigmatism, Here in this study we are calculating the prevalence of keratoconus in pediatric patients presented with vernal keratoconjunctivitissince this condition’s progression can be delayed with adequate treatment and keeping the patients in a close follow up

  14. Renuka Nagarale, MandarTodkar, Fatima Shaikh, Najiya Shaikh, Kanshini Waghmare and Sanaya Ahmed

    Introduction: The ‘guided endodontics’ technique was introduced in 2017 as a substitute for the conventional access cavity preparation for teeth with canal obliteration, apical pathosis or irreversible pulpitis. With the help of cone-beam computed tomography and a digital surface scan, an optimal access to the calcified root canal orifice can be planned virtually with suitable software. AIM: The aim of this review was to provide with an update on the application of guided endodontics for calcified root canals. Materials and Methods: A search of the particular literature was performed on four electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science until October 2022. Studies that answered the research question were included (i) application of guided endodontics for calcified canals, (ii) case reports and (iii) in vitro or ex vivo studies assessing types, advantages, disadvantages, and outcomes of its use and the accuracy as well as limitations of guided endodontics for calcified canals. The exclusion criteria were as follows: (i) Articles in any language other than English, (ii) Articles before the year 2017 (iii) experts’ opinion and (iv) guideline reports. The researchers reviewed the complete list of articles and selected the articles that were potentially relevant. Later, full-text screening was performed and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded. The articles those dealt with a topic other than that of interest to this literature review were also excluded. Conclusion: GE seems to be extremely promising. Favorable laboratory-based results regarding the accuracy of guided endodontic access cavities for both static and dynamic navigation provided better insight towards it being more accurate and safer.

  15. Dr. Sanhati Biswas, Dr. Puloma Bagchi, Dr. Amit Vilas Tandulkar, Dr. Anushree Koyande and Dr. Sagnik Bhattacharya

    The most common problems in childhood and adolescence leading to structural damage of primary and young permanent maxillary anterior teeth include early childhood caries and dental trauma. It causes difficulty in mastication and also poor phonetics. With recent advancements in technologies there are various restorative materials available for reconstruction of such damaged teeth. Use of natural tooth is a good alternative to other restorative materials as suggested by various literatures. The present case report shows the successful use of biological post and crown with the follow up period of 1 year. Methods: A freshly extracted permanent mandibular central incisor is sterilised and prepared as biological post for restoration of fractured maxillary permanent central incisor after its root canal treatment. Results: There was no complaint of discomfort with the treated tooth. The follow-up of the patient was continued after every three months for 1 year. Conclusion: Biological post is an excellent alternative over pre-fabricated commercially available posts for the aesthetic and functional rehabilitation of severely mutilated teeth. This case study reports successful management of fractured endodontically treated teeth with biological post.

  16. Renuka Nagarale, Mandar Todkar, Ayesha Patel, Wajeeha Mulla and Vivek Chaudhary

    Background: Implantology is becoming a speciality in thefield of dentistry in the last few decades dentistry appears to have recorded its most sign I cant advancement in the field of dental implantology. Replacement of lost teeth with dental implants are widely accepted as a prosthetic treatment of completely or partially edentulous patients. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of acceptance and challenges among Dental practitioners. Method: The survey was constructed using a convenient sampling method with self administered questionnaires among dental practtioner between October and November 2022. Results: majority of questioned subjects knew about the dental implants and accept it as a treatment option for replacing missing teeth. Conclusion: Dental implant is an accepted treatment modality in India.

  17. Dr. Shilpa Sharma, Dr. Dinesh Kansal, Dr. Dhiraj Kapoor and Dr. Atal Sood

    Aim & Objective: To compare the efficacy of empagliflozin versus teneligliptin on diabetic retinopathy and urine for microalbuminuria as add on therapy to metformin monotherapy in patients of uncontrolled T2DM. Material and Methods: The study was randomized, prospective, open label, comparative interventional study conducted at Dr RPGMC Tanda. Out of total 66 patients, 32 patients (Group A) received empagliflozin 25mg/day and 34 (Group B) received teneligliptin 20mg/day in addition to metformin 1000 mg BD. Total 18 patients, 9 in each group had mild to moderate non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Both the groups were evaluated after 6 months. Statistical Analysis: The data is presented as mean+/- SD. Student’s t test was used for data analysis. The p value<0.05 is significant. Results: After 6 months, In group A only 1 patient had mild NPDR, In group B only 3 patients had mild NPDR. There was statistically significant decrease in urine for microalbuminuria in both groups at 6 months, when compared with baseline (both p < 0.001). Conclusion: Non proliferative diabetic retinopathy improved with both the drugs (empagliflozin > teneligliptin) which also proved their potential role in protection from microvascular complications. Both the drugs showed decrease in microalbuminuria by improving diabetic status.

Social Sciences and Humanities

  1. Gökhan Uğur

    A unique culture can only come into being in a setting that is truly independent. Since cultural uniqueness arises within the structure of nation-states that bear the hallmark of complete autonomy, that takes us to the foundations of the political economy of the construction of uniqueness. The entire population of a given country is the collective sculptor of a sculpture. Every country has its own Higher Persona, and the singularization of that Higher Persona is brought about through the uniqueness of the activities of the people inhabiting that country. At the same time, the Higher Persona is not fixed but rather is in a state of constant flux, altering form across the ages like a sculpture that changes shape, becoming beautiful at times and unattractive or indistinct at others. If a country is adept at hewing that sculpture, which is a reflection of the Higher Persona, the cultural mass will increase and create a more intensive gravitational pull by warping the cultural grounds yet further. A country that increases its cultural mass will pull towards itself countries that have not been able to achieve an equivalent amount of cultural mass. Within that context, in order for a country like Turkey to construct a unique culture and increase its cultural mass, thereby more clearly defining its Higher Persona, it must be fully independent in a political-economic sense. The construction of the nation-state and national character is analogous with the construction of national uniqueness. In a way, the identity of a country is represented by stones in architecture and images in cinema.

  2. Yamba Sinaré, Boureima Kafando, Awa Gnémé, Noel Gabiliga Thiombiano Patricia Soubeiga, Mohamed Bagayan and Magloire Boungou

    Snail was invertebrate host of many parasites including trematode, nematode and annelid. Trematode are endoparasites that present a complex life cycle, generally involving an intermediate invertebrate host and a vertebrate host. Many studies have focused on the diversity of trematodes in molluscs in several countries of the world. But research on mollusc parasites is little addressed in Africa, especially in West Africa. The aim of this study was to conduct a freshwater snail survey to assess the diversity and the relation with a focus on habitat types and their parasites infections. Snails were collected in different areas of central plateau region and examined. A total of 936 individuals’ snail was collected and classified into four families, 6 genera, and 8 species. Snail diversity was higher in soil. The most abundant species was Melanoides tuberculata, representing 23.08% of the sample and the reservoir of Loumbila records the abundant and diversity of snail species. Three species of snail were free of parasites. They are Biomphalaria Pfeifferi, Bulinus joussemei and Melanoides tuberculata. The harvested parasites are divided into two groups that are the trematodes (12 species) and Annelids (1 specie) with an overall rate of 6.60%. The Shannon diversity index showed that parasitic diversity varied between the two sites based on infected hosts, micro-habitats and seasonal periods. Cleopatrasp presented the highest diversity of parasite among the species of gastropods collected. The infection rate varied according to the collection months and according to the micro-habitats. Lecithodendriumsp only had an aggregated distribution during this study.

  3. Sharanabasavayya and Dr. Siddappa

    In the present scenario, the Digital banking is one of the most important developments for the banking industry in its long history. The demand of banking is anytime, anywhere banking, this requires innovative robust secure optimized and ready to meet the expectations of empowered and tech savvy customers. However, despite the many benefits that online banking provides to customers, there are also a number of major concerns and challenges for marketers in the online banking sector. Traditional banking habits, security, technical issues, transaction difficulties, and small marketing budgets are all major challenges that online banking marketers will have to reconcile if they are to succeed in this field. The present study is based on secondary data. The data has been extracted from the various sources like research articles, publications from government of India, various bulletins of RBI and authenticated websites. The study found that, digital banking has drastically reduced the operating costs of banks. This has made it possible for banks to charge lower fees for services and also offer higher interest rates for deposits. Lower operating costs have meant more profits for the banks. The study also found that, digital banking is having enormous potential to change the landscape of financial inclusion. Easy use of digital banking can accelerate the integration of unbanked economy to the mainstream.

  4. Mrs. Radhika, A.

    Use of technology and multimedia has been of utmost help during his pandemic. It has become more and more important as the classroom scenario changed from physical to virtual. Technology enables teachers to adapt to classroom activities thus enhancing language learning process. Use of multimedia and also technology grew more now as a tool to help the teachers facilitate language teaching and learning at all levels. Teachers now-a-days can choose from You tube videos, blogs, ppts, electronic dictionaries, video lectures and some applications as well. In this pandemic situation where education became virtual, it is important for the teacher tom upgrade and then engage the students in an active and interesting manner. It supports 24x7 , builds 21st century skills and also increases student engagement in all kinds of digital activities. Some benefits of using technology may be as follows: 1. Creates a more engaged environment and easy learning . It may be a distraction sometimes but by proper and guided instruction it can work wonders. 2. Incorporates different styles and levels of learning for all levels of students. 3. Improves collaboration among the students as they help each other in a very interactive way. 4. Prepares children for the future as the future lies in Digitalisation. Use of Multimedia in ELT: Multimedia content helps to enhance easy learning process and leads to better knowledge retention as the old saying goes we remember when we see and learn more quickly. Social media plays a vital role in every students life. It is often easier and more convenient to access information, provide information and also communicate via social media. Read-aloud is a popular and effective way to improve the word knowledge. Multimedia enhances English Language Skills of the learning by using five elements like graphics, texts, audio, video and animation. Some Multi-media tools • Animoto( video tool which allows to create/share videos) • GoAnimate • PodOmatic • Prezi • iMovie Benefits of Multimedia learning • deeper understanding • improved problem solving • access to a vast variety of information etc., How to use Multimedia in classroom • using Audio-books • using song files and music videos • short video clips etc.,

  5. Nalin Kumar Ramaul, Pinki Ramaul and Vivek Negi

    Several authors have studied the prevalence and incidence of violence against women, but there have been few systematic attempts to investigate the financial consequences of the problem, that too mostly in developed countries. But the criminal justice policy debates can no longer ignore the basic economics of public policy choices. Violence against women is unquestionably a public problem because the entire society pays monetarily, as well as non-monetarily. Violence against women is enormously costly – to the women who experience violence directly, to women generally whose lives are constrained by the fear of violence, and to governments whose expenditures are swollen by responding to some of the consequences of this violence. In the Indian context, there has been no comprehensive study estimating the cost of violence against women. Establishing robust estimates are subject to significant data restrictions. Therefore, the present paper is an attempt to investigate the methodological aspects of estimating the costs of violence against women on the victim, family, and the State. The paper is based on desk review and critical analysis of various research studies and reports on violence against women. Measuring the full economic impact of this issue is the key to inspiring greater efforts to reduce the prevalence of violence against women.

  6. Achintya Singha and Sampad Shit

    Mathematics is erroneously regarded as a abstract to understand meant only for persons of higher mental ability. It arouses fear among many students which in turn creates resistance to learning at and result in adverse effect on their attainment. But actually school mathematics is within the reach of any average students. What is needed is to create the right ambience of learning mathematics in every school. Mathematics needs to be learnt with senses of joy and delight. It needs to be related where possible to life oriented activities to create interest in the subject. Mathematical faculty and intuition develop not only through theory and problems given in mathematics text books but also through a variety of activities involving concrete objects. Activities can be engaging as well as instructive. The main purpose of this study is to find out the students’ attitude towards mathematics laboratory. The researchers collected data using questionnaires and analyzed it using descriptive statistical tables, t-test and column charts.

  7. Patrick HINNOU

    Le régime révolutionnaire amorcé depuis le 26 octobre 1972 des suites d´un coup d´État a fait parler de lui, entre autres, en termes de quelques réformes mais surtout de mal gouvernance et de confiscation des libertés publiques. Les crises sociale, économique et politique qui s´en sont suivies ont amené les masses populaires ignorées, marginalisées, opprimées à prendre conscience de leur statut de dominés qui ne leur paraissait fatal. Dès lors, comment ces acteurs dominés se sont-ils organisés et à travers quelles stratégies pour braver les pratiques dictatoriales de « l´État-commando » pendant la période révolutionnaire ? La présente recherche répond à cette question centrale qui analyse leur résistance, assimilable à des « insubordinations sociales », comme le produit d´un long processus fait d´actions et d´événements majeurs sonnant le glas du régime et ouvrant la voie à de la transition démocratique dès 1990. De nature qualitative, elle est alimentée par un recueil de témoignages dans les principales régions du Bénin connues pour être le bastion de la lutte contre la révolution du fait de leur posture oppositionnelle au pouvoir. Ce corpus, qui s´étend à des données obtenues de l´exploitation des documents d´archives et autres coupures de presse, est moulé dans un paradigme analytique qui associe la Grounded Theory et la sociohistoire, ouvertes à la théorie des relations dominants-dominés avec les stratégies de la résistance à la domination. Ainsi, les résultats auxquels aboutit cette sociologie de l´action collective et des mouvements sociaux antirévolutionnaires, débouchent sur l´innovation dans la contestation de la révolution et la synergie d´action retrouvée entre élèves et étudiants pendant les soulèvements populaires de 1985, sur la généralisation et la radicalisation de la résistance contre l´État-commando en 1989, sur la multisectorialité des niveaux d´implication d´acteurs clés réunis au sein de la Convention du peuple sous l´impulsion du Parti Communiste du Dahomey (PCD), et sur l´ingéniosité syndicale avec la trouvaille des « Bureaux de liaison ».

  8. Osbin Samosir

    Election organizers in Indonesia are often seen as obstacles to the growth of democracy. The presence of election administrators has become a serious problem in the development of democracy in Indonesia. In fact, very high hopes are given to the election organizers as a pillar that will determine the growth of Indonesian democracy. The reason is simple: Indonesian democracy has failed in the past, partly because of the role of the election organizers. The New Order became an opaque record for Indonesian democracy when election administrators became an inseparable part of the authoritarian regime. Even in the early days of reform, the election organizers could not be proud of their work and even became one of the sources of the problem itself. So it is not surprising that the election organizers, namely the Komisi Pemilihan Umum - KPU (General Elections Commission), were asked to supervise their work by establishing the Badan Pengawas Pemilu - Bawaslu (Election Supervisory Body) in 2008. The results achieved did not make the democratization process through general elections better. The poor technical work of election administrators means that election administrators cannot be allowed to work maturely and maturely, but special courts must be prepared for their bad work. The birth of the election ethics body, namely the Dewan Kehormatan Penyelengggara Pemilu - DKPP (The Honorary Council of Election Organizers), shows that the election organizers, namely the KPU and Bawaslu, are doing quite badly in building the electoral process. The big concern is the difficulty of holding a dignified general election in the 2024 national simultaneous elections.





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Dr. Swamy KRM
Dr. Abdul Hannan A.M.S
Saudi Arabia.
Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari