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September 2021

  1. Sharma M.C., Joyce J., Deviga T., Raghu V.A., Nancy, K., Mohanasundari S.K., Sonia M. and Jaishri Bagg

    In India, various Maternal and Child Health Programme are in existence, which makes pregnancy safer as well as deals with child and adolescent health and nutrition. Despite of the availability of widespread services and infrastructure facilities in the rural areas, the morbidity and mortality among children and mothers continue to be a major cause of concern to the planning commissions.1 Objective: To assess the knowledge and utilization of various maternal and child health programmes by pregnant women and mothers of under-five children. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out between March to April, 2021,simple random technique was used to select 80 antenatal, postnatal and mothers of under 5years children who are living in Dhava village, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Self structured questionnaire and checklist were used to collect data. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Of the total, 42 (52.5%) participants were having average knowledge regarding various MCH services and 59 (73.8%) of the participants were utilizing the services. Conclusion: Although utilization showed better rate among mothers, the knowledge of maternal and child health services among mothers was not that good. Hence, focus is needed on enhancing awareness among the mothers of under five children regarding MCH schemes for effective utilization.

  2. Dr. Krishanu Sarkar

    In developing countries like India Second largest population’s livelihood depends on common property resources (CPR) that have often been associated with high rates attached by the poor in discounting future flow of benefits, improper property rights, degraded Social value, and social protection. economic insecurity. Forest land appears to be the most important common pool resource which can capable of providing wherewithal of life to a vast section of people for its diverse type of timber and non-timber benefit including environmental benefit. The present-day problem related to this area concentrated on high poverty rate, gender conflict. This study focuses on status-wise forest dependency, types of NTFP (Non-Timber Forest Product) and their relative dependency to forest dwellers, villager’s perception towards forest management and feeling threat to being evacuated from their own land, etc. This study also investigates the characteristics of Agricultural Land. It includes the socio-economic issues related to the livelihood status of forest dwellers. The main objective of this study is to help the government making policy regarding the development of the livelihood status of the selected areas.

  3. Ummang Sharma Bajpai

    Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) video games are easily accessible and widely used. Yet, there is limited literature about the effects these video games have on the anxiety levels of a general population of adults. With an increase in online presence and an advancement in technology, these video games have the potential to be used in mental healthcare settings, reducing cost, and increasing access. Aims: This study aims to investigate whether COTS video games have a measurable effect on the anxiety levels of young adults. It also probes if the genre of video games played make a difference to the kind of effect they have on anxiety. Methods: Participants (n=41) were split into two groups at random, with Group A (n=21) playing an action game and Group B (n=20) playing a non-action game. Each participant played the video game for an hour. A state anxiety test was administered before and after the gameplay. The difference between these scores for each participant was calculated as impact scores. This quantitative data was analyzed by through statistical testing using t-tests and correlation analysis. Results: For both participants with positive and negative change, the paired samples t-test results (Positive: t19=7.109, p<0.01; Negative: t20=-6.415, p<0.01) indicated a significant change in anxiety scores. The difference between the impact scores of Groups A and B was found to be not significant. Further, a negative correlation was found between pre-test scores and impact scores. Conclusion: COTS video games have a significant effect on the anxiety levels of young adults, irrespective of genre.

  4. Paresh Kumar Mishra, Mr. Bubushree, Dr. Prativa Shree and Dr. Dinesh Prasad Swain

    Human resource being the primary requirement for execution of any operation in an organization. Health of an organization unavoidably depends on the health of its human resource. While organizations grow in size and work environment requires suitable restructuring, health issues also deserve due attention. Health of a person or an organization does not mean mere structural attractiveness. Rather, health is closely associated with innumerable sensitive and delicate interplaying factors triggering enormous visible as well as invisible impacts both at individual and organizational level. A healthy human resource paper focuses on the remedial measures against certain unhealthy life style and environmental issues at work places which could be managed under the concepts of yoga and naturopathy. Systematic exposure to the five basic elements of nature and strategic application of those elements in work places have been found to be the most accessible and effective remedial measure as per yogic and naturopathic tradition, because these elements can be used to enhance the energy level of manpower by taking care of all health aspects whether physical, mental, emotional or spiritual.

  5. Dr. Priyanka Rathod

    Aim: Evaluation of the oral stereognostic ability of complete dentures patients over patients wearing over dentures. Study design: The study is an in vivo comparative study. Materials and Methods: In the present study, oral stereognostic tests were carried out on 20 subjects. Out of the 20 subjects 10 patients were complete denture wearers and 10 patients were overdenture wearers. For each patient oral streognostic test was done without the denture and with the denture. The patients were blindfolded and one random test specimen was placed on the mid dorsum of the tongue. Stopwatch was started as soon as the test piece made contact with the tongue. Subjects were allowed to freely manipulate the test piece in the mouth. Within a 15 second patient had to point to the shape on the paper sheet .Then all six test specimens were presented in the random order. Scores were given. Then patient is asked to wear a complete denture and same procedure is followed. Results: Data obtained from oral stereognostic ability test were statistically analyzed and found out that stereognostic test ability in overdenture was significantly more than complete denture. Conclusion: We concluded that patient using overdenture have better stereognostic abilities than complete denture.

  6. Dr. Deepak C. Koli, Dr. Kritika sharma, Dr. Tapas Mandal and Dr. Hemant H. Mehta

    We describe a case report of an 81 years old male, a case of Carcinoma left lung with multiple comorbid conditions posted for video assisted thoracoscopy surgery (VATS) SOS open thoracotomy and radical left upper lobectomy. We performed the procedure under general anaesthesia with a thoracic epidural for post-operative pain relief. CoopdechTM bronchial blocker type A with standard cuff size was used in the left main stem bronchus to achieve one lung ventilation. In this case report, we emphasise the importance of using a thoracic epidural for post-operative pain management and a bronchial blocker for lung deflation in the management of VATS, because incomplete deflation of the nondependent lung during VATS can result in poor surgical exposure and insufficient space for surgical manipulation, compromising the procedure's success. In our case, despite a good deflated operative lung, there was conversion to open thoracotomy due to adherent left bronchus to main pulmonary vessels, but with a good working thoracic epidural, we were able to extubate patient the next day in ICU due to excellent pain relief and an uneventful rest of the postoperative course, so to summarise, despite major open thoracic surgery overall good surgical outcome possible even in geriatric age group patient with multidisciplinary team approach.

  7. Iana Karla Azevedo Messias, Julliany Lopes Dias, Ana Edith Farias Lima, Domingos de Oliveira, Juliana Maria Barbosa Bertho de Oliveira and Ângela Lima Pereira

    Introdução: A escola é um espaço de relações sociais, produção de conhecimento e de impacto significativo na saúde. Diante disso, a enfermagem escolar pode atuar no apoio aos escolares e profissionais da educação, no processo de ensino aprendizagem, e fornecendo os cuidados em saúde necessários e adequados ao ambiente escolar. Objetivo: Relatar a experiência do trabalho desenvolvido pela enfermagem em uma escola privada de Palmas, Tocantins, no primeiro semestre de 2021. Metodologia: Artigo de relato de experiência acerca da atividade de enfermagem realizada em uma escola no Tocantins, no período de fevereiro a agosto de 2021. Relato: De maneira geral, a equipe de enfermagem ocupou quatro funções: avaliação geral de saúde do escolar no início e no final de cada turno de aula, assistência sistematizada de enfermagem na sala da enfermagem, educação em saúde e vigilância epidemiológica.Considerações finais: A vivência da enfermagem escolar permitiu identificar sua importância tanto para a comunidade escolar, quanto para a equipe de enfermagem, contribuindo para maior segurança da comunidade escolar, não apenas em tempos de pandemia, mas em todo o tempo.

  8. Ferdinand Ezeiruaku Chukwuma and Onitsha Enebrayi Nelson

    Background: Obesity is a medical problem that increases the risk to many reproductive issues in women, and there is a high prevalence of obese women in the population attending the different fertility clinics in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Objective: This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess reproductive hormones in obese infertile women. Methods: A total of 626 women comprising of 513 obese infertile women and 113 not obese women who serve as control were recruited for the study.Anthropometric measurements were taken and Body Mass Index were calculated. A non-fasting venous blood sample was collected from the subjects and analyzed for serum Estrogen, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Progesterone, Inhibin, and Prolactin. Results: The result revealed that obese infertile women with primary and secondary infertility showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in estrogen, LH, FSH, prolactin levels, and decreased progesterone and inhibin levels. However, women with secondary infertility had slightly higher levels of all analyzed hormones than primary infertility women. The study also revealed that hyperestrogenism was more prevalent among the obese women with primary infertility and secondary infertilitycompared with other gonadal disorders, but slightly higher in secondary infertility women. Infertility showed positive correlation with Body Mass Index. LH, FSH, E2, progesterone and prolactin showed a positive correlation withBMI in primary and secondary infertility women, while inhibin showed a negative correlation with Body Mass Index.Conclusion: Therefore, weight loss should be considered as a first line of treatment in obese women with hormonal imbalance.

  9. Dr. Kritika Sharma, Dr. Roly Mishra, Dr. Harvesp Panthakey, Dr. Niranjan Waje and Dr. Hemant Mehta

    One of the major concerns of using bioprosthetic valve in Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement (SAVR) or Bentall surgery is the risk of structural valve deterioration (SVD) leading to bioprosthetic failure. It can lead to aortic stenosis, regurgitation or combined stenosis and regurgitation. As a redo-surgery can be associated with multiple complications, Valve in valve Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (VIV-TAVR) can provide a safer alternative.

  10. Inna Malik, Syed Sadaf Altaf and Sabia Rashid

    Background: Ocular trauma refers to any injury to the eye. Mechanical trauma to the eye is subdivided into open and closed globe injuries. An open globe injury is defined as a full thickness wound of the eye wall and intraocular structures. The annual global incidence rate is 3.5/100000 persons. The Ocular Trauma Classification group has developed a classification system based on Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT) and features of globe injury at initial examination. Objective: To assess risk factors prognosticating final visual outcome of post vitrectomy patients with open globe injuries. Methods: The patients with open globe injuries of all age groups on follow up for atleast6 months were included in the study. Patients were assessed by clinical examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy, X-Ray/CT scan, B scan in cases with opaque media, timing of Pars planavitrectomy, final visual outcome and retinal reattachment. Patients underwent primary repair followed by vitrectomy depending on type, severity, duration of trauma and were followed up at 1week,1month,2 months and 6months post vitrectomy. Results: The study population consisted of 75 males and 3 females, ratio of male: female was 25:1 with mean age of 20.9±7.16 years. Time duration from primary repair upto vitrectomy was <15 days in 34 (43.65%), anterior chamber was maintained in 63 (80.8%) eyes, relative afferent pupillary defect was present in 12 (15.4%) eyes. Mean visual acuity showed significant improvement from 2.26± 1.82logMAR (Hand movements) preoperatively to 1.76± 1.39 logMAR (p=0.014) at 1 month, 1.51±1.071 logMAR (p=0.007) at 2 months, 1.23±0.96 logMAR (6/96) (p<0.001) at 6 months. Retinal detachment was present in 10 (12.8%) eyes and showed poor visual outcome compared to rest 68 (87.1%) of eyes with no retinal detachment (p=0.01) which was statistically significant. Out of 78 eyes, 1 (1.3%) eye presented with vision of 6/18, 2 (2.6%) eyes with 6/36, 20 (25.6%) eyes with finger counting 1 metre, 32 (41.0%) eyes with hand movements, 23 (29.5%) eyes perception of light. Postoperatively at the end of 6 months 17 (21.8%) eyes had 6/6-6/9 vision, 13 (16.7%) eyes had 6/12-6/24 vision,16 (20.5%) eyes had 6/36-6/60, 11 (14.1%) eyes had finger counting at 1 metre, 12 (15.3%) eyes had hand movements, 8 (10.3%) eyes had perception of light and only one patient remained with no light perception as he presented with optic nerve avulsion preoperatively. Conclusion: Good preoperative visual acuity had good prognosis, but poor visual acuity did not correlate with poor visual outcome, which means that with vitrectomy the prognosis could improve in patients with lower initial visual acuity.

  11. Dr. Shraddha Subhash Bhoyar, Dr. Lokanath K. V., Dr. Nilam Uttam Sathe and Dr. Supriya Basvaraj Yempalle

    Background: Adenoidectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by Otorhinolaryngologists in the paediatric population. Most commonly used method for adenoidectomy being digital palpation of adenoids followed by their blind curettage using adenoid curette. This leads to incomplete removal of adenoids and also has risks of injuring surrounding structures. Objective of our study was to evaluate the role of intra-operative endoscopic inspection of conventional adenoidectomy. Methodology: Eighty patients attending ENT OPDs at Chigateri district hospital and Bapuji hospital, teaching hospitals attached to our institute during the period from October 2016 to October 2018 with symptoms and radiographic evidence of enlarged adenoids and who fulfill all inclusion and exclusion criteria and are willing to participate in the study were selected, informed and written consent was taken from all cases. A thorough clinical examination and required investigations were performed and diagnosis of enlarged adenoids was made. Patients were operated by Conventional adenoidectomy, followed by visualization and removal of remnants in the nasopharynx using a rigid endoscope. The number of patients benefited with remnants removal was noted. Results: The mean age of patients in our study was 8.8 years with male preponderance. Most common presenting complaints were mouth breathing, nasal obstruction, and snoring. Adenoidectomy with tonsillectomy was the most common procedure performed. Adenoid remnants were detected using endoscopic visualization in 92.5% of the cases in our study, with nasopharyngeal roof being the most common site. Conclusion: Endoscopic assisted adenoidectomy allows complete removal of adenoid tissue there by reducing the chances of developing recurrent adenoid, obstructive symptoms and reducing the bacterial reservoir in the nasopharynx.

  12. Keyur N Sharma and Dr. Mahendrasinh D. Chauhan

    Toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) are the practice of choice to correct corneal astigmatism of 1 D or more in cases enduring cataract surgery. The consequences after toric IOL implantation are influenced by numerous factors, right from the preoperative case selection and investigations to accurate intraoperative alignment and postoperative care. An ideal IOL power calculation formula should take into account the surgically induced astigmatism, the posterior corneal curvature as well as the effective lens position. A probable observational study was executed on 216 eyes of 108 patients canned between 2016 to 2020 for Cataract with astigmatism (cylinder ≤ -4.00 Diopters). The 216 consecutive eyes that had endured for bilateral cataract surgery with phaco and implantation of Toric Intraocular lens. Refractive certainty, change in mean spherical equivalent refraction, postoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), and subjective visual outcome were compared at, 1 month following surgery. In subjective questioner patient show rating between 7 to 10 out of 10, this shows satisfaction for distance & near vision after implantation of toric intraocular lens. Overall patients were satisfied with visual performance because of less amount of refractive power.

  13. Dr. Akash Gupta, Dr. Sadiya Shakeel and Dr. Malti Agrawal

    Mucormycosis is a life threatening illness, encountered lately as a sequel of post COVID 19 infection which is commonly found in immunocompromised individuals especially with diabetes mellitus. Due to the aggressive disease progression if not diagnosed early and treated appropriately with antifungals and surgical debridement, the mortality rate rises remarkably. Anaesthetists face challenges in view of poor general condition, hemodynamic instability and difficult airway of the patients. In this case ketamine was used as inducing agent along with propofol and was also used as maintenance agent demonstrating the usefulness and efficacy of the drug.

  14. Dr. Ashish Khandelwal, R.L. Dr. Meena, Dr. Neera Samar and Dr. Yogesh Mishra

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome of disordered metabolism with abnormally high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). In Type-2 DM (T2DM), the loss of direct effect of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis in the liver causes an increase in hepatic glucose production. Hence, this study was intended to study the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in T2DM patients and compare it with that of normal healthy controls. Methods: A total of 100 patients of both sexes suffering from T2DM and 50 age and sex matched healthy individuals were selected for the study. From the subjects Fasting blood samples were drawn. Biochemical parameters like fasting blood glucose, liver enzymes (ALT and AST) and HbA1c were estimated in the samples. Results: The mean activity of serum ALT was significantly higher in diabetic patients as compared to controls while AST showed non-significant difference between patient and controls. Along with this, significantly increasing pattern of serum ALT level was found as duration of disease increased. While serum AST level was non-significant as duration of disease increased. Conclusion: The outcomes of the present study suggest that among the liver aminotransferases enzymes (ALT) have shown higher activity with T2DM patients than individuals who do not have DM. Hence routine monitoring of LFT along with other routine investigations in patients with type 2 diabetes is recommended.

  15. Ram Bahadur and Vijaykant Pandey

    A helical coiled heat exchanger is generally functional in industrial applications due to its compact structure, larger heat transfer area and higher heat transfer capability. The study of this investigation is the comparison CFD Analysis of TiO2 Nano-Fluid with Water and Ethylene Glycol as a base fluid in Tapered Helical Coil Heat Exchanger with the help of CFD on copper tube. The Titanium Oxide (TiO2), are used as Nano fluid and water and ethylene glycol is a base fluid. Tapered Helical coil was fabricated by bending 500 mm length of copper tube having 10mm tube diameter, 50mm pitch coil diameter, 20mm pitch and 20 tapered angle. The comparison of pressure drop and temperature variation between TiO2 nano fluid with water as its base and TiO2 nanofluid with ethylene glycol as its base is found in this analysis. The result indicates that the TiO2 nanofluid with ethylene glycol as a base fluid have maximum pressure drop and TiO2 nanofluid with water as its base fluid have maximum temperature variation compare with ethylene glycol as a base fluid. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology using ANSYS FLUENT 15 is used here to investigate pressure drop of Titanium Oxide (TiO2) nanofluid with ethylene glycol and water as its base fluid on the heat transfer characteristics in a tapered helically coil-tube.

  16. Dr. Inbanila T. and Dr. Rajasekaran, A.

    This paper presents the experimental investigation on hollowed clay brickto enumerate itssound insulation. A total of 90 test specimens were cast and testedwith variations for each of 6 specimens. To createthe sound insulation inside the brickby using chart paper boxes placed in the core area of brick with combustible material such as saw, rice husk and cow dung. After the process of burning the combustible materials fully burned and turned into ash.The findings of the study concluded that the sound insulation of single hollowed brick 2 -3% greater than that of ordinary brick. In double hollowed 1.5% and triple hollowed bricks was 1.9% higher than the ordinary brick.

  17. Narayana Gowda, K.N., Sadath Ali Khan Zai, Chethankumar, J. and Aswini Kumar K.N.

    This paper presents finite element analysis on flexural behavior of recycled aggregates concrete beam using Abacus and same is compare with the experimental obtained results., the numerical models for the static load appraisal on beam are starting to become more accurate and honorable, the ABAQUS program is used to model the behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) beam subjected to static loading. The Nonlinear finite element model uses the concrete damaged plasticity (CDP) approach. The model used in the present study can help to compare the experimental investigations under considerations as a valuable data for the design aspect. Four test beam specimens of size 150X230X2200mm with four different mixes with partial replacement of Natural coarse aggregate with Recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) and Treated recycled coarse aggregate (TRCA) are modelled in ABAQUS 6.14 and tested for static loading and the parameters such as first crack load, ultimate load and load deflection behavior were studied, then the analytical results are compared with experimental results. Hence, the Nonlinear finite element models can simulate the behavior of recycled aggregate beam under static load and there was good compromise of analytical results obtained from ABAQUS 6.14 with that of experimental results.

  18. Ahmed H. I. Elfaig, Mohamed Elnour Yassen Ahmed, Amna Maryoud and Amel. E. Abd Albagi

    This paper intends to study the environmental change characterization and analyses river islands with special emphasis on Tuti island area. Also, the article attempts to explore the change causes during the period 1975-2017, identifies its nature and assesses its spatial pattern, using remote sensing and GIS approaches. The main sources of data are the remote sensing images of Tuti Island (Spatial and Temporal images) for the years 1975, 1987, 2000, 2010 and 2017). The software used for data analysis is ArcGIS and Eardas Imagine. An accuracy assessment for images and results was conducted for the purpose of validation. Field survey was carried out for ground truth. Results showed that Tuti Island has witnessed an increase and decrease during the period 1975-2017,which proposed that Tuti Island has characterized by dynamic changes over time. During "1975-1987" the total area of Tuti Island increased by 11.6%, most probably due to flood events of 1988 which sediments deposited on the island surfaces area and edges. However, during 1987-2017, Tuti Island area slightly decreased by 0.83% at the minimum level and by 1.63% at the maximum level. The variation in the area is a result of the White Nile and Blue Nile deposition as well as anthropogenic factors. The results also showed that Tuti Island has a typical crescent shape with a very narrow coastal plain; these spatial attributes are an outcome of an annual deposition of silt forming a small strip of fluvial landform as a distinctive geomorphological feature of the island. Water erosion (Haddam) affects most of its agricultural areas on the rivers’ banks of Tuti Island. Significant changes from agricultural area to a residential area were seen during 1975-2017; thus, indicating that many of the potential changes will not only be harmful to ecosystems and human societies, but will also be costly to deal with, both socially and economically.

  19. Dr. Govind Dhulgande and Datta Ghogare

    Cytological investigations have been carried out in the experimental set of individual treatment of chemical mutagen such as EMS concentration in Pea (Pisum sativum L.). Seeds of Pea were subjected to different concentrations of EMS. The treated root tips showed varying degree of mitotic abnormalities almost in all the concentrations of EMS. The frequency of mitotic abnormalities was found to be more in highest concentrations of EMS. The various types of mitotic aberrations such as fragments, bridges, laggards, micronuclei, early and late separation were scored in case of root meristem cells of treated materials. Taking the percentage of mitotic aberrations and germination as an index of effectiveness of a mutagen concentration proved to be the most effective.

  20. Madhuchhanda Das, Harischandra Sripathy Prakash and Monnanda Somaiah Nalini

    Objective: Isolation and molecular identification of actinobacterial endophytes from Zingiber nimmonii (J. Graham) Dalzell., Polygonum chinense L., and Justicia wynaadensis Heyne, important ethnomedicinal plant species of the ‘Western Ghats’, a hotspot location in southern India and characterization of secondary metabolites for the antibacterial activity by bio-autography and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Methods: The endophytic actinobacteria were isolated from the plant parts and identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. The secondary metabolites produced by the strains in the ISP-1medium were extracted with ethyl acetate and the crude dry extracts were evaluated for the total phenolic, flavonoid, antioxidant capacities and antibacterial potentials. Results: 14 endophytic actinobacteria belonging to five taxa were identified from three plant species as Corynebacterium, Curtobacterium, Arthrobacter, Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis. The total phenolic content of the actinobacterial extracts ranged from 5.2±0.1 to 24.4±0.08 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) /g dry extract. Flavonoid content was detected in three extracts (3.2±0.1 to 5.6±0.3 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g dry extract). The radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) of actinobacterial extracts varied from 489.4 ± 2.3 µg/mL to 1968.3±112.0 µg/mL. Antibacterial activity was detected in all the extracts against six test bacterial strains viz., Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 7443), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 7093), Escherichia coli (MTCC 729), Enterobacter aerogenes (MTCC 111) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 661). Eight extracts among the 14 showed inhibition zones ranging from 7.2±0.1 to 28.8±0.2 mm diameter against four of the six test pathogenic bacteria. S. indiaensis isolated from Z. nimmonii exhibited highest inhibition zones against all test pathogenic strains (14.2±0.1 to 28.8±0.2 mm dia) with the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC’s) ranging from 0.02 to 0.16 mg/mL. Characterization of Streptomyces indiaensis extract by thin layer chromatography and GC-MS revealed the presence of eight aliphatic and volatile organic compounds. Conclusions: Three ethnomedicinal plant species from Western Ghats harbor diverse actinobacterial taxa with bioactivities.

  21. El-Zaeem, S. Y., Zidan, E. M., EL-Wakil, H. M., EL-Dahhar, A. A. and AL-Garary, I. M.

    Variation in phenotype based on morphometric character indices and meristic counts of different population of shrimps, (Metapenaeus monoceros monoceros, Penaeus vannamei, Penaeus japonicas, Penaeus semesulacatus, Penaeus penicillatus, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus kerathurus), were analyzed phylogenetically to study and compare the amount of differences in phenotypes. The results revealed that there were significant differences (P≤0.05) in most of morphometric character indices and meristic counts among different population tested. The hierarchical cluster analysis based on quantitative phenotype (morphometric character indices and meristic counts), grouped the seven shrimp species into two major category groups; Penaeus vannamei, Penaeus penicillatus, Penaeus monodon and Penaeus semesulacatus species first group and Metapenaeus monoceros monoceros, Penaeus kerathurus and Penaeus japonicas species second group. Within these major grouping, the first group showed that Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus penicillatus were grouped close together. While the second group showed that Metapenaeus monoceros appears to be more phenotypically similar to that Penaeus kerathurus species than that of Penaeus japonicas. Therefore, it was observed in this study that the phenotype analysis based on a large number of morphometric character indices and meristic counts, can be used to discriminate shrimp species and genotype analysis using DNA fingerprint based on microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) fingerprinting among seven species of shrimp.

  22. Shwetha JV., Sneha K Chunchanur, Silpa Mohandas and Ambica, R.

    Background: Gonorrhoea is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection (STI) across the world. Isolation and preservation of gonococci is important to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular characterization. Objective: To evaluate the preservation of gonococci by deep freezing, chocolate GC agar slope and lyophilization. Methods: The study was undertaken at State level STI/RTI Laboratoryat a tertiary care hospital. Isolation of gonococci was done from suspected cases of gonorrhoea. The culture isolates of gonococci were preserved by deep freezing, chocolate GC agar slope and lyophilization. Results: Out of 71 suspected cases of gonorrhoea, N. gonorrhoeae was isolated from 22 cases (30.9%). Preservation of all 22 isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were attempted by 3 methods.Out of 22 gonococcal isolates preserved by deep freezing (-700 C), 12 (54.5%), 06 (27.2%) and 03 (13.6%) isolates were revived at 3 months, 6 months and 8 months respectively by nutrient broth - glycerol method; 10 (45.5%), 04 (18.1%) and 01 (4.5%) were revived at 3 months, 6 months and 8 months respectively by preservation media (trypticase soy broth and yeast extract). Out of 22 gonococcal isolates, 18 (81.8%), 14 (63.63%) and 06 (27.27%) isolates were revived at end of 1 month, 3 months and 6 months by subculturing gonococcal isolates from chocolate GC agar slope. Conclusion: Chocolate GC agar slope is preferred method for preservation of gonococcal isolates over other methods in routine microbiology laboratories as its inexpensive, less laborious, doesn’t require sophisticated equipment and recovery rate of gonococcal isolates is good upto 6 months.

  23. Prakash, D.S.R.S., Vijaya Nirmala P. and Kalyani, D.

    This paper describes finger dermatoglyphics of 130 men and 130 women belonging to Yerukula Tribe, an endogamous population of Andhra Pradesh were studied for qualitative and quantitative finger dermatoglyphic characters. Among qualitative and quantitative characters, Bisexual and bimanual differences are also observed. This population records higher incidence of Ulnar loops followed by whorls.

  24. Ese Anibor, Chukwuedu Ojebor, Charity Inikoroand Nicholas Asiwe

    Background: Dental occlusion is the connection between the masticatory surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth. The occlusion types include the edge to edge bite, the moderate overbite, the extreme overbite, and the negative overbite. This study offers important information for exploit in orthodontics, anthropology and forensic science. Objectives: To investigate the pattern of tooth occlusion among the Ika people, to investigate if there is a significant gender difference, and to provide a baseline data on the dental occlusion pattern for the Ika ethnic group. Methods: Data was gotten from 384 subjects fromIka Kingdoms in Delta State, Nigeria (Agbor, Owa-Ekie and Owa-Alero). Data was collected via observation as subjects were asked to bite, swallow saliva, occlude and open their mouths, while the association between the upper maxillary and lower mandibular teeth was observed and recorded. Record of occlusion pattern was taken as mild overbite, edge to edge bite, negative bite or severe overbite. The Chi-square test was used for inferential statistics and P value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results:The mild overbite occlusion pattern had the highest frequency (Males 43.2%, females 42.3%). The negative overbite had the lowest frequency (Males 2.1%, females 1.0%). There was no significant association between sex and type of occlusion pattern (p=0.84), and between age and type of occlusion pattern (p>0.05). The second most common type of occlusion pattern in the age group range of 15-19 years was the severe overbite occlusion pattern (28%), but in the other age groups (20-24years, 25-30 years) it wasthe edge to edge bite occlusion pattern,28.2% and 32.8% respectively. Conclusion: The mild overbite occlusion pattern is the most prevalent type found among the Ika people, and there is no significant association between sex or age group and type of occlusion pattern.

  25. Skali Hajar, Lazrak, F.Z., Yahyaoui Hicham, Ait Ameur Mustapha and Chakour Mohamed

    Background: Anemia is one of the most common health problems in the primary care setting. Macrocytosis in adults is defined as a red blood cell mean corpuscular volum >95 fL. Macrocytic anemias are generally classified into megaloblastic or non-megaloblastic anemia. Methods and Material: Retrospective descriptive study included 290 samples of myelogram received in the Hematology Labortory belonging to patients admitted to the Military hospital of Avicenna in Marrakech, over a period of 42 months (from January 2016 to June 2019), aimed to assess the etiological profile of macrocytic anemia in patients whose bone marrow smears were received in our laboratory. Results: Out of 290 myelogram samples, 103 cases of macrocytic anemia were received. The male gender was predominant with a sex-ratio (M/F) at 3,3. The average age was 56.7 years old with extremes ranging from 30 to 90 years. The discovery of macrocytic anemia was fortuitous in 35% of cases. 45% of our population presented anemic syndrom, 12% hemorrhagic syndrome, 8% infectious syndrome. The hemoglobin varyied between 4,7 g/dL and 11,9 g/dL with an average of 7.2 g/dL. The mean corpuscular volume was 107 fL. The bone marrow smear confirmed megaloblastic anemia in 54,3% of cases of macrocytic anemia. Conclusion: The diversity and complexity of factors leading to macrocytic anemia preclude a single or uniform method of investigation. The investigative pattern must be tailored to the individual patient, giving importance to the clinical presentation.

  26. Lina, A. Stavrou, Phdc

    It is an undeniable fact that the global economic crisis and recession have caused rapid, structural changes in the hierarchical pyramid of enterprises and solutions are being sought to recover the sales of each company's products. Moreover, it goes without saying that the historical time keeps speeding up. More specifically, the rapid development of technology highlights issues of techniques for the promotion of products and services. Consumers are no longer content with conventional promotions of products and services. Stereotypes of marketing techniques are enriched by technological means and many businesses are spearheading digital marketing. However, each company has its own digital footprint in the electronic environment as "[...] it is now inconceivable for a company, from the smallest to the largest brand, not to have a presence on the internet." (Panigyrakis, 2016, 179). Based on these changes, there are a lot of arising issues and challenges faced by businesses, marketing executives and consumers themselves. The paper discusses the theoretical background of digital marketing and the challenges arisen and faced by managers.

  27. Habiba Yesuf

    Street food vendors (SFVs) are highly self-governing and play their own role in reducing unemployment, crime and generate income for their survival. Moreover, SFVs are more accessible and affordable for the urban poor. However, they are not given due attention and support by concerned bodies in the creation of enabling environment. The study intended to investigate the challenges of SFVs in Mekelle city. In achieving the objectives of the study, both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data were collected from SFVs and managers of small scale enterprise of sub cities and secondary data were gathered from relevant reports and published materials. 384 sample SFVs were surveyed from Hawlti, Kedamayeweyane and Adi-Haki sub cities and stratified random sampling and convenience non random sampling were employed to select sample SFVs respondents. Descriptive statistical tools were used to present and analyze the data collected. The finding of the study depicted that SFVs face operational, managerial and governmental challenges during the operations and running of their business. Therefore, provide favorable working premises, design appropriate policy framework that support SFVs (designing legally supporting framework), and providing training are recommended.

  28. Abdoulaye Mayara Aichatou, Soumana Boubacar and Barage Moussa

    Description of the subject: In rural areas, food insecurity threatens the population more and more in recent decades and still continue. This is why this study set out to analyzed the Economic profitability of the millet and sorghum’s crop on the sites recovered half-moons to cope with the shock of land degradation in Bagaroua area (Republic of NIGER).Method. Primary data were obtained through individual surveys preceded by focus groups. A total of 254 households were randomly selected from 3 villages in the Tahoua region, Bagaroua department, WFP intervention area. The results of the socioeconomic profile obtained using the HEA method show that 69.5% of households are poor, 27.75% belong to the middle class and 1.52% wealth. Regarding food security, the Household Food Insecurity Scale (EIAM) shows that only 14.28% are food secure. Results: The study revealed that the addition of organic manure to the half-moons makes it possible to obtain millet and sorghum grain productions ranging from 450 to 750 kg / ha. On the other hand, despite the good hydric state, the infiltration due to the destruction of the surface crust and to the storage of water without input in these half-moons does not seem to increase the production (less than 100Kg / ha). As a result, the operation of the structures studied (half-moons) are profitable, given that one franc invested brings in 5.17 FCFA. Thus, the recovery of land by half-moons can be an effective method of recovery and productivity of degraded soils so that finally curb the problem of frequent food insecurity and reduce household poverty in Niger and more specifically the region of Ader.

  29. Bornwell Mutale

    Water scarcity in China’s north and northwestern regions is very serious and agricultural water use inefficiency is likewise high. This condition calls for immediate attention, drastic and a decisive shift towards innovative water-saving agriculture like that accomplished by the state of Israel. Therefore, this article followed a comprehensive literature review approach to explore Israel’s agricultural water utilization efficiency innovations and recommended lessons for China’s arid and semi-arid regions. For Israel, agricultural water utilization efficiency is not simply water-saving irrigation but also the inclusive exercise exhausting every conceivable economic water-management measure in holistic farm production, including the full utilization of limited natural precipitation, wastewater reuse, desalinated seawater and efficient management of irrigation network. It can be asserted that such commitments have the potential even for China to decrease groundwater abstraction rates, increase agricultural yields, and enhance food security by enlarging crop assortment while sustainably conserving water and the environment. Furthermore, the lessons and recommendations presented in this article are not only important for China but also several other countries and regions across the world facing similar problems.

  30. Viviane de Souza Borges, Carolina Vieira Viegas, Germildo Muchave, Yordanka Reyes Cruz, Gisel Chenard Díaz, Donato Alexandre Gomes Aranda and Rene Gonzalez Carliz

    In this work, babassu oil was selected as a raw material potentially capable of producing renewable hydrocarbons in the biokerosene range by hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), in the presence of the NiMo / γ-Al2O3 catalyst. According to gas chromatography, practically 70 % of the fatty acids constituent of babassu oil had carbon chains containing between 10 and 16 carbon atoms, with a predominance of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids with 12 carbon atoms (44.58 %). A full factorial design 23 with a central point was carried out in order to investigate the individual and interaction effects on the selectivity to hydrocarbons of the following factors: reaction time, temperature, and H2 pressure. The liquid reaction products were characterized by gas chromatography (CG-FID) and the experimental results were adjusted by a mathematical model. According to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), the parameters temperature, reaction time, and H2 pressure were significant. Temperature was the variable with the greatest influence on selectivity to hydrocarbons. The interaction factors reaction time - temperature and temperature - H2 pressure were also significant. The best selectivity result was achieved at a temperature of 340 ºC and 70 bar of H2, in which 98.41 % of hydrocarbons were obtained, in a time of 5 h. Under the conditions evaluated in this work, it was possible to obtain a high selectivity to renewable hydrocarbons in the range of aviation biokerosene by hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) from babassu oil. Babassu oil has proved to be a potential raw material for obtaining this biofuel.

  31. Shumaila and Mohmad Saleem Jahangir

    Ritually ordered inequality, poverty, identity, deprivation, isolation and marginalization existing since the dawn of human civilization denote the rules of exchange and practices have left a crippling mark on certain groups and communities. There has been a widening of the gap between the rich and the poor for the last several decades. Significant discrepancies in terms of distribution of resources and opportunities exist among certain groups and one such marginalized social group is the scheduled caste which has been pushed systematically to the periphery by the age-old caste-hierarchical tradition in the society. The present study makes a survey of literature and ascertains implementation of policies provided to scheduled castes. This paper looks through the paradox that despite several policy and programme interventions for improving socio-economic conditions of the scheduled castes in India, serious gaps still exist when they are compared with other social groups. In the backdrop of analyzing implementation of various constitutional welfare measures and policies, the study also attempts to highlight the facts and fallacies in the implementation of these policies which has not made any material difference in the social and economic conditions of these scheduled castes.

  32. Minal Shinde and Suradkar, S.W.

    Secondary metabolites are valuable source for drug preparation. Phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of Ceropegia bulbosa showed presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proteins and amino acids, saponins, sterols, and, terpenoids. The gas chromatography- mass spectrometry of methanolic leaf extract showed Pentadecanoic acid having highest area % of 10.09 with retention time 16.105 followed by Octadecanoic acid with area % of 2.43, retention time 18.049 followed by 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6- methyl-4H-Pyran with area % of 0.55, retention time 7.125 followed by Tetradecanoic acid with area % of 0.45, retention time 15.002 followed by Heptadecanoic acid with area % of 0.31, retention time 18.097 followed by 1-Octadecene with area % of 0.16, retention time 15.297. The present study shows that the methanolic extract of Ceropegia bulbosa have important bioactive compounds which can play a significant role in drug development.

  33. Dr. Deepti Shrivastava, Dr. Poonam Shivkumar, Dr. Asawari Deo, Dr. Virul Shrivastava, Dr. Jaya Jain, Dr. Sapna Sharma, Dr. Himanshi Agrawal, Dr. Sandhya Pajai, Dr. Amardeep Tembhare, Dr. Neema Acharya, Dr. Surekha Tayde, Dr. Shekhawat, H. and Dr. Uttar

    Postpartum haemorrhage is characterized within 24 hours of birth as a blood loss of 500 ml or greater. Post partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality in India and approximately one-quarter , worldwide. Most Post partum haemorrhage-related deaths occur during the first 24 hours of birth, most of which could be prevented by the use of prophylactic uterotonics during the third stage of childbirth and timely and effective management. The "bundles" strategy was designed to improve adoption and compliance with prescribed treatments.(5) Care bundles differ from other care packages in that compliance is only accomplished when all the packaged measures are completed and registered. Compliance with the package as a whole therefore implies higher compliance rates for its individual elements. Coordination, collaboration and cooperation are stressed because the mechanisms of these health systems are necessary for quality and sustainability. (1)In 2012, the World health organization released its "Recommendations for Postpartum Hemorrhage Prevention and Treatment" to provide evidence-informed clinical care.

  34. Yadav, A K., Niraula, S.R., Giri, R., 1Paudel, M., Giri, S. and Chaudhary, R.

    Background: Trauma is a major increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries like Nepal. The traumatic injuries account for major financial loss and may lead to permanent deformities and dysfunction leading to mental and psychological health problems. According to the Nepalese Ministry of Health and Population, unspecified Injuries are the third largest single cause of hospitalization and 10% of Nepal’s total burden of diseases. This study was done to improve the understanding of differerent spectrum, the mode of trauma, severity of injuries, and outcome of trauma victims in our hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study of all adult trauma patients more than 18‑year‑old presenting to our emergency department (ED).Details of the incident in terms of causes, severity, mode, and outcome of injuries were noted. RESULT: Most vulnerable age group for traumatic injuries was between 20-40 years. The gender distribution was 70% males and 30% females. 80% patients arrived in Emergency ward beyond one hour of accident ( golden hours) between 8 am to 5 pm being stayed 24 hours. Fall from height on the ground (45%) was the most common mode of injury, followed by Road traffic injuries (41%), cut injuries (7. 5%),trauma related assault, sports and animal injuries (6.2%) electrical injuries (0.7%), industrial injuries 0.3% Regarding implementation of Australian triage system (ATS) in relation with different mode of trauma, fall from height( (137), out of which ATS 2 was 6, ATS 3 was 114 and ATS 4 was 17),Road traffic injury(124) out of which ATS 2 was 12, ATS 3 was 100 and ATS 4 was 12. Regarding implementation of ATS scoring in relation with injured area involved, upper extremity (130) out of which ATS 2 was 5, ATS 3 was 108 and ATS 4 was 17, Lower extremity (119) out of which ATS 2 was 10, ATS 3 was 98, and ATS 4 was 11. Extremity injuries (upper and lower limbs) were the most common injuries seen in 70% of patients followed by traumatic brain injury (TBI) (7%), thoracic injuries (6%), abdominal injuries (6%), Spinal injuries 6%, facial injuries (3.4%) and neck injuries (0.8%) with two wheeler accidents contributing to the majority.78% patients had moderate severity of injury, 17% had minor injury and 4% had serious injuries and 0.7% had severe injury. Emergency Department(ED) team alone managed around half of the patient (50%), while around 50 % patients were admitted in different wards for further evaluation and treatment in terms of either conservative management or surgical interventions. 42% were discharged in a stable condition.2% were gone on left against medical advice (LAMA),1% referred to other centre. out of which 49% patients had managed operative followed by 51 % had non operative .Conclusion: Falls and Road traffic injuries are the predominant causes of trauma. A. simple scoring system such as Australian triage system (ATS has been used to prioritize injured patients according to urgency.

  35. Dr. Hemalatha, S., Dr. Bhagya Lakshmi, M., Haritha, P., Dhana Lakshmi, C., P.Baby Rani Mrs. Anthony Mariya Rani, S., Sai kumar, J.S.S. and Vani, R.

    Aim: To assess the level of anxiety and spirituality among cancer patients under radiation therapy at selected hospitals, Tirupati. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted with structured questionnaire to assess the anxiety and spirituality among cancer patients at selected hospital, Tirupati. The sample size is 100 cancer patients. Results: Among 100 cancer patients related to anxiety 34.0% had mild anxiety, 41.0% had moderate anxiety, 25.0% had sever anxiety. Related to spirituality, 26.0% had mild spirituality, 41.0% had moderate spirituality and 33.0% had sever spirituality. Conclusion: The author was concluded that, there is an importance of integrating mental health care along with cancer treatment for the patients taking longer-term treatment.

  36. Sushmita Chaurasia and Rashmi Singh

    The integrated nutrient management system is important for crop productivity and soil health. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L. Dunal) is a widely used medicinal herb in Ayurveda. It is considered to be a Rasayana herb, an adaptogen and is commonly referred to as “Indian ginseng. A field experiment was conducted during the Kharif season of 2017-18 and 2018-19 near the college of agriculture farm. Tikamgarh, (M.P.) India to study the effect of integrated nutrient management system on phenological and growth attributing characters of Ashwagandha. The twelve treatment combinations of different fertilizers doses, biofertilizers and manures were tested in randomized block design with three replications. Integrated nutrient management system significantly influenced different phenological, growth attributes and physiological parameters of Ashwagandha. The significant maximum values were observed in days to flower initiation (68.5 DAS), plant height (64.74 cm.), several branches per plant (10.69), numbers of leaves per plant (100.40), leaf area per plant (823.81 cm2) and leaf area index (1.470) with T12 treatment (50% NPK/ha+5 tonnes FYM/ha+3kg PSB/ha + 3kg Azotobacter/ha+5kg Zn/ha). While maximum values in days to first fruit maturity (142.5 DAS) and leaf water potential (21.3 -ev bar) were recorded under the T1 treatment (100% NPK recommended dose 50:30:30 kg/ha). However, the effect on days to germination, days to primary branch, days to secondary branch and days to first fruit initiation was no significant.

  37. Sonu Kaur

    The organic farming is gaining importance in all over the world. This is one of the several approaches to promote sustainable agriculture. Organic farming has large potential for Uttarakhand state. A part of the state consists of plains and foothills, where most farmers practice chemically intensive farming. Conversion to organic farming would have both financial and environmental benefits for these areas. The rest of the state consists of mountains, where the use of chemicals in agriculture is small. Conversion to organic farming in these areas will pose relatively little difficulty and provide farmers with a comparative advantage. The foothills of Uttarakhand are well known for their organic basmati rice. Therefore, cultivation of organic basmati rice provides an important opportunity for farmers in these areas. So an attempt is made in this research paper to comparative study of organic and inorganic rice framing at pachchawala village in the state of Uttarakhand.

  38. Anshika Anand, Rupender Kumar Ranga and Yadav, S.P.S

    Background: Foreign body in bilateral nostril is very uncommon more so the button cell battery which can lead on to septal perforation because of necrosis on both sides of septum. Authors report neglected button cell batteries in both nostrils in a toddler, which was initially tried for spontaneous expulsion by parents. Method: A two-year-old child presented with pain, bilateral nasal obstruction and thick discharge in the nose. After radiological investigation diagnosis was made and one button cell battery from each nostril was removed by pediatric rigid endoscopy without any complications. Result: The removed foreign bodies were button cells. The mucosa of septum and turbinate was ulcerated. After removal bilateral nasal cavity was irrigated with saline fortified with amikacin antibiotics. Conclusion: Button cells batteries should be removed cautiously to prevent slippage in nasopharynx and further in aerodigestive tract to avoid the more serious consequences down there.

  39. Dr. Navin, Hadadi, Krishnamurthy and Dr. Athira, Pulinholy

    Greatness does not come from size. Surprises come in small packages. Nanoscale though small in size has vast potential. One nanometer is 1 billionth or 〖10〗^(-9) meter^.The comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as the size of a marble to the size of the earth. The basic idea of nanotechnology is to employ individual atoms and molecules to construct functional structures. Nanotechnology influences almost every facet of everyday life. The concept of nanotechnology is that when one goes down to the bottom of things, one can discover unlimited possibilities and potential of the basic particle. In nanotechnology, analysis can be made to the level of manipulating atoms, molecules and chemical bonds between them.

  40. Dr. Debaprasad Das, Dr. Anirban Bhattacharyya, Dr. Asim Bikash Maity, Dr. Somsubhra Pramanik, Dr. Gayatri Majumder and Dr. Abhisek Guria

    A clinician should have complete knowledge about anatomic variations of macrostructure and the external as well as internal anatomy of the tooth which is essential for a successful outcome. An awareness and thorough knowledge of root canal morphology contribute to the success of root canal treatment. Successful endodontic treatment includes the acts of locating the root canal orifice, chemo-mechanical cleaning, and shaping the root canal system before placement of a dense root canal filling with a fluid-tight seal. Anomalies in the tooth are often encountered which poses difficulties in dental treatments. As in any other teeth, mandibular molars are also prone to anatomic variation. Morphologic variations in mandibular first molars are seen in the number of root canals or the number of roots. An additional third root, first mentioned in the literature by Carabelli, is termed as Radix Entomolaris (RE). This supernumerary root is located distolingually in mandibular molars, mainly first molars. An additional root at the mesiobuccally side is termed as Radix Paramolaris (RP). This case series focuses mainly on the diagnosis and management of variable root canal anatomies like radix entomolaris and paramolaris in mandibular molars.

  41. Nichanor, A. Onyango, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Stella L.A. Juma

    Safety of students in public secondary schools is a matter of concern globally. In Kenya, a number of students in public boarding secondary schools do encounter tragedies ranging from death of students during infernos in schools, students falling sick due to food poisoning or poor hygiene, attack of students by the community and porous school gates which enables strangers to enter in the schools leading to stealing of school property and attack on the students. In 2008, the Government of Kenya launched Safety and Standards manual in both public schools and private schools. Implementations of these standards were expected to make students secure in these schools. However, from 2009 to 2018, there were a number of reported cases of food poisoning, closure of schools due to community threats, loss of lives of students and properties worth millions of shillings in arson cases, diseases caused by poor hygiene and many others which were unreported. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of health and hygiene safety guidelines on students’ safety in public boarding secondary schools in Homa Bay County. The study revealed that physical health and hygiene safety guidelines had significant effect on students’ safety as they accounted for 53.8% of the variation in students’ security. The study also established that health and hygiene safety guidelines had strong and positive effect on students’ safety. The study recommended that school principals should strive to fully implement these safety guidelines to enhance students’ safety in Homa bay County, Kenya. The study may be useful to policy makers and stakeholders in the Ministry of Education in developing more diversified strategies to enhance students’ safety in public boarding secondary schools in Kenya.

  42. Savanah M. St. Clair

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what level different degrees of wind exposure influence morphology and secondary growth in Camelina sativa L. crantz. The hypothesis was that wind-stressed Camelina develops greater lignified areas and invests carbon and energetic resources in sclerification. Camelina was harvested in the late flowering stage and analyzed in terms of stem anatomy and morphology. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in morphology or sclerification between groups. A Principal Components Analysis was performed on the data in order to elucidate Camelina morphology.

  43. Kavitha Rani, N., Dr. M C. Jagath, Dr. Anuradha, K. N. Dr. Rajeshwari P. and Dr. Mahesh G. Emmi

    The Sol–gel route was used to synthesize Ceria–Yttria co-stabilized Zirconia (CYSZ) nanoparticles. The addition of stabilizing oxides to pure Zirconia, such as CaO, MgO, CeO2, and Y2O3, allows for the formation of multiphase materials, which are referred to as Co-Stabilized Zirconia. Cerium Oxide CeO2 and Yttrium Oxide Y2O3 are co-stabilized with Zirconium Oxide in this study. The creation of nanostructured coatings has been shown to boost the efficiency of TBCs by lowering thermal conductivity, increasing bonding power, and increasing thermal cycling lifetime, according to researchers. The crystallinity and stabilization of cubic crystalline phases were studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) at different calcination temperatures in the range of 500°C to 1200°C, and surface morphology and compositional analysis were studied by scanning electron microscopy using the sol-gel process (SEM). The research yielded interesting results, but it was discovered that when Zirconium Dioxide was synthesized using the sol-gel process, the tetragonal phase was not present; thus, other methods to obtain the tetragonal phase would be needed in the future for the application of Thermal Barrier Coating.

  44. Artur E. A. de Castro, Alejandra H. M. González, Daniel Cornejo, Rafael R. G. Paranhos, Ricardo L. Tranquilin, Roberto da Silva Gusmão, Regina M. S. Pereira and Márcio L. dos Santos

    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IONPs) have been used in biomedical applications as carriers for drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic hyperthermia and thermoablation, bioseparation and biosensor applications. The aim of this study was to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles coated with silica and functionalized with Octadecyl Trimethoxy silane for future aggregation of anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and other drugs in the intention of guided administration by external magnetic systems such as: nuclear magnetic resonance, electromagnets and Neodymium magnets. Magnetic IONPs were synthesized by oxidation method adapted from literature, coated with silica, functionalized with Octadecyl Trimethoxy silane and saturated with Doxorubicin solution for future biomedical applications. The coated and functionalized magnetic IONPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), particle size and morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and magnetic properties analysis (ZFC curves). The analyses revealed that the functionalization of the coating and the incorporation of antitumor did not interfere with the magnetic properties of magnetite. The nanoparticles obtained are within the expected parameters for application as a guided drug delivery system.

  45. Raffaele Perez

    In Europe, institutions have tried to promote the creation of educational laboratories at different levels of instruction with the aim of teaching by manufacturing. Since the 1960s, architecture schools have attempted to theorize practice, this teaching strategy has proven inappropriate for developing the professional skills of architecture students. Fabrication classrooms are actually educational labs that function as architectural modelling workshops. The European organization for this has instituted the Future Classroom Ambassador, which has the duty to monitor and create at the different educational levels the “Future Classroom Lab”, a kind of production and creation classroom to develop training through the practice. The authors of this article will try to find out by searching for information on the Internet what is the current situation of architecture schools in Spain. Exists? What is its composition and distribution?

  46. Elmira Zhanysbekova

    For each nation, due to the occupied territory and a peculiar animal, plant environment, it has a centuries-old experience of communicating or taming these animals and using plants for medicinal purposes. Images of these animals migrate from national folklore to national literature. For example, for a Chinese, the image of a dragon is significant, for a Russian – a bear, for a Kazakh – a horse. If one takes an excursion into history, the image of a horse originates from prehistoric times. The horse has accompanied man since the Stone Age; the domestication of the horse marks a turning point in world history. The above-mentioned image is still in demand in world literature. Horse accompanied a person, both in worldly life and in the afterlife. So, the horse symbolizes both life and death. The article analyzes the works, the central image of which is devoted to the archetypal image of a horse. As an example, a detailed analysis of the work Centaur by A. Altai, Man-Deer by O. Bokeev and Village of Centaurs by A. Kim is given. As a rule, authors in connection with the problem of centaurism raise the question of the otherness of their characters; this difference affects both the external and internal world of the character.

  47. DIANE Omar, KANE Ibrahima, DIOME Toffene and SEMBENE Pape Mbacké

    Au Sénégal, pour inverser la tendance à la dégradation massive de la couverture végétale et restaurer la productivité du sol, diverses essences d’arbres à croissance rapide et multi-usages, souvent en plantation monospécifique, ont été largement utilisées. Malgré les effets bénéfiques, leur impact sur la diversité de la flore herbacée reste peu connu. L’objectif de l’étude est de déterminer l’influence du couvert ligneux monospécifique sur la diversité floristique des herbacées.Cette étude a été menée sur des arbres en plantation monospécifique de 28 ans dans la Station de Bandia. Des relevés ont été effectués de Septembre à Octobre durant 4 ans. Au total, 48 relevés (dont 28 sous les plantations monospécifiques, 20 hors station), ont été effectués. Les résultats ont montré que la richesse et la diversité floristiques de même que l’homogénéité et la stabilité des populations herbacées diminuent sous le couvert ligneux monospécifique. Le couvert ligneux monospécifique diminue la richesse et la diversité floristiques de même que l’homogénéité et la stabilité des populations herbacées. La diversité et l’abondance des espèces herbacées sous les plantations dans la station de Bandia sont donc influencées par le couvert ligneux monospécifique.

  48. Mirac Gunay, MS and Jamshed Zuberi, MD

    Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia is a premalignant tumor that arises from ductal epithelial cells of the pancreas. It is generally less than 5mm in size and affects individuals older than age of 50 years. Diagnostic studies used to visualize pancreatic cancers include computed tomography scan, magnetic resonant imaging, and abdominal ultrasound. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia is not well visualized in these diagnostic imaging studies and thus it is difficult to diagnose without intraoperative tissue sampling. We present a case of multifocal pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia originating from benign cystic lesions in the body and tail of pancreas, which was discovered postoperatively only, despite all the imaging modalities.

  49. Parveen Kumar

    Mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst is a rare complication of acute or chronic pancreatitis. It results from tracking of pancreatic fluid through diaphragmatic hiatus into the mediastinum. Herein, we report a case of mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst in a 50-year-old man with a history of chronic pancreatitis. The patient complained of dysphagia and upper abdominal pain. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) revealed acute on chronic pancreatitis and a large posterior mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst. CT guided drainage was performed and a repeat CT scan after seven days showed almost complete resolution of the pseudocyst. High index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis. Mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst is a rare entity and can cause serious complications if left untreated.

  50. Dr. Taisir Shahriar and Dr. Sadia Afrin

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) 1st emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019, and since then the frequency of bacterial and fungal coinfections has been continuously rising. While invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is increasingly being recognized in association with COVID-19, there is limited information with regards to COVID-19 associated mucormycosis. During the current pandemic of COVID-19, a myriad of manifestations and complications has emerged and are being reported on. We are discovering patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of acute cardiac injury, arrythmias, thromboembolic complications (pulmonary embolism and acute stroke), and secondary infection to name a few. In this article we describe a novel case of COVID-19 in a who presented for altered mental status and proptosis. She was ultimately diagnosed with mucormycosis and orbital compartment syndrome, in addition to COVID-19. Early identification of these high morbidity conditions is key to allow for optimal treatment and improved outcomes.due to facial swelling and numbness,and a diagnosis of COVID-19 associated rhinosinusitis mucormycosis due to Rhizopusoryzae was conrmed with PCR and DNA sequencing. This report aims to address the importance of short-term follow-up in COVID-19 patients who have received systemic corticosteroids, particularly those with predisposing conditions, as early detection and prompt, aggressive treatment is essential for the management of invasive fungal infections.

  51. Laura A Calder and Suvish S Kumar

    Lyme Borreliosis is a complex disease which varies in its clinical presentation, thus can be difficult to diagnose. The classic clinical diagnosis of Lyme disease is erythema migrans rash, however, literature has shown not all patients who develop Lyme disease develop this characteristic. The life cycle, pathogenicity and ecological interactions that have an impact on the risk of transmission are multifaceted and require further research. Infection prevention and control of Lyme disease hinge on physician and public education regarding personal protection measures, symptoms and signs of the disease as well as appropriate antibiotic treatment. Early and consistent approaches to diagnosis appear essential to infection prevention and control within primary care. Increasing public awareness and concerns about Lyme disease and its potential consequences for an individual is required. Evidence also necessitates the requirement for more intensive screening within blood and blood component part transfusion. However, there is an overall lack of research within this area as highlighted by referring to seminal research studies within the text. On evaluation, if the figures for Lyme disease continue to rise, further vaccines may be required to control the outbreaks of a potentially harmful disease.

  52. Dr. Azhar Hashmi and Dr. Bisma

    Introduction: Orthodontic treatment planning is complex and requires the ability to simultaneously analyze multiple data obtained from different orthodontic diagnostic records. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment planning depend on data derived from diagnostic aids such as clinical examinations, study models, and the relevant radiographs. Among which Lateral cephalography and panoramic radiography are important tools for treatment planning and are often recommended to orthodontic patients. The gonial angle is an important parameter for determining the growth pattern of an individual, assessing the growth pattern of an individual, rotation of the mandible and the extraction pattern in class II patients. Lateral cephalogram makes it difficult to reliably measure the gonial angle in an individual instead of using lateral cephalogram for measuring gonial angle, panoramic radiography can be used for determining the gonial angle more accurately. Objective: The aim of this present study was to evaluate the accuracy of panoramic imaging and lateral cephalometrics with respect to the measurement of the right and left gonial angles by comparing the measured angles. Materials and methodology: The study was conducted using the Lateral Cephalograms and Orthopantanomograms of 90 patients (30 males and 60 females) were obtained Cephalometric landmarks were located, identified, and marked on the selected radiograph using a 2H pencil. On both radiographs, ramal angle was constructed. Results: The study sample consisted of lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs of 90 patients (30 females and 60 males; mean age, 23±3.5 years) with skeletal class I malocclusion. The mean value of the gonial angle measured using the lateral cephalograms was 123.12, and that of the gonial angle measured using the panoramic radiographs was 122.75°. No statistically significant difference was found between the gonial angle measured using lateral cephalograms and that using panoramic radiographs ((p=0.1). Conclusion: The present study concludes that there seems to be no significant difference in gonial angle between two radiographs. There seems to be a difference in gonial angle with gender groups, but not significant and definitively reliable. As per present study Panoramic radiography can be used to determine the gonial angle as accurately as a lateral cephalogram as there are no significant differences in the gonial angle values as measured on cephalogram and OPG

  53. Nichanor A. Onyango, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Stella L.A. Juma

    Safety of students in public secondary schools is a matter of concern worldwide. In Kenya, a number of students in public boarding secondary schools suffer from tragedies ranging from death of students during infernos in schools, students falling sick due to food poisoning or poor hygiene, attack of students by the community and porous school gates which enables strangers in the school leading to stealing of school property and attack on the students. In 2008, the Government of Kenya launched Safety and Standards manual in both public schools and private schools. Implementations of these standards were expected to make students secure in these schools. However, from 2009 to 2018, there were a number of reported cases of food poisoning, closure of schools due to community threats, loss of lives of students and properties worth millions of shillings in arson cases, diseases caused due to poor hygiene and many others which go unreported. The objective of this study was to establish the effect of physical infrastructure safety guidelines on students’ safety in public boarding secondary schools in Homa Bay County. The study revealed that physical infrastructure safety guidelines had significant effect on students’ safety. The study also established that physical infrastructure safety guidelines had strong and positive effect on students’ safety. The study recommended that school principals should strive to fully implement these safety guidelines to enhance students’ safety in public boarding primary schools in Homa bay County, Kenya. The study is useful to policy makers and stakeholders in the Ministry of Education in developing more strategies to enhance students’ safely in public boarding secondary schools in Kenya.

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