Subject Area

  • Life Sciences / Biology
  • Architecture / Building Management
  • Asian Studies
  • Business & Management
  • Chemistry
  • Computer Science
  • Economics & Finance
  • Engineering / Acoustics
  • Environmental Science
  • Agricultural Sciences
  • Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • General Sciences
  • Materials Science
  • Mathematics
  • Medicine
  • Nanotechnology & Nanoscience
  • Nonlinear Science
  • Chaos & Dynamical Systems
  • Physics
  • Social Sciences & Humanities

Why Us? >>

  • Open Access
  • Peer Reviewed
  • Rapid Publication
  • Life time hosting
  • Free promotion service
  • Free indexing service
  • More citations
  • Search engine friendly

March 2023

  1. Primi Kumarand Thokchom Deborah Grace

    Phenomenological research is the researches done upon the experiences faced by individuals during some specific events which have some impact on them. As nursing is a holistic care, experiences of events from people will help to provide holistic care to the individual. For analysis of the descriptive phenomenological research, Colaizzi’s method is used. This seven steps method can give reliable and feasible analysis to the experience studied. Phenomenological studies done by the nurses are very few because qualitative descriptive phenomenological studies are time consuming, required more man power in analysis. Phenomenological studies focuses on psychological aspect of which can be used to give holistic care to people.

  2. Emilienne Ngangoum Z. Tiojio

    This research starts from the observation that imperative clauses in Fɛʔfɛʔ have both canonical and non-canonical subjects which are phonetically overt, and this alongside subjectless imperatives. This is unexpected from the perspective of early generative assumptions. Wherefore, the need to provide an explanation for the observed variation. It is argued, building on the separation between agent and addressee that all phonetically overt subjects are in fact performing the function of the agent in charge of executing the prescribed imperative order, while all phonetically silent subjects result from a perfect identity between agent and addressee. The latter combination fails to be silent only when the need of making the agent salient arises in the presence of alternatives.

  3. Mahesh Dave, Ravi Kumar Manglani, Yash Shah, Sahil Kharbanda, Ramgopal Saini, Avinash Sharma and Anuj Goyal

    Introduction: Erectile dysfunction (ED) constitutes a large burden on society because of its high prevalence and impact on quality of life. One common cause of organic ED is diabetes. In diabetes, prevalence of ED lies between 35% to 85% depending on the study whereas in normal population ED prevalence is around 26%. Serum testosterone level and penile blood flow closely related to each other as well as to ED. Material and methods: It was a hospital-based cross –sectional study. Patients were divided into 4 categories according to International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 questionnaire : mild ED - score 17 to 21, mild-to-moderate ED - score 12 to 16, moderate ED - score 8 to 11 and severe ED - score 1 to 7. The presence of ED and its severity was correlated with age, duration of diabetes, lipid profile, glycemic status, complications, body mass index (BMI), Serum testosterone level, penile blood flow etc. Results: Prevalence of ED in male diabetes patients was found to be 69.28%. 17 had mild ED (17.6%), 27 had mild-to-moderate (27.8%), 24 had moderate ED (24.7%) and 29 had severe ED (29.9%) among 97 cases with ED. Prevalence of ED was found to be proportional to age. Most cases were associated with long-standing diabetes (>10 years) in ED group. ED was correlated with complications of diabetes like nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy but the correlation was not statistically significant. Statistically significant correlation of ED was found with FBS, PPBS & HbA1C. Significant correlation of ED was found with serum testosterone level and penile blood flow. Statistically significant correlation was also found between serum testosterone level and penile blood flow. Conclusion: ED prevalence among the diabetes patients increased with age and duration of the diabetes. Glycemic status was significantly associated with development of ED. Penile blood flow was significantly lesser in ED group. Serum testosterone level was below normal limits in most of ED patients. In patients with decreased serum testosterone level, penile blood flow was also decreased.

  4. Ms. Merlin R. and Dr. Ambika, K.

    Introduction: Pain is a common and disagreeable sensation for children and adult. Every child has his or her own perception of pain. Routine immunizations are the most frequent painful medical procedure during childhood. Health care professionals trying to provide vaccine to the infants with a less painful experience at their level of comfort, skin tapping (Helfer skin technique) is one of the methods which keeps the muscles relaxed and thus reduce pain while administering IM injection. Aim: The aim of the study to assess the effectiveness of helfer skin tap technique on pain during intramuscular injection among infants in selected hospital at Mysuru. Methodology: True Experimental, Post-test only Control group design was adopted for the study. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select the study subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Helfer skin tapping was administered only to infants in experimental group. Pain scores were assessed by FLACC pain scale at 0 minute. Results: The analysis of the findings high lights that there was a significant difference between the post-test pain scores of infants during IM injection at 0 minute in control and experimental group which was statistically tested using independent‘t’ test (t(58)= 5.74; p<0.05) was found to be significant at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study also highlighted that pain scores of infants during IM injection at 0 minute with Helfer skin tap technique had no significant association with their selected personal variables. Conclusion: The study concluded that Helfer skin tap technique was effective in reducing the vaccination pain among infants.

  5. Dr. Sanchit Verma, Dr. Puja Bansal and Dr. Deepak Bhargava

    The sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve systems, as well as their connections to the human muscle, are sophisticated and complex from a physiological standpoint. Special management considerations are necessary for patients with neurological conditions. These include therapeutic techniques, pre and post treatment requirements. Dental patients with neurological problems may experience anomalies with the cranial nerves, sensory loss in the face, facial paralysis, and illnesses like epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, and myasthenia gravis. Strategies for treating patients with some of these diseases are laid out in this article.

  6. Eng. George M.B. Kaggiah, PhD

    Religious scholars date creation at 4,003BC implying that modern human to have been on earth for 6,025 years while according to research scientists the modern human is about 40,000 years old. Science finds that the universe is 14billion years old, and the earth was formed 4.55 billion years ago. Life has existed on earth for about 600 million years with the human being arising just 6 million years ago. Majority of the authors reviewed, agree that “modern humans” evolved in Africa, from the homo erectus, in a process that took over 1.9million years, and was concluded 45,000 to 35,000years ago. The “modern humans” then migrated to all parts of the world reaching other continents at various times and arriving in the Americas about 15,000 years ago. The first civilizations were established between 4000 and 3000BC in Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient India and Ancient China forming the Old World. Since the modern humans started implementing social, economic and strategic security projects, some of the projects have had significant impacts on the ecosystems and the environment of the areas in which they were implemented and beyond. Environmental degradation was first recognized and made legally actionable in 1750BC in Mesopotamia (Old Babylon) by King Hammurabi who was the 6thKing of the Babylonian dynasty which ruled from 1894BC to 1595 B.C. and enacted 382 laws which were the first in history after the 10 commandments given to Moses by God at about 1378BC or 3400 years ago. This paper explores the history of the earth and major environmental impacts and projects the probable cause(s) of extinction of life which include activities on man.

  7. Dr. Arpit Galohda and Dr. Shreehari AK.

    Periodontal and cardiovascular diseases are both major health issues. Poor oral health has long been associated with the development of systemic diseases. Through the years, the association of periodontal disease and the development of cardiovascular disease has been brought to attention. Many studies, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses, suggest an important association between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Among the proposed mechanisms of this relationship, systemic inflammation appears to play a major role. Evidence suggests that periodontal inflammation triggers a systemic inflammatory state that appears to promote atheroma plaque development and progression. There are other studies that show a clear relationship between periodontal disease severity, elevations of inflammatory markers, and the presence of atherosclerosis. Here, we give a review of the available evidence supporting this association, and the possible mechanisms involved.

  8. Shifan Khanday, Ghayoor Abdul Wahab, Kaltham Al Shaibah, RehamJasem and Baidaa Jasem

    Context: We are presenting a rare case of carcinoma colon (grade 4) with metastasis to left ovary (Krukenbergs) and benign spindle cell tumor in left lung diagnosed in a 65-year-old female. A brief literature review is presented. Patient was treated with CAPOX (Capecitabine and Oxyplatin) and Immunotherapy (Cetuximab). Surgical removal of left ovary and apparently no signs of cancer after 6 months of treatment. Inference: This case report highlights the potential benefit of combination of Target therapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of Krukenberg tumor. Although further studies are needed, immunotherapy could be considered as a treatment option in patients with Krukenberg tumor who have exhausted standard chemotherapy options. As our knowledge we report first case of simultaneously rare varieties of colon cancer and benign spindle cell tumor of lung. In a patient with history of malignancy, a benign mass should be diagnosed correctly with PET, core needle and IHC.

  9. Naveen Kumar

    Understanding systemic disorders and their oral symptoms has shown to be beneficial in improving patient outcomes. Dental and medical practitioners may enhance patient outcomes and general health by working together to identify, diagnose, and manage systemic disorders at an earlier stage once the connection between the two is understood. My research endeavors focus on the many common and complicated instances of systemic disorders that have developed distinctive oral manifestations in recent years. The research looks into Sjogren's Syndrome, Lupus, Diabetes, Celiac Disease, Behçet's Disease, Oral Lichen Planus and Crohn's Disease. This research relies heavily on information from reliable medical sources that cover the conditions discussed. In addition to textual descriptions, the study provides helpful graphical and statistical portrayals of the various medical conditions. I also looked at ways of preventing the infections in the first place, as well as treatments for the systemic diseases they may cause. This study contributes to the reader's understanding of the clinical significance of the relationship between systemic disorders and their oral manifestations, a subject that has generated a number of studies in recent years. Any statistical claims made have been backed up by reputable sources that have been verified by experts in the medical field.

  10. Satyapriya Mohanty, Anindya Banerjee, Abhinav Kumar, Pranjit Dev, Humsika Samantray, Debasish Das

    We present an interesting and unusual vertical alpha loop (α-loop) of the subclavian artery in the neck with simultaneous presence of proximal U-loop during transradial coronary angiogram in an octogenarian presenting with Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) with ongoing angina. Tortuosity prevails during transradial coronary angiogram in octogenarians but presence of such an alpha loop (α-Loop) in the subclavian artery pushing the subclavian artery in to the neck (cervical subclavian artery) has not been described so far in the literature. Although the loop could be crossed with a terumo wire and a tiger catheter, transradial coronary angiogram could not be accomplished due to presence of extreme tortuosity in the form of alpha loop (α-loop) in the cervical subclavian artery even with the use of extra stiff wire, guide catheter and parallel wire technique1. Transaradial coronary angiogram was accomplished from left transradial access. Young interventionists should keep the possibility of such an extreme tortuosity in the form of alpha loop (α-loop) in subclavian artery which will preclude conventional right transradial coronary angiogram and would render for an alternative vascular access to accomplish coronary angiography.

  11. Sultan Almehwari, Abdullah Almarhabi, Abdulmoein Al-Harbi , Khalid Al-Mutairi, Yehya Hejri, Zahra Battati, Waseem Ghazzawi and Mohammed Osaysi

    Background: This systematic review investigates the economic evidence associated with road prevention strategies in reducing serious injury and preventing road-related mortality. The aim of this systematic review is to develop recommendations for a cost-effective intervention to prevent traffic accidents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methodology: The study was based on a review of existing studies,(between 2008 to 2018) published and grey literature from electronic databases. The retrieved articles were selected for eligibility using inclusion and exclusion criteria and appraised for quality using the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool. The data was extracted from the included studies using Joanna Briggs Institute qualitative appraisal and review instrument, and the data analysed using narrative synthesis approach. Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Data synthesis indicated that the enforcement of the legislation on speed limits, drink driving, seatbelt use, and motorcycle helmet use leads to enhanced cost-effectiveness as shown by the varying degree of the averted Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). The adoption of the road accident prevention interventions that combine multiple strategies was however noted to result in the highest cost-effectiveness. Discussion: Although the use of speed limit interventions is associated with increased averted DALY’s, the observed high implementation cost that is associated with the use of mobile cameras calls for caution when choosing this intervention. The need to achieve high cost-effectiveness calls for limited use of sobriety checkpoints and increased use of mass media campaigns in the implementation of traffic rules relating to the drink driving. The combined synergies obtained from the use of multiple strategies result in high cost-effectiveness. Conclusion: Tailoring road accident prevention interventions that combine multiple strategies to the KSA context can result in enhanced cost-effectiveness. However, there is a need for more country-based research to determine the observed cost-effectiveness in the KSA context.

  12. Dr. Pradip Debnath

    Chrysin is a potential natural flavonoid that exhibited a broad spectrum of biological activities including antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties. Due to its poor solubility in the common polar solvents like water, its application in drug discovery is limited. Recently, researchers have paid efforts towards the synthesis of chrysin-analogs and conjugates with improved efficacy and selectivity, for developing more active chrysin-based molecules for the clinical test. As a result, many semi-synthetic chyrsin derivatives have been developed that exhibited several therapeutic activities with better efficiency and solubility. In this review, the recent developments towards the design and synthesis of chrysin derivatives, and their applications in the biological science as anticancer agents have been discussed.

  13. Dhirendra Vaidya, Swayon Bhunia and Snehasis Bhunia

    Background: An electrocardiogram, termed as ECG, is a very simple and common test, used to determine the healthy condition of an individual. Various studies have reported the beneficial effect of physical exercise, yoga separately on standard limb leads, but there is a lack of study found on various standard limbs leads (I, II &III), augmented unipolar limb leads and chest leads in healthy subjects following integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT). Hence, the present study aims to evaluate a short term effect with IAYT on standard limb leads (II)using vectors in both young and old aged male subjects residing in rural area. Materials & methods: Forty subjects with varying age group in between 35 to 50 years were recruited and divided into two groups (A & B) or control(C) groups was considered from pre IAYT. Study group received IAYT programmed for six week. BMI was calculated, Height was taken and body weight was measured. ECG was taken using BPL ECG recorder (Cardiart 8108T).Baseline and post- test assessments were taken before and after the intervention. PC based cardiovascular analyzer was used for recording pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial stiffness index (ASI). Result: Significant difference was noted on heart rate, R-R interval, arterial stiffness and pulse wave velocity in study groups both A &B when compared with control group (Pre- IAYT). No significant reduction was observed on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, body weight, height & BMI in study group when compared with control. Other waves of chest leads and augmented unipolar limb leads were unchanged. Conclusion: Result of this study suggest that the IAYT is not more effective in reducing blood pressure changes in study group aged in between 35 to 50 years male subjects (group-A&B) but more effective with the durations of different waves of standard limb leads (II) and heart rate suggesting parasympathetic dominance.

  14. Dr. Anand Garabadu, Dr. Sri Krishna Chalasani, Dr. Subash Chandra Nayak, Dr. Sreeman Soyam Swadesh and Dr. Ankit Sikri

    One of the important tools for an orthodontist in a day to day practice is the use of light cure units. So, understanding the dynamics of polymerization and the process of curing is paramount. Safety guidelines for choosing and maintaining light cure units while using is a must. As clinicians while bonding the head of the light cure units at times touches the brackets. The free end of the head of the light cure sometimes cracks into small fragments due to long term wear and tear of the unit. As the light cure units are costly, one should try to safeguard it as much as possible. We , in this article have presented a solution by which the safety and hygienic value will increase while using the light cure unit. Addition to this the longivity of the light cure units will be better with less wear and tear.

  15. Swamy, K.R.M.

    Brinjal or eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important Solanaceous crop of sub tropics and tropics. The name brinjal is popular in Indian subcontinents and is derived from Arabic and Sanskrit whereas the name eggplant has been derived from the shape of the fruit of some varieties, which are white and resemble in shape to chicken eggs. There are several names by which the crop is known in India, but brinjal is the most familiar. Brinjal is also called 'eggplant' or 'aubergine'. The name eggplant is believed to derive from Gerard's description of early forms with small, white fruit resembling eggs. In early years, eggplant was also termed 'Male insana' and the 'Italian Melazana', both of which translate to "made apple". The brinjal is of much importance in the warm areas of Far East, being grown extensively in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, China and the Philippines. Names in Indian languages are Baingan (Hindi), Begun (Bengali), Ringna (Gujarathi), Badane (Kannada), Waangum (Kashmiri), Vange (Marathi), Bengena (Assamese), Baigan (Oriya), Vashuthana (Malayalam), Kathiri (Tamil), Vankaya (Telugu) and Peethabhala (Sanskrit). It was originally domesticated from the wild nightshade species thorn or bitter apple, S. incanum, probably with two independent domestications: one in South Asia, and one in East Asia. It was suggested that the brinjal originatd in Africa. But there is no evidence that S. melongena is native there though there are spiny African brinjal plants. Eggplant is widely used in its native India, for example in sambar (a tamarind lentil stew), dalma (a dal preparation with vegetables, native to Odisha), chutney, curry, and achaar (a pickled dish). Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food, it is often described as the "king of vegetables". Roasted, skinned, mashed, mixed with onions, tomatoes, and spices, and then slow cooked gives the South Asian dish baingan bharta or gojju, similar to salată de vinete in Romania. Another version of the dish, begun-pora (eggplant charred or burnt), is very popular in Bangladesh and the east Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal where the pulp of the vegetable is mixed with raw chopped shallot, green chilies, salt, fresh coriander, and mustard oil. Sometimes fried tomatoes and deep-fried potatoes are also added, creating a dish called begun bhorta. In a dish from Maharashtra called bharli vangi, small brinjals are stuffed with ground coconut, peanuts, onions, tamarind, jaggery and masala spices, and then cooked in oil. Maharashtra and the adjacent state of Karnataka also have an eggplant-based vegetarian pilaf called 'vangi bhat'. Brinjal fruits are commonly considered as vegetables. They are cooked in various ways such as baking, barbecuing, frying or pickling. They can also be pureed, flavoured, and used as a dip or chutney as in Mediterranean and Indian cuisines. In Indian cuisine, they are used in curries and even made into soufflés. The cut fruits are typically soaked in cold salted water before cooking to avoid discoloration and to remove its mild bitterness. Brinjal is widely consumed as vegetable for its various health benefits. It is highly fibrous, contains antioxidants, potassium, Vitamin B-6 and phyto-nutrients like flavonoids which help in preventing cancer and heart disease. It also helps in weight loss with its low calories. It is good booster for brain and also helps in maintaining good health by lowering cholesterol in our body. The major brinjal producing states in India are Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. In the states of Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal, it is harvested all year round. Out of all states, in 2013-14, West Bengal stands to be the highest brinjal producing state with 23% of total production. In this review article origin, distribution, taxonomy, botanical description, genetic diversity and breeding, uses, nutritional value, health benefits of brinjal are discussed.

  16. Pradip Kumar Sarkar and Manvika Thakur

    Objectives: to investigate the effect of manual hyperinflation (MH) in patients with atelectasis associated with ventilation support. Design: patients were randomized to either an experimental group or a control group. Setting: paediatric Intensive Care Unit (ICU) from Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research. Patients: 30 paediatric patients with atelactasis associated with ventilation support. Interventions: The experimental group received Manual hyperinflation in a group of 6 to 10 inflation using 350 ml to 500 ml of reusable manual Ambu bag with conventional chest physiotherapy. The control group received only conventional chest physiotherapy. Results: there were significant improvements in the scores over the 7 day study in the experimental group compared to the control group in ABG and chest radiographs and a trend towards improvement of tidal volume (VT) and respiratory rate. Conclusion: MH performed on patients with atelectasis on ventilation support had significantly improved alveolar recruitment.

  17. Anita Kumari

    Vaginitis is the inflammation of the vagina characterized with symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge with foul smell, itching vulva and lower abdominal pain. The common types of vaginal infections are vaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis . In Ayurveda, female genitalia diseases are explained mainly under the heading of “yoni vyapat”. Yoni vyapats are mainly characterized with symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge with foul smell such as in slaishmiki, paittiki, paripluta, upapluta yonivyapad etc. Methods: This is a single case study of a 29 years female patient, came with complaints of vaginal discharge with foul smell, itching vulva associated with backache. So yoniprakshala was done with panchvalkal kwath for 7 days. Discussion: Yoniprakshalan was carried out with panchvalkal kwath twice a day for 7 days. Patient got gradual improvement in subsiding the symptoms and cure after 1 week. So she adviced for follow up after 1 week and also adviced to maintain local hygiene. Result: Patient showed the remarkable improvement in severity of symptoms. Conclusion: The dravya of Pancha valkal kawatha is kapha shamaka, stambhaka and having the properties (guna-karma) such as astringent (kashaya rasatmka), antiseptic (roganu-nasaka)) and wound healing (vrana ropana). Because of these properties it helps in increasing local cell immunity and prevent recurrence of symptoms.

  18. Sydney C. Kehrmann, Brianna Niebrugge and Marianne Robertson

    Individuals conserve energy through pathogen avoidance by preventing costly immune responses. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are gram-negative bacterial endotoxins that initiate an immune response without causing infection. We tested adult male and female wingless Drosophila melanogaster using lipopolysaccharide concentrations of 0.5 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml. Control flies were not pre-exposed to lipopolysaccharides, while experimental flies were exposed to a food source containing lipopolysaccharides. We placed an individual fly into an arena that contained an uninfected food source (no LPS) and an infected food source (LPS). For each control (n = 30) and experimental (n = 30) fly, we recorded how many times the fly landed on each food source, and the duration of time spent on each food source. There were no significant differences in number of visits or time spent on the infected food source by control males or control females at 0.5 mg/ml LPS. There were no significant differences in number of visits or time spent on the infected food source by experimental males or experimental females at 0.5 mg/ml LPS. There were no significant differences in number of visits or time spent on the infected food source by control males or control females at 1.0 mg/ml LPS. Experimental males pre-exposed to 1.0 mg/ml LPS spent significantly less time on the infected food source and had significantly less visits to any food source. Experimental females had no significant differences in number of visits or time spent on the infected food source at 1.0 mg/ml LPS. There was a significantly smaller proportion of active flies following exposure to the 1.0 mg/ml concentration of lipopolysaccharides in both males and females. These differential results between male and female flies demonstrate sex-specific behaviors following exposure to an endotoxin.

  19. Mutiiria, Susan Muthoni, Rutto, Jane Jemeli, Muthuri, Grace Gakii and Kiogora Domenic

    Sanitation is one of the basic determinants of quality of life and human development index. Poor sanitation and hygiene practices are major causes of ill health and socio-economic problems, and portray a major development barrier in most developing countries. Meru County government loses 816 million KES each year due to poor sanitation, with pit latrine coverage of 60%. Diarrhoea and related illnesses account for 16% of deaths among the children below 5 years and stand second to pneumonia in Meru County. This study sought to assess the motivational determinants influencing sanitation practices in rural settlements of Tigania East Sub- County, in Meru County. A descriptive study design was used with a sample size of 150 households calculated using Fisher’s formula. Cluster sampling technique was used in categorizing Tigania East Sub-County into its respective wards and simple random sampling technique employed in selection of households from the clusters. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 using descriptive and inferential statistics for quantitative, while qualitative data was presented thematically. Findings revealed that 70% of the respondents were not satisfied with using sanitation facilities in poor states. Absence of safety, privacy, poor design of the superstructure, inaccessibility of toilets, and cultural beliefs encouraged poor sanitation practices such as open defecation. Some of the residents believed that children faeces are safe and was disposed in the garden, bush and composite pit. This was influenced by behaviour of the people within the community due to lack of knowledge on effects on sanitation practices. The study recommends the need to address motivational determinants as they influence sanitation practices in rural areas through training to the residents. The study also recommends government collaboration with sanitation-related bodies coupled with health promotion activities by Public Health Officers to support the construction of improved toilets in the study area.

  20. Miss. Shrishaila B. Mudhol

    Socio-economic offences are those that negatively impact society on both a social and economic level. This is mostly due to financial greed. This is sometimes mistaken for other similar offences, however there is a slight distinction between them. It is crucial to understand the concept of socio-economic offences in India as described in the 47th Law Commission Report. The study defines socioeconomic crimes as social offences that harm not only the individual victim but also the community's overall health, morals, social structure, or general well-being. Economic offences are those that impair society's economy and put people's safety in peril. Laws enacted to govern and control socioeconomic crime currently contain elements of a new criminal jurisprudence. This involves reducing or eliminating the requirement to establish intent and considering socioeconomic crimes as having strict responsibility. Also, vicarious criminal liability, which entails a principal's responsibility for the actions of its agents, is coming to light more frequently. The penalties for socioeconomic crimes are also getting harsher; they now come with obligatory minimum sentences, hefty fines, and property seizure. The stigma associated with socioeconomic crime should be increased by raising social awareness about such crime through increased publicity about the trials and convictions of those who have committed it, in addition to providing stronger deterrent elements for such crime through more effective law enforcement, prosecution, and sentencing. The government has occasionally taken several significant steps to address this issue, but more has to be done to regulate completely.

  21. Dr. Prasad, P.V.N.R.

    Nidra is considered as one of the basic pillars of Health. Proper sleep helps an individual keep Energetic, Enthusiastic and does Brumhana, increases the Bala, vigour and vitality and keeps the Mind in stable state for gaining knowledge. The Ojus which is responsible for our body (immune system) also relies on sleep. Hence, Nidra is very important regimen of day to day life. Anidra or Nidranasha is one of the most prevalent health complaints, with approximately 10 to 15% of the general population suffering regularly from it and about 25 to 35% presenting transient or occasional insomnia. Anidra is the perception or complaint of inadequate or poor quality of sleep. Estimates of insomnia prevalence have varied widely, from 10–40%. The reasons could be difficulty in falling asleep, difficulty in maintaining sleep or waking too early in the morning. The prevalence of Insomnia increases steadily with age and reported by up to one in 3 people aged 65 years and above and the incidence in women is 1.3 times greater than in men. Chronic Insomnia can lead to severe fatigue, anxiety, depression and lack of concentration. It comes under Vata nanatmaja vikara. There is no direct reference regarding the causative factors of Nidranasha. Scattered reference can be seen about Anidra in Ayurvedic Classics in different contexts. However, detailed description of Nidra and Nidranasha along with the different treatment modalities is given in Ayurvedic Samhitas and also in the works of later periods.

  22. Ning Xiao, Qi Tang, Hong Chen, JinHua Xiao and Xiangxi Yao

    Background: Since 2015,the clinical professional master was enrolled in the national standardized residency train system established formally in 2014 and in mainland China to improve the clinical skills and capacity of health care practitioner, but downfall of academic ability was found partly in these masteres. Methods: The reading speed and accurate rate of professional literature comprehension of English reviews in neurogenic bladder between postgraduates of both groups, in which traditional instruction and problem-based learning (PBL) were respectively performed from day 1 to day 3, were compared at day 1 and day 4. Results: After courses of instruction, reading speed and accurate rate of professional literature comprehension of all postgraduates in two groups were enhanced significantly and respectively compared to before instruction, but more markedly improvement in the students of PBL groups compared to the control was detected. Conclusions: It is likely that the clinical professional master may yield more capacities of professional literature comprehension in English by PBL procedures compared to traditional instruction.

  23. ABDOU BAGNA Amadou, ADJAKPA Tchékpo Théodore and CHEKOU KORE Elhadji Mohamoud

    La pluviométrie est un paramètre climatique très important dans le domaine agricole. Dans la plaine de la Tarka, la pluie est très instable et perturbe le fonc¬tionnement du calendrier agricole. La bonne distribution spatio-temporelle semble être compromise d’année en année. Cette instabilité pluviométrique est marquée par de fréquentes fluctuations qui perturbent le bon développement des cultures pluviales. Il s’agit notamment du démarrage tardif et l’arrêt précoce des pluies bouleversant ainsi les activités de productions agricoles et conduisant à l’adoption des stratégies d’adaptation. La présente étude a pour objectif d’analyser les risques climatiques dans le secteur agricole ainsi que les stratégies d’adaptation développées par les producteurs. La méthodologie s’appuie sur l’analyse de la variabilité climatique à travers la critique de relevés pluviométriques de Madaoua et Bouza, complétées par des enquêtes des perceptions sur les risques climatiques et les stratégies d’adaptation. Les résultats révèlent que la variabilité pluviométrique est réelle dans la Tarka et plusieurs stratégies sont mises en œuvre par les paysans pour renforcer leur resilience. Elles vont de la modification du calendrier et des pratiques agricoles, de l’irrigation à travers la mise en valeur des bas-fonds. L’étude a conclu aussi qu’une meilleure maîtrise des pratiques d’adaptation et l’accompagnement des exploitants sont de véritables palliatifs aux impacts des changements climatiques sur les activités agricoles dans la Tarka. Il est donc plus qu’utile d’appuyer les agriculteurs dans l’amélioration de ces stratégies pour une meilleure sécurisation de la production agricole.

  24. Gildas David Farid ADAMON, Angele Y. ALAPINI, Aime AGONMAN, Rodolphe N'DEDJI SODOKIN and Adonaï GBAGUIDI

    In Africa, traditional fuels are mainly used for cooking meals. In developing countries, most mainly use firewood and charcoal. In Benin, biomass essentially represented by firewood and charcoal represents 55.1% of final energy consumption in 2020. The negative effects of the exploitation of wood energy for the production of charcoal on environment are now well known: pockets of desertification, soil erosion, climate change, etc. These effects can be measured by the increase in charcoal consumption, which depends on household size, dietary habits and also the type of stove used. This study, using the standard process for the manufacture of ecological coal, proposes ecological coals with high energy efficiency called “ChachaKan” made from two kinds of biomass which are: Typha Australis and coconut husks capable of suitably replacing charcoal wood and firewood. These analyzes revealed a sample of charcoal briquette, with a lower calorific value (LCV) of 5,289.98 Cal/g, or 72% of the LCV of the charcoal. The latter has a flammability time of 3 minutes 2 seconds.

  25. Amith Kiran, Chetan Gotur, Sri Hari Karthik Ram Pingali and Nishith

    A Morgagni hernia is an exceptionally rare type of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. This only accounts for 2–5% of all hernias in the diaphragm. Morgagni hernia is asymptomatic and usually detected in childhood, however it can be rarely seen in adults with complication. A computed tomography scan aids in the diagnosis of Morgagni hernia. We have presented a case of Morgagni hernia caused by a road accident that was unusual and effectively treated surgically.

  26. Ghazy Abdullah Albaqawy

    This study aims to investigate the current Saudi cultural heritage management system, including the involvement of participant from various stockholders such as municipalities, tourism, and education. The importance of effective management in implementing laws and regulations is highlighted, particularly in the development of heritage sites. To improve the organizational structure for cultural heritage, the paper addresses the issue of connecting national and local levels and enhancing the contribution of stakeholders through public awareness campaigns. The discussion also emphasizes the need to strengthen connections between key players and improve the management of heritage sites in the tourism, architectural, and urban sectors.

  27. Amith Kiran, Chetan Gotur, Naqueebunnisa Rasheed, Satish and Vishwas

    Primary congenital subcostal hernias are relatively uncommon type of hernia. We present a case of a female patient with a 12-inch-long primary congenital subcostal hernia extending from the right of the xiphisternum to the 10th costal cartilage, obliquely subcostal with a breadth of nearly 8 inches and a hemisphere shape. This case was successfully treated surgically.

  28. Allaeeddine BOUCHAIB, Abdellah BABAHABIB, Moulay el Mehdi ELHASSANI and Jaouad KOUACH

    Perineal Endometriosis is a rare condition defined by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, most often on the episiotomy scar or after obstetrical trauma. Symptoms are nonspecific and usually include pain and the presence of a nodule at the incision site that increases in size during menstruation. The diagnosis can be based on MRI prior to wide surgical excision to confirm the diagnosis after pathological reading. We report the case of a 28 year old female patient who presented a perineal endometrioma 2 years after a vaginal delivery.

  29. Swamy, K.R.M.

    Luffa is a genus of tropical and subtropical vines in the Cucurbitaceae family. It grows as a flowering annual vine. In everyday non-technical usage, the luffa, also spelled loofah, usually means the fruit of the two species L. aegyptiaca and L. acutangula. Genus name was derived from the product “Loofah” used as bathing sponges, scrubber pads, doormats, pillows, mattresses, cleaning utensils. The plant name "Luffa" was introduced to Western botany nomenclature by the botanist Johann Vesling, who visited Egypt in the late 1620s and described the plant under cultivation with artificial irrigation in Egypt. In 1706 the botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort introduced the formal botany genus name "Luffa". In establishing the Luffa genus, Tournefort identified just one member species and called it "Luffa arabum". His 1706 article includes detailed drawings of this species (which is now called Luffa aegyptiaca). Origin of ridge gourd is not known. Smooth gourd may be a native of South Asia or Africa or Australia. The Luffa has essentially Old World origin in subtropical Asian region including particularly India. The origin of the Luffa (loofah) sponge is unknown as to where exactly it came from, but most scientists believe it originated in Asia or Africa and actual cultivation first started in India. Indo-Burma is reported to be the centre of diversity for sponge gourd. The young fruit is eaten as a vegetable and is commonly grown for that purpose in tropical Asia. Unlike the young fruit, the fully ripened fruit is strongly fibrous and inedible, and is used to make scrubbing bath sponges. The young shoots, flowers and leaves can be cooked, and the mature seeds can be roasted for consumption. An edible oil can be extracted from the seeds. The resulting oil meal can be fed to rabbits and catfish, or used as a fertilizer. Smooth luffa (Luffa aegyptiaca) produces pretty yellow flowers which are both showy and conspicuous, about 5-7.6 cm across with five petals. The fruits are green, up to 61 cm long and 7.6 cm in diameter; they are cylindrical and smooth, and shaped like a club, slighter wider on one end. Small fruits look like okra or little cucumbers. On older fruits, the outer skin eventually dries and turns brown and papery. Ridged loofah (Luffa acutangula), or "vine okra", is a similar species which has light yellow/white flowers and produces gourds that are ridged with ten angles. Vine okra is harder to peel for the sponge. The fruit section of L. aegyptiaca may be allowed to mature and used as a bath or kitchen sponge after being processed to remove everything except the network of xylem fibers. If the loofah is allowed to fully ripen and then dried on the vine, the flesh disappears leaving only the fibrous skeleton and seeds, which can be easily shaken out. In this review article origin, distribution, taxonomy, botanical description, genetic diversity, and breeding of Luffa spp. are discussed.

  30. Rajat Tomar, Dr. Amit Suhane and Dr. Mandloi, R.K.

    In the early stages detection of faults in antifriction bearing in health condition monitoring of bearing is a very cumbersome task. The defects in bearing unless detected in time may lead to downtime of setup. The main cause of rolling element defects are following ; inappropriate design of the bearing or inappropriate manufacturing or mounting, bearing races misalignment, uneven diameter of rollers, improper lubrication, wear, fatigue, overloading. The objective of this paper is to present a detailed overview of the different detection techniques used for measuring rolling bearing defects. This paper presents an overview on various detection techniques used for measuring ball bearing defects; they may be majorly classified as vibration measurement, acoustic measurement, temperature measurement. Vibration and AE signal analysis techniques like time, frequency, time-frequency domain, fast and accurate techniques like ANN are focused study areas. Effectiveness of three ANN classifier MLP, RBF, PNN are also studied. Latest topic of interest like KNN, CNN, AEN, ML, DL are also reviewed.

  31. Rani, S.C. and Usha M Thomas

    Background of the study: Chronic liver disease (CLD) represents a major public health problem worldwide. It is a progressive deterioration of liver functions for more than six months characterized by a process of inflammation, destruction, and regeneration of liver parenchyma, which leads to fibrosis and cirrhosis. The cultural–lifestyle transition that India is passing through currently with progressive adoption of a western diet and sedentary habits, create grounds for a spectrum of liver diseases in India. The expanding size of the population and an increasing life expectancy in the country are important demographic determinants of this change. Literature has documented that strenuous working environment and tight work schedules that the policemen face in their day to day job activities have contributed to an increased incidence of chronic diseases among them. Education is a key tool in the prevention and disease management, contributing to appropriate behavioural modifications. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of pedagogical program regarding prevention and management of chronic liver disease among police personnel. Methods: Study has used anevaluative approachwithPre experimental, one group pre test-post test design. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 100 police personnel for the study. Data was collected using structured knowledge questionnaire. Results: The results of the study revealed that majority of police personnel (53%) were having poor knowledge regarding prevention and management of chronic liver disease. Findings also revealed that pedagogical program on prevention and management of chronic liver disease was effective in enhancing the knowledge of police personnel as indicated by the “t” value which was statistically significant at 0.05 level of significance (‘t’=11.56:p<0.05). Statistically significant association was observed between the personal variables of police personnel viz. age, educational status, duration of working experience and dietary pattern with their level of knowledge regarding prevention and management of chronic liver disease. Conclusion: Pedagogical program was effective in increasing the knowledge of police personnel regarding prevention and management of chronic liver disease.

  32. Badesaba

    Adolescents' social skills are highly influenced by family, environment and cultural background. Appropriate social skills are needed for the successful completion of social roles and responsibilities. The present study aims to investigate the social skills of adolescents in relation to gender, place of living, type of school, category of school and students active on social sites. The study has been carried out on 815 secondary and senior secondary school students from Uttar Pradesh, India. The results revealed that girls have high social skills than boys. The findings also showed that students who are active on social sites have higher social skills than those who are not active on social sites. Similar findings have been found in favour of co-educational institutions and private school students.

  33. Dr. Jeya Bharathi, M. and Karthick Vikram, P.

    Azospirillum is the foremost common plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that are generally associated with fibrous root containing plants viz., rice, wheat and Ragi. Azospirillum is a nitrogen fixing bacterium and secretes plant growth hormone like IAA, Gibberellin which helps in plant root growth. The performance of Azospirillum will be varying for different location due to its adaptability to the particular environment. In this experiment, the indigenous strains were isolated from rice. The isolates were purified, characterized, screened and massmultiplied on N free malic acid (Dobreiner, et.al, 1976). The screened isolates were subjected to pot culture condition. The effect of the isolates on plant root length, shoot length, dry weight, no of main and lateral roots were examined at 10, 20 and 30 DAS. Among the isolates isolate AI7 gave better performance towards root length (18 cm), shoot length ( 35 cm), root volume (0.19 cc), number of main root ( 16 ) and number of lateral root (15.64) and dry weight (0.64g/plant).

  34. Gaurav Sahu, Sanjay Singh and Yashwant Kumar Patel

    In contrast to traditional marketing methods such as print media, in-person events, television and radio advertisements, digital marketing (also known as online marketing, internet marketing, or web marketing) refers to all marketing activity done online. The Internet's widespread use and the efficiency of digital marketing channels in generating sales and brand awareness are the main causes of the industry's explosive expansion. Digital marketing provides accurate targeting, reasonable costs (essential for small- and medium-sized firms and start-ups), and great reporting when compared to traditional advertising tactics. In India, digital marketing is growing quickly. Digital marketing is being used by many Indian businesses to generate competitive leads. Internet plays the largest and most important function in digital marketing. The widespread usage of the internet for both personal and professional purposes has led to the creation of numerous new channels for advertising and marketing activity. This article is primarily concerned with the development of digital marketing in the current environment. The purpose of the study is to identify the phenomenon connected to the trend in digital marketing. As a result, three parties—the Corporation, the Third Party Agency, and the Consumers—were included in the dispute. The survey's findings show that everyone is in agreement that internet literacy is a requirement for the expansion of digital marketing in this study.

  35. Mahesh Dave, Yash Shah, Ravi Kumar, Manasvin Sareen, Sahil Kharbanda, Anuj Goyal, Nagaraj, T., and Avinash

    Introduction: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a problem getting or keeping an erection hard enough for satisfactory sexual performance. The global prevalence of ED is 3–76.5%. ED constitutes a large burden on society given its high prevalence and impact on quality of life. Diabetes is a common cause of organic ED. The pathophysiology of diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction is multifactorial. Prevalence of ED in diabetes rate range from 35 % to 85% depending on the study, versus 26% in general population. ED occurs 10-15 years earlier in men with diabetes than it does in sex-matched counterparts without diabetes. Material and methods: Study was conducted in male diabetic patients attending medical OPD and endocrinology OPD and those admitted in these wards of MB Hospital Udaipur from Jun 2021 to Jun 2022. It was a hospital based cross sectional study. ED was diagnosed by asking patients to complete International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 questionnaires. Then according to score patients were divided into 4 categories: Mild ED means score is between 17-21, mild to moderate ED if score is between 12-16, moderate ED if score is between 8-11 and severe ED if score is between 1-7. Now presence of ED and its severity was correlated with age, residence, duration of diabetes, glycemic status, lipid profile, complications, BMI, etc. Results: Prevalence of ED in male diabetic patients was found to be 67%. Among 100 cases with erectile dysfunction, 9 had mild ED (13.4%), 16 cases had mild to moderate (23.8%), 15 cases had moderate ED (22.3%) and 27 had severe ED (40.2%). Prevalence of ED was found to be proportional to age. Majority of cases in ED group are those with long standing diabetes. Correlation of ED with complication of diabetes like nephropathy and neuropathy was significant whereas not for retinopathy. Significant correlation was found between BMI and ED. Conclusion: ED prevalence was high among the diabetic men and it increased with age and duration of the disease. Presence of diabetic complications was significantly associated with ED. BMI was significantly associated with development of ED therefore lifestyle modification should be recommended to all patients.

  36. Dr. Mushtaq Chalkoo, Dr. Aamir H Hela, Dr. Mehraj-ud-din Ganaie, Dr.Suryavel, S., Dr.Ghulam nabi Guroo and Dr.Vikash Gupta

    Laparoscopic cholecsytectomy has gained the title of gold standard treatment for gall stone diseases. Over the last thirty years, there has been a tremendous progress in the technical advancement of this procedure. With the advent of standard four port technique, the surgeons progressed with their different modifications and innovations viz a viz the topography, design and the number of ports. This is what led to the growing concept of reduced port surgery in laparoscopic cholecsytectomy. The technical journey in laparoscopic cholecsytectomy made us to travel a distance from four port, three port, two port to currently single port surgery. Subsequently the topography and site for port making on abdomen also underwent different modifications. The site for epigastric port is important among all ports as it is the main working port in most of the techniques used for laparoscopic cholecsytectomy. Its accurate placement on the abdomen adds technical ease to the procedure. Herein we present a minireview from literature on laparoscopic cholecsytectomy with different modifications to number, site and design of ports with special emphasis on our contributions in this regard.

  37. Dr. Eric Buhle Gumbi

    Some Cough Syrups contain narcotics which include opium, morphine, heroin, chloroform, alcohol and cannabis, while others contain unacceptable amounts of diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol, whose ingredients proved having dangerous side effects if maladministered. Such ingredients suspectedly act on the Central Nervous System in different ways, and apart from interrupting pain signal transmissions, they also act on brainstem to supress the urge to cough which is not yet proven or known as to how exactly the mechanism works in the brain or body. Its widely used by parents as a sleep-inducing mechanism to their children coercively pressed me to critically investigate the misuse of cough syrups, since the nascent form of behaviour is of common practice by some parents where children are dosed with cough syrups to make them sleep. The purpose of the paper is to critically investigate the learning and behavioural problem as well as mismanagement of emotions and development of social skills due to the maladministration of cough syrups by care-givers who intentionally give children some dosages of cough syrups with an aim of inducing sleep instantly while the child is no longer prepared to sleep. The paper further try to observe the continuous impact of cough syrups as sleep-inducing mechanism in the child’s early cognitive development and the child’s achievement in class. Over-the-counter medication proved to be having significant side effect even if correctly administered, and since children metabolize medicine differently, this can cause some dangerous side effects even though correctly given. As a result of such overlapping ingredients, unmonitored consumption can accidentally overdosed even if correct dosage instructions were followed, which raised the question of negative and dangerous side effects through a child cognitive development. The study was viewed within the scope of attachment theory which concerned with the role of the primary carer in providing a child with a sense of safety as a secure base from which to thrive and flourish. The attachment theory has a deeper explanation in the way of the relationship between the primary carer (normally the mother) and the child in creating the structure and process of the child’s mind. The research paper has been viewed within the internments of the child-learning behaviour as its paradigm, focusing on the relationship between the participants in a way where a fair understanding of vital viewpoints should be created within child-rearing fundamentals. For data generation, the research design and methodology was adorned by narratives, discussions and observations in a purposeful sampled social engagements where critical participatory action research was used in a qualitative form of approach. The study is underpinned by critical discourse analysis since generated data sought to provide an extended inquiry into the (in)-human logic of deliberate, and ambiguous pinnacle where a child maximal potential might be suppressed through unconscious ideas that besmirch the child’s pedagogical intellect, defying the democratic fundamentals, and immersing in immoderate behavioural pattern in the child-rearing discourse.

  38. Latha, N., and Dr. Ambika, K.

    Background of the study: United nation international children fund state that children are not only divine gifts, but also the mirror of a nation and hope of the world. Health of the children is a key factor in school entry as well as continued participation and achievement in school. The child spends most of the time in the school between the ages 6 and 15 years. Children are the more powerful channel for reaching out the public health information. It gives a more opportunity to prepare themselves.Child to child approach is a means of promoting health education through children. Aim and objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of child to child approach programme on knowledge of children regarding dental hygiene among children in a selected rural government school in Mysuru district Karnataka. Methods: A Pre-experimental One group pretest posttest design was used and 60 children were selected at Hommaragali Govt school Mysuru district using non probability convenience sampling technique. Data were collected using Selected personal variable and structured knowledge questionnaire to assess the knowledge regarding dental hygiene. A child-to-child approach was conducted for children studying 5th 6th and 7th standard students. The data were collected and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The results of the study revealed that the significant difference between the mean pretest and post test knowledge scores was statistically tested using paired ‘t’ test and was found to be significant at 0.05 level of significance t(58)= 14.3 and The results also depicted that knowledge of children regarding dental hygiene had no association with their selected personal variables. Conclusion: The study has revealedthat the child-to-child approach was effective in increasing the knowledge of children regarding dental hygiene among children. Therefore the study recommends that, it is essential to organize health campaigns and child-to-child approach to enhance the knowledge regarding dental hygiene among children.

  39. Tegawende Stephane Ouedraogo

    Trauma is undeniably part of the quotidian life of modern as well as contemporary African American characters. This trauma is multifaceted and multigenerational. It is prevalent so much so, that some critics associate for better or for worse, the loss of identity to the African American characters. Drawing links with slavery on the one hand, many critics hold the view that what characterizes the identity of modern as well as contemporary African American characters is hyper vigilance, schizophrenia, ambivalence, a foreshortened sense of the future etc., which echo the biases, stereotypes and clichés people of African descent have always been subject to worldwide. The African roots of the African American characters is also used to question the American identity of the African American characters in exile in the U.S., which creates the rationale for this research paper. In this paper, I provide an answer to the issue of the identity as experienced by African American characters. To do so, I pose questions like, can a people without losing his own culture and identity, truly embrace a new culture under the hot irons and the whips of slavery, the mockeries of racism as well as the oppression of discrimination in a foreign land? Going deeper into the subconscious of the African American character in exile in a foreign land, and scrutinizing the unconscious behaviors of African American characters may help answer the question pertaining to the identity of modern as well as contemporary African American characters. Through the lenses of psychotherapist Joy DeGruy’s Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome theory (PTSS), I probe into the life of John Grimes, the hero of James Baldwin’s semi-autobiography Go Tell It on the Mountain (1954) in order to unravel the unconscious trauma which serves to build his American identity. At first, I deal with the theoretical framework, which is Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome (PTSS), and then the historical background of African American characters before addressing the identity of John Grimes in Go Tell It on the Mountain.

  40. Jhancy Pavithra, G. and Usha M Thomas

    Introduction: Chronic Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their associated risk factors have emerged rapidly and are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. The impact of NCDs is devastating in terms of premature morbidity, mortality, and economic loss. The rise of NCDs has been driven by primarily four major risk factors: tobacco use, physical inactivity, the harmful use of alcohol and unhealthy diets. NCDs are chronic diseases of long duration and generally slow progression and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental, and behavioural factors. India being a patriarchal society, women have very little role to play in their health care issues. A famous slogan, “Healthy Women, Healthy World”, embodies the fact that as custodians of family health, women play a critical role in maintaining the health and overall well-being of her communities. In developing countries like India, where resources are limited, preventive measures and lifestyle modification appears to be the only essential weapon. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the risk factors for NCDs among women residing in selected urban communities of Mysuru and to find the association between the selected non communicable diseases and the selected personal variables of women. Methods: Research design adopted for the study was an exploratory survey method. Non probability purposive sampling was used to select 150 women for the study. Risk factors of women for NCDs was assessed by using risk assessment tool for NCDs. Risk scores of women were entered into a datasheet and classified as low, moderate and high risk groups. 72 women were having low risk and 78 women were having moderate to high risk for NCDs. Results: The results of the study revealed that 52% of women had moderate to high risk for NCDs. There was a statistically significant association between the risk factors of women for NCDs and their selected personal variables viz. age, family history of NCDs, BMI, and waist circumference. Conclusion: The study findings stress the increasing responsibility of health professionals in planning and implementing various educational strategies to improve the knowledge of the public regarding prevention and management of selected NCDs which in turn help to reduce their risk for NCDs in their later life.

  41. MORO Yao Binger

    Cet article rend compte des connaissances, représentations sociales et comportements des populations liés au lavage des mains. Une enquête qualitative par usage de guide d’entretien a été menée dans la période de décembre 2021 à octobre 2022. Les informations recueillies lors de cette enquête ont été traitées par l’analyse de contenu et interprétées à l’aide de la méthode compréhensive ainsi que la méthode de l’individualisme méthodologique et l’acteur stratégique. Les résultats obtenus révèlent que peu de gens connaissent les indications et les techniques d’hygiène des mains selon le type. Aussi, l’étude a montré que le lavage des mains n’est pas une attitude bien pratiquée par la population. L’adhésion du personnel soignant au lavage des mains est faible. Au total, les connaissances, les représentations sociales et les comportements des populations sont des facteurs défavorisants du taux d’observance de l’hygiène des mains.

  42. Dr. Dev Prakash and Dulee Chand Mahala

    The total quality of an individual’s behavior as it is revealed in his habits of thought and expression, his attitude and interests, his manner of acting and his personal philosophy of life. Personality traits are any particular characteristic of an individual which change and develop according to the experience, surroundings and time.

  43. Pushpalatha, J.K., Mary Esther Cynthia Johnson, Thakur John and Thakur Jacob

    A comprehensive survey of medicinal plants was conducted over a one-year period (2014-2015) in the Mahabubnagar district. During the survey, 31 medicinal plants belonging to 26 families were collected during their flowering and fruiting seasons. Out of these 31 plants, some were used for antiepileptic purposes, 4 for anti-rheumatic treatment, 2 for each of the following: abortifacients, antiasthmatic, antidiabetics, anti dysentery, anti sterility, boils, cough, jaundice, laxatives, leprosy, ophthalmic diseases, and piles, while only 1 was used for each of the following: anti-plague, cold, fever, restorative, carminative, tuberculosis, and urinary diseases. Additionally, four rare and endangered plant species and seven endemic plant species were collected and multiplied in PU MBNR through the ex-situ method. The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to the pressing need for domesticating useful plant species based on their significance, potential alternatives, and level of endangerment.

  44. Emmanuel Obed Acquah

    The study of Ghanaian choral music composers and their works has become significant in recent times for scholars in composition and ethnomusicology as well as Music Education, in order to add to the dearth of literature on Ghanaian composers and their unique styles. Indeed, some few living music composers in Ghana have received attention through dissertation writing in the academic institutions. Using the concept of biography, the Cultural-historical activity theory, as well as case study design with non-directive interview and purposive sampling technique, the study takes a cursory look at the events of the life and unique style of Tsemafo-Arthur, and presented as biographical facts that have influenced his artistic creativity in music composition. It is concluded that Tsemafo-Arthur is a unique stylized choral music composer resulting from his mastery use of syncopations as an artistic device in his compositions. His usage of Fante texts as libretto for his songs, emanating from the Christian Asɔr Ndwom (Methodist Hymn Book), portrays the source of his textual materials. The study contributes significantly to educational function in music composition at various levels of music education.

  45. SK.Wasim Nawaz and Amit Kumar Roy

    Leukoplakia is the most potentially malignant disorder. Genetic mutations often produce early phenotypic changes that may present as clinically apparent, recognizable lesions. The study was undertaken with a view to assess p53 mutation in oral leukoplakia, OSCC and risk of progression from pre-cancer to cancer. A total number of 15 OL and/or OSCC patient studied. Clinical diagnosis, histopathological analysis and sanger sequencing are done. Among them 6 SNPs were detected in 5 OSCC & 3 OL patients. Two TP53 somatic mutation detected in patient sample.

  46. Dr. Shivaji Jadhav

    Fake news, misinformation and disinformation are an ingrained disease in the information world. In the Gujarat assembly elections held in December 2022, information was also polluted with the help of fake news. In Gujarat, three parties—the Bharatiya Janata Party, the Congress, and the Aam Aadmi Party—fought against each other. In this election, the digital armies of all the parties tried to defame each other. Fake news, misinformation, and disinformation were widely used. Spreading fake news created confusion among the voters. Old videos and photos were tampered with in an attempt to send the wrong message. There was also an attempt to endanger the religious unity of India. In fact, political mudslinging and the worst kind of influence on the voting process were also done. Social media was widely misused during the election period. There was a deliberate attempt to spread false information, the wrong message, and misleading content on all platforms, like text, audio, video, photo, digital board, posters, and pamphlets. Social media platforms like WhatsApp, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, etc. were used to spread fake news. Furthermore, fake news was purposefully spread using the logos of major mainstream media in order to confuse voters.

  47. Huali Wang

    Today’s schools all over the globe are on a constant pressure to improve the quality of instructions and services that they provide. Marketing of their programs and activities has become a higher priority for them. To date, the literature on educational marketing has focused on how schools market and promote themselves in the community, how they maintain and enhance their image, and the factors affecting parents and there remains a paucity of research on principals’ patterns of involvement in the marketing and image-building of their schools, and on the potential impact of these new managerial activities on principals’ careers and well-being. Specifically, this study’s objectives were: (1) describe the lived experiences of principals as social media marketers of their schools; (2) identify the essence of the experiences of the principal marketers. This study employed the phenomenological approach to investigate the experiences of the principals as digital marketers. The setting of this study was in Hunan, China. The researcher originally selected 7 private upper secondary schools in the province and mainly utilized two research instruments: interview guide and observation guide. It was found that: (1) Principals recognize and commit to high accountability as social media marketers of their schools;(2) Principals devote themselves to highly engage in social media marketing of their schools;(3) Principals experience a lot of difficulties as social media marketers of their schools; (4) Principals provide programs and trainings in capacitating employees who support them in social media marketing of their schools; and (5) Principals develop their creativity and adaptability in social media marketing of their schools. Based on the summarized findings, the following are concluded: (1) the lived experiences of the principals as social media marketers generated fives themes: Responsibility, Immersion, Challenge, Entrustment, and Growth; and (2) the experiences of the Chinese school principals as primary school marketers highlighted their holistic journey towards their personal, professional, and leadership development, revealing the factors that propel them to take on the marketing duties, and the conflicts which paved the opportunity for growth. Culled from the conclusion, the researcher made the following recommendations: (1) the school principals may engage themselves in training and workshops that focus on technology and digital marketing; (2) the principals may hire a person who is assigned to digital marketing, so they may focus on supervising and monitoring leads and progress; (3) the roles of the school principals may be reviewed in light of the findings for the possibility of updating and revising their job descriptions; (4) Focus Group Meetings participated by the marketing group may be done on a weekly basis to cater to concerns, and to assess the effectiveness of social media marketing implementation; and (5) a follow-up research may be done to quantify the effect of the performance of marketing roles on the academic leadership of school principals.

  48. Sukanya Rawat, Chitra Chand and Dhananjoy Shaw

    Background: Yoga appears to be a vital factor for improving health and behavior to achieve better physical and mental well-being. Therefore, it is now considered as a form of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Aim: This meta-analysis attempts to find out the beneficial effect of yoga on various hormonal functions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the findings of the selected articles and to provide the comprehensive review regarding the effect of yoga on hormonal functions. Methods and Materials: The studies included were collected from online databases such as Science Direct, Pub Med, Wiley Online Library and Google Scholar. The articles published from January 2000 to December 2020 were considered. The main keywords were “yoga,” "hormones” and “athletes”. The total studies, identified were N=5866 and the studies included for critical analysis were N=10. Results: This study provides data in regards to statistics of male and female sample size, age of sample and duration of treatment protocol which are very useful and can be used as a basis for further investigation. Conclusions: In addition, the present study provides ample evidence to prove that yoga treatment improves and maintains hormonal functions.

  49. Baskaran, K., Safana. A., Namitha, V., Abishek, M., Dinesh Raja, S., Sijo Henry, Haseera, N. and Shalet Varghese

    The nutritional profile of minerals and antioxidants in Indian spice extracts was evaluated in order to examine their efficacy in treating various diseases, disorders, and allergies in human health. Medicinal plants Ocimum basilicum, regularly consumed as spice products in South Asia, have been studied using elemental analysis, antioxidant studies. The basil leaf was extracted by maceration process using methanol and ethylacetate. The methanol and ethylacetate extract were screened of phytochemical content including identification of flavonoid, alkaloid, polyphenols, glycosides, tannin, saponin etc. Estimation of total flavonoids, phenolic content was based on aluminium chloride method in the sample extract by spectrophotometrically. Phytochemical screening test showed that the presence of saponins, proteins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, alkaloids in leaves parts when extracted with methanol and ethylacetate solvents. In this study, Ocimum basilicum, has phytochemicals properties in the leaves which are used in curing the ailments and higher flavonoid content indicated the natural antioxidant activity signifying their medicinal importance and potent source in pharma industries. We conclude that Ocimum basilicum, is a highly useful medicinal plant. However, there is necessary to explore natural plant sources with their medicinal value used in medical field.

  50. Dr. Rasool Karim Nizaro Siyo, Dr. Anjali, N., Dr. Parson Paul, Dr. Navedha, Dr. Gayathri, Dr. Jishnu and Dr. Veena, K.A.

    Background and Objectives: Attachments with sufficient bond strengths and a low failure rate are required for a fixed orthodontic appliance to be successful. For bonding brackets to enamel surfaces, a variety of adhesives have been employed and optimal color and shade match of composite resins and teeth, make identification of adhesive–tooth interface difficult and complete removal of adhesive remnants may not be easily achieved. Color-change light-cured composites were recently introduced to the orthodontic market to enhance differentiation of adhesive and enamel. The objective of this study is to compare the shear bond strength, adhesive remnant index and enamel loss while debonding between two color changing adhesive with a conventional orthodontic adhesive. Methods: 120 human maxillary teeth freshly extracted was collected and stored. Then specimen was randomly divided into three groups and bonded accordingly. Among 40 samples prepared in each group, 20 samples were taken for shear bond test. Remaining 20 samples was debonded manually by using a debonding plier. The debonded tooth surfaces of 20 samples were examined under stereomicroscope of 10x magnification to assess residual adhesive on tooth surface and site of bond failure using Adhesive remnant index. The debonded bracket base of 20 samples was examined under Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy to detect calcium and phosphorus. Result and Discussion: There was no statistically significant difference between the shear bond strength of Grengloo and Transbond Plus color changing adhesives. Energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy analysis showed a significantly high amount of elemental Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorous (P) on Transbond Plus. There were significant differences found in enamel loss by color changing adhesives. Significant result was found between shear bond strength of color changing adhesive and Transbond XT conventional adhesive. Conclusion: Metal brackets bonded with color changing adhesives have shown good shear bond strength with minimal enamel loss with Grengloo. Transbond plus showed significantly high amount of elemental Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorous (P).

  51. Punitha, A., Palanikumar, M., Adeline Vinila, J.E., Geethalakshmi, I., Sumathi, T., Jayavalli, R., and Vadivel, N.

    Carnation is the most important cut flower in the international trade market and is highly perishable in nature and need to be treated and packed properly to improve their post harvest quality and vase life. Cut carnations are very sensitive to ethylene injury. In the existence of ethylene, cut carnation flowers have restriction for their fruitful marketing due to petal enrolling and discoloration. It leads to flower senescence and reduction in vase life. As carnations have ability to rehydrate after transportation, its flower quality during long distance transportation should be maintained. The experiment was conducted by wrapping the flowers with cellophane sheets, polyethylene, polypropylene, butter paper and corrugated thin sheets and packed in corrugated fibre board boxes during transport of flowers to long distant market. Among the wrapping materials compared, polyethylene sleeve of 100 gauge thickness was superior and it was associated with highest water uptake (15.38 g), water balance (8.78 g), fresh weight change (176.29 per cent), anthocyanin (1.352 mg/g) and carotenoid content (0.056 mg/g) and the lowest transpirational loss of water (10.26 g). This wrapping technique ensured minimum physical damage, physiological loss in weight (39.62 per cent), membrane integrity (80.64 per cent), peroxidase activity (0.023 units/g fresh weight) and extended the vase life to 15.67 days when compared to control the flowers remained fresh for 7.0 days only.

  52. Dr. Rasool Karim Nizaro Siyo, Dr. Veena, K.A., Dr. Parson Paul, Dr. Navetha, Dr. Gayathri, Dr. Jishnu and Dr. Anjali, N.

    Background and Objectives: Orthodontic brackets are important part of fixed appliances, which are used to deliver forces from the wires or other power modules to the teeth and will be in the oral environment for long periods of time. The most widely used stainless steel bracket in orthodontics is the austenitic type, containing 18-20% chromium and 8-10% nickel. The combination of chromium and nickel increases the bracket resistance to corrosion. The oral environment is highly conducive to corrosion and pH changes. Metallic orthodontic appliances are known to release metal ions leading to changes in the mechanical properties. Among the metal ions released nickel is the most common cause of metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis and second in frequency is chromium. The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the rate of release of nickel and chromium ions from stainless steel brackets of three different manufacturers at two different time intervals. Methods: 90 standard stainless steel orthodontic brackets of three different manufacturers (Group A-3M ESPE, Group B- JJ Orthodontics, Group C-Modern Orhtodontics) were collected. The brackets were divided into three equal groups. Each bracket was incubated at a room temperature of 37°C in individual 30ml plastic containers containing 15ml of artificial saliva at pH 6.7. 2 ml of artificial saliva was taken from each plastic containers for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric (ICP-OES) evaluation on seventh day and twenty eighth day. The artificial saliva was replaced after each sample collection to avoid saturation with corrosion products. Result and Discussion: In all the three groups, Nickel release was more on seventh day. And chromium release was more on twenty eighth day for 3M and Modern. And for JJ Orthodontics, Chromium release was more on seventh day. Conclusion: Stainless steel brackets of 3M shows less amount of Nickel ion release on twenty eighth day compared to JJ and Modern. Stainless steel brackets of Modern shows less amount of Chromium ion release compared to 3M and JJ on both days.

  53. Kotagiri Ravikanth, Anirudh Sharma, Pushap Lata and Deepak Thakur

    Nowadays Ayurvedic herbal formulations have gained acceptance and demand globally due to their safe consumption and minimal side effects. This has gained acceptance in the veterinary market in recent years. This rise in the use of herbal products has also given rise to various adulteration, so it become necessary to develop standardization protocols for safety, efficacy, and quality control. These protocols must have reliable, specific, and sensitive quality control methods. Phytolean™ Powder is a herbal formulation for lean meat production containing herbs like Curcuma longa and Trigonella foenum graecum, as prime ingredients. The present study was undertaken to develop standardization parameters for Phytolean™ Powder. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector (RP-HPLC-PDA) was employed quantification of dominant biomarkers in this herbal formulation. The RP-HPLC-PDA Rt-value of Trigonelline 4.85 and Curcuminoids i.e., Curcumin, Bisdemethoxycurcumin, Demethoxycurcumin are 22.50±0.15, 24.43±0.03, and 27.15±0.05 minutes in the formulation and reference standards were found comparable under UV light at 265 nm and 420 nm respectively. The percentage of Trigonelline and Curcuminoids were 0.120±0.85 % and 0.220±0.92 % present in the Phytolean™ Powder formulation. Bioactive markers are characteristic of the ingredients or botanicals to identify the presence of ingredients in formulation easily. The quantification of biomarkers by HPLC is the best way to identify and evaluate the quality of the finished formulation in the course of the development of a standardization protocol for quality control of Ayurvedic formulation.

  54. Dr. Mexan Serge EPOUNDA

    The present work deals with the Artistic Representation in Nigeria: A Study of Festus Lyayi’s Violence. Its purpose is to show how the author paints life aspects in post-independence Nigeria. In fact, in his writing, Festus Lyayi doesn’t limit himself only on diagnosing and exposing the socio-political malevolent facts that harass the contemporary society but also on proposing some exit tracks to the suffering masses. This is noticeable through the protagonist’s awareness for he denounces the social injustice between leaders and popular masses on one hand, and expresses the need to reach a new order on the other hand. This leads us to think of Festus Lyayi’s commitment that we intend to unveil basing on sociological and psychological approaches. As a matter of fact, in depicting facts and events inherent to the Nigerian society and with it its people, the author claims the change of existed reality, conditions which he believes pathetic and rough into better conditions where people could live in peace without fear, arbitrariness and violence.

  55. Seema Gur and Dr. Daljit Kaur Gill

    In this chapter have been briefly analyzed the impact of the Arya Samaj on the Condition of Women in Society. The Arya Samaj create a challenge to the process of Westernization, it was also deeply influenced by the ideology of the rulers, have been written about the efforts made by Arya Samaj in the Emancipation of Women. The period of later half of 19th century was an age of definition and redefinition

  56. YAO-ASSAHI Akoissi Ida Natacha and ANOH Kouassi Paul

    Industries release suspended particulates (PM 2.5, PM10, TSP) with high concentrations in the various industrial sites and their surroundings in South Abidjan Region. However, the exposure to fine particles leads to an increased risk of cardio respiratory mortality such as lung cancer, asthma and obstructive lung disease. This study aims to highlight the impact of industrial activities on the health of populations living in and around industrial areas. The methodological approach is based on documentary research, interviews, surveys of people living in industrial and control areas, of the Autonomous Port of Abidjan staff and employees of some health centers. The results show the prevalence of pathologies such as asthma, allergic cough, pollen allergy and respiratory cancer in the populations interviewed, in both control and industrial zones. This study indicates that there is a strong presumption that all these diseases could be related to industrial activities in South Abidjan Region.

  57. Vitalisgoodwell Chipfakacha, MD.M.SC

    Traditional Medical Practitioners are found in every part of the African continent; and are the backbone of primary health care fulfilling the three As of primary health care namely; availability, affordability, and acceptability. Unfortunately, most African governments do not recognize the roles of traditional medical practices and do not utilize them as part of human resources for health, particularly during disease outbreaks. Methodology: The paper reviews the roles of traditional medical practitioners during past epidemics such as Ebola, HIV and AIDS, and cholera on the African continent. A literature review of scientific journals and newspapers was done during the review. Results: UNESCO has written a few policy documents on the roles of traditional medical practitioners during the 2019-2022 COVID-19 pandemic (UNESCO 2019). In Ethiopia, research showed that 50 percent of communities consulted traditional medical practitioners to manage COVID-19 (Belachew U. Chali et al 2021). The World Health Organization has shown that the use of traditional medical practitioners as human resources for health in the Democratic Republic of Congo and West Africa during the Ebola epidemics reduced both morbidity and mortality. Conclusion: Utilizing traditional medical practitioners as human resources for health reduces both morbidity and mortality.





Advantages of IJCR

  • Rapid Publishing
  • Professional publishing practices
  • Indexing in leading database
  • High level of citation
  • High Qualitiy reader base
  • High level author suport

Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.



Dr. Swamy KRM
Dr. Abdul Hannan A.M.S
Saudi Arabia.
Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari