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February 2023

  1. Dr. Rishi Kumar Gautam, Dr. Neeru, Dr. Manish Rao Ambedkar

    Heavy metals toxicity can lower energy levels and damage the functioning of the brain, lungs, kidney, liver, blood composition and other important organs. Heavy metal pollutants are one of the most common and hazardous water pollutant mainly lead, which has toxic impact on the organs of water bodies viz gills of a common fresh water teleost like sa Heteropneustus (Saccobranchus) fossilis. In the order to assess the chronic effects of lead 1/5th of LC50 for 96 hours as sub lethal concentration for 30 days have been used and the Histopathological alterations examined. Bioassays were performed to determine the LC50 values and sublethal concentrations of the lead. The LC50 values for Heteropneustesfossilis were 15.0 mg/l and 3.0 mg/l. The concentration was selected for chronic studies. The results of this present study indicate that the lead is the main source of pollution in pond water and cause of many diseases in aquatic living organisms. This study will be useful to understand the toxicity and to developing a practical procedure and data estimating to safe concentration to be utilized. This study can help in keeping the environment more suitable, more useful and most hospitable for the life living there.

  2. Dr. Jibin Karim V.A., Dr. Ranjini M.A., Dr. Swapna D.V., Dr. Ridyumna Garain, Dr. Vedavathi, B. and Dr. Parvathy, P.

    Aim: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Salvadora persica with and without ultrasonic activation against E.Feacalis. Materials and Methods: The samples were irrigated as follows after preparation upto size F3: Group 1: Experimental combination of 5% NaOCl and 40% S. persica Aqueous extract(n=10),Group 2: Experimental combination of 5% NaOCl and 40% S. persica Aqueous extract with ultrasonic activation (n=10), Group 3: Experimental combination of 5% NaOCl and 40% S. persica alcoholic extract (n=10),Group 4: Experimental combination of 5% NaOCl and 40% S. persica alcoholic extract with ultrasonic activation (n=10). Statistical Analysis: Antimicrobial efficacy – Independent T test and post hoc Mann–Whitney test. Results: Results shows that in the non-activation group, alcoholic extract of Salvadora persica performed better than the aqueous extract. In activation groups both aqueous and alcoholic extracts were found to perform similarly. Conclusion: Both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Salvadora persica in combination with NaOCl had antimicrobial activity against E. Faecalis.Ultrasonic activation resulted in better reduction of CFU’s compared to non-activated groups for both aqueous and alcoholic extracts.

  3. Binal Dave (PT) and Rozina Shaikh (PT),

    Objectives: There is a growing evidence that Transvaginal Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy reduced the severity of Sacro-iliac joint dysfunction (1). However, attention is to be paid to pelvic floor muscle training with functional integration. This study responds to a greater contribution in the area of clinical practice (2). The Sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SJID) has been found to be the primary culprit for Lower Back Pain (LBP), but it is still over worked and treated as LBP. Often, we find that many patients with SI joint dysfunction (particularly sacroiliac joint pain hyper mobility) will manifest with pelvic floor with hypertonic muscular dysfunction, as this is a compensatory strategy used to stabilize the SI joint. Hence, pelvic floor physical Therapy is an important treatment approach which can be used for sacroiliac joint dysfunction. We hypothesized that pelvic floor transvaginal physical therapy can improve sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Methods: 15 patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction participated in this pilot study. The outcome measures used were the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Visual analog scale (VAS) , pain assessment short form 36 (SF-36) and Manual Pelvic floor assessment through Modified Oxford Grading System. The study findings revealed a statistical improvement in post intervention values for sacroiliac joint dysfunction and a statistically significant decrease in hypertonicity of pelvic floor muscle’s and also a significant decrease of pain in the sacro-iliac joint. Conclusion: Transvaginal Pelvic Floor physical Therapy is an important treatment approach tool for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction.

  4. Snehasis Bhunia, Bonny Bhunia and Sohan Raj Tater

    Integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) is defined as the use of yoga practices for the prevention and treatment of medical conditions. Beyond the physical elements of yoga, this incorporates appropriate breathing techniques, mindfulness, and meditation in order to achieve the maximum benefits. The practice of yoga (IAYT) is not easy or as quick as taking medication, but mounting evidence suggest it is worth the effort and investment. This is based on Panchakosha concept, helps one to reconnect with oneself. This can ultimately help to relieve one from the pressures and stressors which we receive almost daily. Neuroendocrine involvement is brought here and interactions between regulatory bodies and vascular functions have been elaborated. Only physical exercise or yoga did not show much beneficial. It is also should be noted that the field of yoga research encompasses the inherent dilemma of the wide variety of yogic practices used as interventional therapies. It has also been shown to have Psychological benefits, as the practice can help to increase mental energy, positive feeling and decrease negative feeling of aggressiveness, depression and anxiety. Keeping these in minds it is very much essential to understand the regulatory involvement and their basic interactions with vascular physiology in IAYT.

  5. Dr. Manjari Kishore, M.D., D.N.B., Dr. Avinash Kumar, M.S., Vrashali Gupta

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection which is caused by larval form of pork tapeworm, Taenia Solium. This condition is endemic in developing countries of Asia and Africa. The common sites are central nervous system (CNS), eye, striated muscle, subcutaneous tissues, liver and lungs. But very few cases of eyelid cysticercosis have been reported in the literature. The same patient had a similar swelling on left ear lobe. Hereby, we report a case of cysticercosis of eyelid and cheek in a 19-year-old female patient who presented with two swellings, one on the right upper eyelid on medial side and other on left upper cheek. Both these swellings were clinically diagnosed as epidermal cyst because of its exclusive site of presentation. Histopathology of excised eyelid lesion showed evidence of cysticercosis. Fine needle aspiration was done for the cheek swelling which confirmed the diagnosis of cysticercosis in that region too.

  6. Nandita Gupta, Sandeep Yadav, Sujata Devi and Balbir Singh

    Numerous research works has been carried out for the removal of phosphorous from the steel since several decade because of its detrimental effect on mechanical properties of steel such as cold shortness temper embrittlement poor ductility and strength. In the present work, dephosphorization experiments have been carried out. Total fifteen heats were processed, experimenting on (0.017%C) low carbon steel. During each individual heat, the samples of slag and liquid metal have been collected. It is found that Rate of dephosphorization is mainly controlled by mass transfer in the slag. Addition of MgO may increase the melting point and viscosity of the slag which decreases the kinetic conditions of dephosphorization. It decreases the activity of CaO and FeO in slag and increase in Al2O3 decreases the viscosity of the melt which have a negative impact on phosphorous removal. The dephosphorization increases with increase in slag basicity and becomes maximum approximately 3, further increase in basicity beyond that has found to have negative impact on phosphorous removal.

  7. Musabyimana Agnes

    The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of training on employee performance in local government in Rwanda. Training is a planned process by which the skills, abilities and aptitudes of employees to perform definite jobs through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity as explained in the glossary training terms. The study’s objectives were: to identify the effect learning design adopted for employee in Muhanga district; to assess the effect of evaluation of learning programs organized on the employee performance results in Muhanga district; and to establish the learning roles and its relationship with employee performance in Muhanga district. The overall view is that training accelerate the improvement in employee performance and that organizations should therefore contribute in training of the workforce. The gains of training can only be appreciated with a clear understanding of its direct effect on employee performance. It is in this line that this study hunted to assess what effect training has had on the employee performance at Muhanga district. The researcher would be used a descriptive design; the population of the study is 178 employees of Muhanga district and a sample size of 123 respondents would be used to get a more reliable analysis. The data was collected by using a questionnaire and would be analyzed by using SPSS. A quantitative data would be collected from closed ended questions and would be analyzed using descriptive statistics while narrative data will be obtained by using qualitative data analysis method. The questionnaires were distributed to123 in Muhanga district. The study dealt with training and employees’ performance compilation. Analyzing qualitatively and quantitatively the findings, with the help of SPSS, the researcher analysed the outcome of training on employees’ concert in local government in Muhanga district. After the analysis and interpretation of findings, it should be concluded that different strategies such as face-to-face trainings, retreat trainings, on-line trainings and workshop trainings, and evaluation of learning programs organized had been applied to provide new and different experiences to the employees and make them regularly achieve their week activities, score all reported activities at more than 70 % at the finale of the year and making service seekers satisfied. Therefore, the relation between learning programs and employees’ performance was established with a regression line of 0.708 and p value which is less than 0.05 as long as the trained employees were working in group with others to helped to do the organizational goals, were the best performance and Muhanga local government’s performance was based on trainings accessed to employees as well as all employees who obtained training were model in work productivity.

  8. Yehya M. Hejri, Ishtiag M. Qadri, Hussein A. Al-Mehdar, Naser A. Al-Kenani and Abdulaziz M. Hakami

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia initiative, that was implemented on the 15th of November 2020, aimed to improve the surveillance of HCV infection among all population. The objective was to eliminate HCV infection, and by that fulfilling the 2030 vision of Saudi Arabia. Official national circulars, that were signed by higher authorities, concentrated on early detection through passive surveillance of cases reported from laboratories, or through active surveillance in the community or in high-risk groups. The data shows that over the years, the prevalence rates of hepatitis C in Saudi Arabia have decreased. However, there is a need to underscore the low quality of data available. Most of the data is fragmented into various population cohorts. Utilization of current data available in the national initiative is mandatory to assess the current situation and to recalculate the prevalence which would be of value for planning, budget allocation, and to assess the need for further active surveillance.

  9. Aichatou Alirou Mahamadou, Lewamy Mamadou, Yaou Chaibou, Adamou Aboubacar, Aboubacar Mahamadou, Fatimata jikatt Abdoulaye, Amina Idrissa Bagnou, Balarabé Mamane Issiak, Almoustapha Théodore Yatta and Haoua Sabo

    Malnutrition, particularly undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, persists and is a public health problem in Niger. The rates of these different forms exceed WHO standards. The objective of this study is to establish a reference situation in the regions of Niger most affected by malnutrition in order to develop a code dictionary of food recipes and foods, the starting point for the food consumption study. Thus, through focus groups, the different recipes and ingredients commonly consumed in 5 regions of Niger (Tillabéry, Dosso, Tahoua, Maradi, Zinder) were collected. A wide variety of recipes were encountered. Pasta is the most common cereal-based dish consumed in the households we visited. It is often the family's evening meal, which can be reheated the next day for breakfast. The most commonly consumed pasta is made from millet, rice, or sorghum. Then come the drinks (boule) made from these cereals. However, some local foodstuffs are also found, but of low consumption, which could contribute to rebalancing the nutritional status of the populations. In this study, the recipients of the various food recipes identified are almost exclusively households (98.86%), with only one case cited for children under two years of age (cooked cowpeas) and one case for nursing mothers (milk). Overall, with the exception of the month of April (77.89%), at least 80% of the food recipes identified were consumed each month. However, additional studies must be conducted to better map them from a nutritional point of view.

  10. Dr. Hemlata, Dr. Guneet Kaur, Dr. Priyanka Parihar, Dr Prachi Agarwal and Dr. Satinder Kaur

    Xanthogranulomatous endometritis is a rare benign pathology mimicking endometrial carcinoma which shows focal or total replacement of the endometrial tissue by granulation tissue with the presence of foamy histiocytes, variable numbers of multinucleated giant cells, chronic inflammatory cells, necrotic material, siderophages, calcium, and hemosiderin.Many a times, infiltration by foamy macrophages in the myometrium can bemisdiagnosed as clear cell carcinoma or sarcoma, Immunohistochemistry can help in coming to a definitive diagnosis. We hereby report the case of 56 years the postmenopausal lady with foul-smelling discharge PV clinically suspected to have malignancy, but histopathologically turned as xanthogranulomatous granulomatous endometritis.

  11. Mujittafa Saidu and Dr. Priti Sharma

    The Aims of this research Paper are to Clearly discuss how Modern Libraries and other Information Centres Embrace and replaced other Library Search Software Tool Which is Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) With Vufind Software Which Imaged as Latest and Speedy Software into the Library System and Services in May 2010. The Paper also describe What the Vufind Software is all about in the Library System and Services and its user-oriented FeaturesUsurious, review of the related Literature, Component Tools for Vufind Software and Hardware requirements and Finally the Benefits of Vufind Software for the library and other information centres.

  12. Dr. Riju Das, Dr. Priyabrata Mandal, Dr. Jahar Roy, Dr. Ranjan Ghosh and Dr. Biswapriya Das

    Objective: The goal of this article was to describe the importance of saving the natural remaining teeth and the fabrication of telescopic dentures as an alternative to the conventional removable dentures, to minimize the complete denture problems. Background: Telescopic dentures consist of an inner or primary telescopic coping which is permanently cemented to an abutment and an outer or secondary telescopic coping which is attached to the prosthesis. These copings protect the abutment from dental caries and thermal irritations and also provide retention and stabilization of the secondary coping. The secondary coping engages the primary copings to form a telescopic unit and it provides retention and stability to the prosthesis. Materials and Methods: An impression was made with a polyvinyl siloxane elastomer after preparation of the abutments and primary copings were fabricated on the cast . After evaluating the fit of the primary copings on the abutments, they were cemented with glass ionomer cement. An impression of the cemented primary copings was made for the fabrication of secondary copings with retention beads, which were attached to the prosthesis. Conclusion: Telescopic overdentures have better retention and stability as compared to complete dentures, they improve the chewing efficiency and the comfort of the patient and they also decrease the alveolar bone resorption.

  13. Anilkumar, C., Chitra, C.R., Bindu, S., Sabu, T. and Jothish, P.S.

    The status of Ficus krishnae remains ambiguous since more than 90% of seedlings become F.benghalensis on germination. This prompted the present genetic study to provide a better insight into the species status. The genetic similarity matrix generated by ISSR data indicates that F. benghalensis is genetically more diverse than F. krishnae. Genetic data analysis suggests separate species status to F. krishnae which is in the process of evolution.

  14. Yasir N. S. Alkhateem and Prof Mejri, M.

    Background: Nowadays, malware samples are automatically created by a custom crimeware toolkit that essentially creates a batch of functionally of the same malware in a different look using different obfuscation techniques and renders static signature-based detection. While there has been substantial research in automated malware classification, it remains challenging in the research community and the main role of crime ware toolkits in the explosion of crime ware has been ignored. Objective(s): Although such approaches have shown satisfactory performance on a large set of datasets, practical defense systems require precise detection during malware outbreaks where only a handful of samples created using a certain toolkit are available. The problem of toolkit signature generation and detection aims at detecting whether a binary file is created by a given toolkit or not. It has many security applications including signature generation and detection for crime ware toolkits, packers, and metamorphism engines. Methods: This paper presents a novel deep learning-based model for malware toolkit signature generation and detection. The method uses a deep belief network (DBN), implemented with a deep stack of denoising auto encoders trained by the fixed-target strategy for generating an effective toolkit signature that helps detect new malware samples generated using the same toolkit once a handful of malware samples are available. Results: The results show how powerful the toolkit signatures generated by the DBN allow for the accurate detection of new malware samples. Using a dataset containing a few training samples created by the same toolkit (Zeus), our method achieves up to 97% detection accuracy using 10 training samples and 1800 test samples, 0.002 sec average detection time (including sample preprocessing time), and 3.08 sec average model build time. Additionally, we introduce a novel concept of toolkit signature.

  15. TOH Alain, N’CHOT Apo Julie and SEHI BI Tra Jamal

    Face aux inégalités d’accès à l’emploi basées sur le genre dans l’armée, une institution profondément masculine, des réformes ont été entreprises en vue de la féminisation de cesecteur. Toutefois, l’effectif des femmes dans les forces de défense et de sécurité reste toujours infime par rapport à celui des hommes en dépit de profondes réformes en faveur de la promotion de la femme. L’objectif de cette étude est d’analyserles logiques socioéducatives de la faible intégration des femmes aux métiers de l’armée. Cette étude a combiné les méthodes qualitative et quantitative à travers des entretiens individuels et de groupe ainsi qu’un questionnaire. La présente recherche montre que la sous-représentation des femmes dans l’armée, en Côte d’Ivoire, s’explique par le faible intérêt de ces dernières pour ces corps de métiers en raison de la perception négative et des stéréotypes liés à l’éducation familiale et aux normes sociales traditionnelles de la femme.

  16. Reem Ahmed Hamid and Mofida Yousif Alkhalifa

    Background: Dinder National Park (DNP) is characterized by three ecological systems and these are meadows, riverine and dahara. These variations in habitat have resulted in wide distribution and high diversity of fauna and flora (1). Objective: The objective of the present study is to document the diversity of flora of the Dinder National Park in 2018 and 2019 in 4 meadows. Method: Standard collection and identification methods were used for plants. Results: During the study period, a total of 29 plant species, representing from 15 families, in 11 orders were recorded. The dominant families were Fabaceae and Poaceae. The phenology of flora revealed 71% of herbs, perennial herb and shrub forming 7% each. The annual weeds, grass, perennial grass, sub-shrub and trees represented 3% for each. Conclusion: There was a great diversity in species composition and families. It showed variations in species and families within the same medow among the years. Also, there were variations in species and families between the meadows.

  17. Dr. Vaishnavi, Dr. Harikrishnan, Dr. Asjad Nizar, Dr. Jibin Joy, Dr. Anil Kumar and Dr. Harshita Kotian

    Background: The aim of this paper is to illustrate the use of Yin-Yang wire for the correction of occlusal cant. Case report: Use of Yin-Yang wire for correcting occlusal cant in an adult individual is illustrated. Patient was successfully treated and the dental occlusal cant was fully corrected. Conclusion: Yin-Yang wire fabricated using 17X25 TMA wire can be used as a successful treatment option for correcting dental occlusal cant in an adult patient thereby improving smile esthetics.

  18. Dr. Sathish Kumar, T., Dr. Guruprasath, A., Dr. Velarasan V. and Dr. Tholgapiyan, T.

    Fibrous dysplasia is a developmental disorder of bone that can present in a monostotic or polyostotic form. Primarily affecting adolescents and young adults, it accounts for 7% of benign bone tumors. Many of the asymptomatic lesions are found incidentally; the remainder present with symptoms of swelling, deformity, or pain. Fibrous dysplasia has been associated with multiple endocrine and nonendocrinedisorders and with McCune-Albright and Mazabraud’s syndromes. The etiology remains unclear, but molecular biology suggests a mutation in the Gsα subunit andactivation of c-fos and other proto-oncogenes. Fibrous dysplasia has characteristicradiographic appearance. Most cases do not require intervention, but those that dousually are managed surgically with curettage, bone grafting, and, in some cases, internal fixation. When some intervention is necessary but surgery is not practical, treatment is with bisphosphonates. The prognosis generally is good, although pooroutcomes are more frequent in younger patients and in those with polyostotic formsof the disease. The risk of malignant transformation is low. We report a case of unilateral monostotic fibrous dysplasia in a 19 year old female in a proximal femur with pathological neck fracture with Shepherd' crook deformity. The patient underwent a curettage of lesions combined with dynamic hip screw fixation and bone grafting. The patient was followed up in the outpatient department(opd),x rays was taken, signs of radiological healing was noted Partial weight-bearing was allowed at three months postoperatively and full weight-bearing at six months with no restriction in the activity. After six months, the patient was able to perform all activities without any difficulty. No evidence of recurrence was noted in the follow-up x-rays. After five years of follow up, implant exit done along with fibular strut graft done

  19. Gasmelseed, G.A., Ali, Z.S. and Alhussein, A.A.M.

    Renewable energy has obtained considerable interest as the fossil fuel reserve is getting shorter with a remarkable effect on the environment and global warming. Those resources are inexhaustible and cheaper than the fossil fuels. In Gezera of Sudan, cotton stalk is very huge in quantity and quality as cotton is one of the national crops planted and its fiber is used in textile industry and for export. However, there are worms that attack the roots of cotton and affect the quality and quantity of the product, therefore the cotton stalk must be derooted and burnt. The burnt is made in open areas of the field with evolution of CO2 which affects the nearby residential areas with simultaneous effect on the environment. The aim of this paper is to collect the cotton stalk in bundles, and introduce it into a well-designed and controlled incinerator provided with a boiler for steam production and electricity generation, which can be supplied to the residential area and villages. It must be recognized that one kilogram of cotton stalk gives 17.1MJ, in addition of utilizing the ash residue as a fertilizer. The absorber dimensions are: out inside diameter 0.52m, thickness 7.5mm, outside diameter 0.5275m, overall height of 2.6m.

  20. Debasmita Debbarma

    Introduction: Induction of labour implies the artificial initiation of uterine contraction in a quiescent uterus by any method like medical, surgical or combined prior to their spontaneous onset.one of the most common indication for labour induction is prolonged pregnancy, which is associated with many of the fetal complications. present study compares effectiveness and safety of induction of labour with mifepristone and with misoprostol. Aim and objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of oral mifepristone with that of oral misoprostol in induction of labour at term. Materials and methods: This was a comperative study involving 100 women with term gestation, women were divided alternatively into two groups with 50 in each group(group 1 mifepristone 200mg given ,group 2 misoprostol 25mcg was given) .The primary outcome measures were successful vaginal delivery ,induction to delivery interval and secondary outcome measures were failed induction ,mode of delivery, birth weight, meconium stained liquor ,fetal distress ,NICU admission ,primary post partum haemorrhage Results: The mean age of women in group 1 and group 2 was 23.16 and 22.72 years respectively .The mean BMI in both the group was similar (22.63kg/m2 and 22.27 kg/m2) The mean induction to delivery was 31.86 hours in group 1 and in group 2 16.11 hours .this is statistically significant in both groups with favourable and unfavourable cervix(p=.00001) Conclusion: we concluded that oral mifepristone seems as effective as oral misoprostol for induction of labour at term, misoprostol was responsible for meconium stained liquor in most of the cases, which was less with mifepristone, so better neonatal outcomes when compared to misoprostol.

  21. Dr. Ranita Ganguly

    Frequent technological changes have started the persistent changes in the evolution of human society. Unlimited access to the information is evidently the basic and foremost result of these reconstruction. The next change, not less important, happened in the transfer and the presentation of the information and the knowledge. Developments of mobile application technology for K-12 education enabled a new venture by making the learners fully mobile, demolishing the time and space limits. These devices enable the unlimited access to the information, knowledge bases, and multimedia contents and most remarkably to the communication beyond time and space. The article aims to use mobile learning through the integrated GPS tool that enables linking information with spatial patterns while using augmented reality to effectively enhance the development of Geographical competence in teaching and learning process. This paper conceptualizes to replace traditional modes of teaching which used obsolete approaches for landscape interpretation using paper maps leading to pedagogically inflexible and disconnected curriculum design. Engaging students in active learning of geospatial context using the traditional approach based on paper maps is inherently challenging and limited. The research encourages to enable adaptation of transformative learning and self-motivational learning related to the curriculum based in geospatial science with the aim to improve the active teaching and learning of geospatial context using digital content. Is today’s contemporary school prepared for the transformation influenced by the mobile technology integrated with GPS tools? How can today’s educators respond to the challenges of innovative teaching process through mobile technology in the learning curriculum?. This paper would like to portray and unveil the changes in the educational process influenced by the development of mobile technologies.

  22. Dr. Prasad, PVNR and Dr. Lavanya Lakshmi, K. J.

    Concept of Srotasa-sharira forms an important part of Sharira-rachana. Srotamsi are not just the passages for flow of various substances but they are specific in their functions. They serve as medium through which both nutrients and biological waste products are transported. The cause of morbidity and their manifestation pertaining to diseases has been explained with reference to each of the Srotas. Both Acharya Charaka and Sushruta have given top priority to Pranavaha Srotas. Acharya Charaka has opined that Pranavaha Srotas are the channels through which Pranavayu moves. Though Brihatrayeekaras have mentioned wide range of herbs for treatment of Pranavaha Sroto Vikara, drugs like Shati, Pushkaramoola, Haritaki, Trikatu, Brihati, Kantakari, Tamalaki, Tulasi, Pippali, Amalaki, Hingu and Ela are very frequently mentioned for the treatment of different Pranavaha Sroto vikara. Rasaushadhis by virtue of their broad spectrum therapeutic activity exert instant results and thus plays a vital role in prevention of complications and early recovery from the illness and also improved quality of life.

  23. Babangida Abba and Danbaba Shuaibu

    This paper is all about the digital literacy and the concept of digital literacy it self. The authors analyzed various forms of information from varied sources that we can access through computer devices. The paper also benefits of Digital literacy, challenges associated with digital literacy, suggestion and conclusion. Today is an era of industrial revolution where we can get all of the information and do anything from the internet. Therefore, we must take advantage of this situation for good. We can know what is good and what is not through digital literacy.

  24. Uriah, S.S., Oguzor, U.C., Ndukwu, G.U., Omitola, O.G.

    Background: Good health is one of the requirements and expectation of every nation that care for the welfare of her citizens and hence an indicator of productive life, socially and economically balanced society. Access to healthcare facilities could be determined in terms of, availability of medical industry in an area, location of healthcare facilities, quality of services offered by health workers and affordability of medical bills. Socio-economic status (SES) can be looked upon as class standing of an individual or group. This study examined the relationship that exists between SES and access to healthcare. Methods: The study was done at five (5) Model Primary Health Centers (MPHC), drawn by ballot from the pool of 14 MPHC, using a cross sectional quasi experimental design. The sample size of 212 respondents was proportionally and statistically distributed among the five selected MPHC. The data were generated with an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Analysis was done with SPSS (17.0) package. Results: Female gender (60%) are the majority, with most of the respondent within aged 31-40 years. Majority of the respondent were educated. The socio-economic characteristics that were significantly associated with access to healthcare were education (rho = 0.493; p-value = 0.000), income level (rho = 0.249; p-value = 0.000); gender (rho = 0.940; p-value = 0.000). Conclusions: The study revealed that SES is significantly related to access to healthcare; and healthcare facilities should be located nearer to the people with minimal class and political considerations that may disadvantage the poor masses.

  25. Raja, K. Nalini Uthaman and Saravanan, R.

    This study will decipher the phytochemistry and the antiproliferative activity of Brassica oleracea methanolic extract on lung cancer A549 cell line. The effect of methanolic extract was to ascertain its cytotoxic effect and anti-proliferative activity through in vitro studies by 3-(4, 5 dimethyl thiazole-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide- MTT assay) on Normal VERO cell line and A549 (Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line). Methanolic extracts of Brassica oleracea was found to be effective in the prevention of cell proliferation by lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Phases of cell cycle in the present study reveal the alterations in molecular events associated with the cancerous cells.

  26. Soumitra Dubey, Pradyumn Tiwari and Krishanu Samanta

    Moringa oleifera Lam (Family Moringaceae) are broadly used in traditional system of medicine throughout different part of sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afganistan. Moringa olefira also known as horse radish tree and drum stick tree. It used in the treatment of infections disease, gastric cancer and gastric ulcer. It is very important to standardize the plant part pharmacognostically for its utilization in different formulation. Herbal medicine prepare different part of plant are used. Herbal drug is design as the alternative formulation for the external use in the form of ointment. For the clinical use the herbal ointment apply externally on human body. The main aims of this research are Preliminary physico–phytochemical & phyto–cognostical evaluation of the leaves parts and preparation of herbal ointment from the Moringa oleifera Lam. Moringa oleifera Lam. plants used as antibacterial activity. Under this research work, it is design as herbal ointment with the help of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam and determines the anti bacterial capacity on it. In vitro study the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extracts of dried leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam are determine by using the Agar cup plate method versus different bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa etc. By blending the methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (10 % w/w) into aqueous cream we formulated herbal ointment. The emulsifying agent and simple ointment bases are added in above herbal ointment for increase the antibacterial effectiveness during in vitro evaluation. The current study deals with the characterization of morphological features, determination of physical constant such as the total ash value, Acid insoluble ash water soluble ash value were 3.65%,1.61%,1.81% respectively. Loss of weight drying was 5.45%, the percent yield for petroleum ether 1.95%, chloroform 4.11%, methanol 6.8% and aqueous 4.74% and determination of formulation and evaluation of herbal ointment using Moringa oleifera Lam leave extract. Also determine the presence or absence of phytochemical such as alkaloids, steroids, saponins, proteins, flavanoids, tannins, carbohydrates.

  27. Muji Minna Hasniah, Arie Kusumawardani

    Wrinkles are visible folds or creases in the skin. One of the factors that can cause wrinkling is the decline of skin hydration that can be known from measuring the TEWL score. Collagen is the scaffold for skin hydration, strength, and stability. It can lower the TEWL score and therefore reduce the appearance of wrinkles. However, until now there have not been many clinical studies on the use of collagen drink to improve TEWL score and wrinkle. We reported 3 patients with normal, borderline, and critical TEWL score with thin size wrinkle who were given an oral collagen drink. We measured improvement in TEWL scores with the Tewameter TM 300 and improvement in wrinkles with the A1 Smart Skin Analyzer. At the beginning of this study, the mean TEWL score for all patients was 26 while wrinkle was 3.89.The patients were given 0.5 gram collagen drink for 14 days. There is an improvement in the TEWL score to 17 and wrinkle to 3.13. All TEWL and wrinkle results in these three patients were classified as normal and thin at the end of therapy.

  28. Kokou Zovodu KOFFI, Atalaèsso BOKO BANA, Mawuli AZIA DEKEY, Nambou GNOFAM, Komlan Pikassalé AKANTETOU, Bassarou AYEVA, Kondi YORIKOUME, Atani Arzouma BOUKARI and Koffi TOZO

    Background: One of the limiting factors of cotton production in West Africa, particularly in Togo, is drought. Identifying the resistant varieties and understanding the mechanisms involved in their resistance is a fundamental asset for the breeder. Objectives: Theaims of this research were to: (i) compare the resistant and susceptible varieties under water deficit conditions on the agro morphological and biochemical levels and (ii) identify the traits responsible for water deficit resistance. Methods: Twelve varieties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were studied under two water regimes (normal and deficit during flowering), in 30 L plastic pots, under controlled sowing conditions, following a split-plot design with three replications. The observations were made on agromorphological and biochemical characteristics. Results: The results showed that water deficit decreased seed cotton production (-23%), aerial biomass (-29%), root biomass (-41%), vegetative branches bolls (-49,56), root volume (-26,34%), and chlorophyll content (-79% to 79%). On the other hand, the water deficit increased the average weight of the bolls (+23%). The resistant varieties to the water deficit were characterized by an increase in the primary root length (variety X148), the chlorophyll concentration (variety STONE 907), the lateral root number, and proline content (variety BRS 286), and a decrease in the MDA content (STONE 907). The susceptible varieties were characterized by high MDA content (variety NTALL88) and a low lateral root number (variety Deltatpine SL Frego). Conclusion: STONE 907, BRS286, and X148 can be used as progenitors in crossing programs to improve the water deficit resistance of cotton varieties grown in Togo and West African countries.

  29. Dr. Suma Dawn

    The Quality of life (QoL) of urban slum dweller embodies overall well-being and happiness, including access to all the civic amenities, as well as good physical and emotional health of an urbanite. It's relative, subjective and has intangible components, such as spiritual beliefs and a sense of belonging. The increase of a nation’s production and wealth; however, development incorporates the enhancement of choices and accesses to the basic needs of the people of the society. To upgrade the quality of life, it is essential to reduce poverty by providing various income opportunities as well as ensuring various economic plus social factors. The area under investigation is also assessing the indicators of Quality of Life (QOL) of people of some selected wards (Ward No. 1 to 7) in Burdwan Municipal Corporation (BMC) responsible for the low QOL. The paper finds out the disparity in the indicators of QOL of the slum dwellers and studies the comparative analysis of the wards of the urban area.

  30. Dr. Mahendrappa K.B., Dr. Sneha Ramesh and Dr. Keerthana, T.B.

    Introduction: Hospital acquired infections have caused high morbidity and mortality, of which central line associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) account for high costs and prolonged hospital stay. As per CDC guidelines CLABSI is defined as “a laboratory confirmed blood stream infection in a patient who had a central line within the 48 hours before the development of the blood stream infection and that is not related to an infection at another site”. Objectives: To determine the incidence of CLABSI in the PICU and the risk factors associated with it. Material and methods: Among 72 children with central venous catheters in the PICU, with new onset sepsis, two sets of blood samples, one percutaneously and other from catheter hub were collected. The samples were cultured by Bactec method. Catheter tips were sent for culture at the time of removal. Data collection was done and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: 4 children (5.6%) had CLABSI. The incidence density of CLABSI was 6.6 per 1000 central line days. Of the 4 CLABSIs, 2 cases grew Candida and 1 each grew Staphylococcus aureus and E coli. The mean duration of hospital stay in CLABSI and no CLABSI cases was 15.25+7.2 and 11.78+3.48 days respectively. The length of hospital stay was found to be statistically significant with the incidence of CLABSI. Conclusion: The incidence density of CLABSI was 6.6 per 1000 central line days. The duration of hospital stay was found to have statistically significant association with CLABSI incidence.

  31. Shivanjali Tiwari and Dr. Arjun Shukla

    India is regarded as the world's botanical garden and a repository for biodiversity. The major objective of this paper is to categorize the medicinal plants that grow around the Narmada River in the Jabalpur region of Madhya Pradesh and to describe how these plants are used to treat human illnesses. From September 2022 to February 2023, exploratory field excursions were performed to the village to examine the therapeutic plants and gather information from the residents. From this investigation, 107 species of useful medicinal plants from 49 families were identified, and the villagers provided information on their ethno-medical uses. The focus of this study is on the value, application, and preservation of medicinal plants among humans.

  32. Viraj Fulena and Hemant B. Chittoo

    Economic sanctions have become the main tool for policymakers to tackle geopolitical challenges such as terrorism and conflict. Sanctions can be in the form of travel bans, asset freezes, arms embargoes, and trade restrictions. Critics often perceive sanctions as being poorly conducted and rarely successful, this could be portrayed as one of the major downfalls on International Law. On the other hand, supporters would argue that recent conflicts have been contained with effective economic sanctions and that it remains an essential foreign policy tool. This paper examines what constitutes sanctions and focuses on practical instances where they have been used in the promotion of Human Rights. It will also examine the alternatives available to economic sanctions since the imposition of such measures could have detrimental effects on human beings and their basic needs.

  33. Ayodeji B. Owoeye (PhD)

    The study investigated the factors that influence digital financial reporting disclosures in Nigerian publicly traded financial sector organizations. Financial reporting specialists' perspectives on chosen firm-specific features were gathered and published in relation to digital financial reporting procedures in such firms. The study used a sample of 350 professionals chosen at random using the judgmental technique from 49 listed financial services firms on the Nigerian Exchange Group (NGX) formerly known as the Nigerian Stock Exchange as of December 2022. The selected professionals were given the closed-ended questionnaire. The acquired data were examined using regression technique. According to the findings, indebtedness, profitability, farm size and foreign shareholding are significant drivers of digital financial reporting practices in Nigerian financial service firms. Furthermore, the P-value of the coefficients supported these findings. As a result, the study suggests that policymakers in Nigeria should consider the significance of this research, which provides light on the necessity of digital financial disclosures. As a contribution, the study takes a comprehensive look at the factors that influence publicly traded enterprises' attitudes towards digital financial reporting in Nigeria.

  34. Himjay Kumar, Ashu Kumar Jha, Priti Bala and Prakash Kumar

    DNA is present in most of the cells in our body, which is unique in each and everyindividual, and we leave a trail of it everywhere we go. This has become an advantagefor forensic investigators who use DNA to draw conclusion in identification of victimand accused in crime scenes. Chorionic villi are villi that sprout from the chorion to provide maximal contact area with maternal blood.They are an essential element in pregnancy from a histomorphology perspective, and are, by definition, a product of conception. Branches of the umbilical arteries carry embryonic blood to the villi. After circulating through the capillaries of the villi, blood returns to the embryo through the umbilical vein. Thus, villi are part of the border between maternal and foetal blood during pregnancy.Child sexual abuse is one of the major problems of India. In regard to this problem, a special law has been enacted named as Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POCSO) with a view to protect the rights of children. Undoubtedly, passing of this Act has been a major step in securing children’s right. In the present case a girl child of aged about 11 years was sexually abused by her school teacher. Upon arising of symptoms her mother doubted and asked the child about facts. Mother took her to the doctor where she tested positive for 9 weeks pregnancy, subsequently a FIR was lodged in a Mahila P.S of District. As it was not feasible to deliver in such a minor age, a legal abortion was carried out upon intervention of hon’ble trial court. The product of conceptus (Chorionic villi) along with reference blood samples of accused and victim were received in Forensic Science Laboratory, Bihar, Patna for establishing paternity. The DNA examiners team at FSL, Patna experienced first time such kind of sample and took it as a challenge. The sample of chorionic villi were subjected to DNA extraction using Automate DNA Extraction Prepfiler Express method and DNA from reference Blood Samples were extracted separately. The DNA were further subjected to Quantitation using 7500 RT PCR instrument and Quantifiler Duo amplification kit followed with 16 STR multiplexing using 9700 PCR machine and Identifiler plus amplification kit. The amplified DNA were subjected to 3130, 4-capillary Genetic Analyzer for fragment analysis.The conclusion revealed that the accused found to be biological father of the product of conceptus(chorionic villi) and upon submission of detailed report, the hon’ble trial court sentenced accused for Death Penalty.

  35. TOKPOHOZIN Noukpo Bernard; FANNOU Jean-Louis C.; HOUEKPOHEHA A. Mathias; HOUNGUE H. Guy and KOUNOUHEWA B. Basile

    Studying the evolution of swell characteristics as they propagate in coastal zone is essential to understanding the physics of the phenomenon. Control of wave parameters and knowledge of sea states are fundamental elements, both for the development of maritime activities and the prevention and fight against coastal disasters. Our study is based on measurements of data acquired from 2011 to 2014 as part of the extension of the Autonomous Port of Cotonou by the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA-Benin). This work, carried out on the coast of Benin, aims to fill the lack of information on the direction of the swells and to provide statistics representative of their heights in the deep waters of the zone close to the coast, where the swell is not not yet submitted to the action of the funds. In these deep waters (offshore) of the coastal zone, based on measurements of wave data taken at five-minute intervals, on a regular basis over a period of four consecutive years (June 2011 to April 2014), the statistical distribution of the characteristic parameters of the swell (height, direction of propagation, wavelength and period) is worked out. Thus, the significant height H_s, the peak period or the stable mean period of the swell T_p≈〖T_m〗_s are evaluated. The frequent incident direction D_fis evaluated to define the spectral directional distribution of the sea states in the deep waters of the Beninse coastal zone are known through the Beaufort scale used in maritime environments.

  36. Durga K Pradhan

    The different species of Rhododendron are naturally bestowed in the Sikkim where Rhododendron thomsonii Hook. f is one of these. It is a beautiful plant having blood red flowers in the corymb. The collected plant specimens were examined and studied in reference to the type habitat and adjoining areas. After more than a century, the collected species from the type habitat was studied and found some variations which are included in this writing. The paper proposed the two subspecies Rhododendron thomsonii Hook.f subsp rubra ssp. nov. and Rhododendron thomsonii Hook.f subsp yumthangenesis ssp. nov. for the taxonomic usages along with new reporting of Rhododendron thomsonii subsp. lopsangianum (Cowan) D. F. Chamberlain in Sikkim Himalaya.

  37. Dr. Mukesh Kumar Chaurasia, Prerna and Deepti

    Indeed, the use of internet is a most powerful medium for communication, mostly highest internet data consumed by the Indians in all over the world. It can be use for constructive influence as well as destructive influence, certainly an increase in technological advancements and industrialization, the world of cyberspace saw an exponential growth in possibilities and features of the internet. The distance was gravely reduced and any remote corner of the world became readily available on our fingertips. However, developing technologies also became a medium of cyberspace violence, or in general words, cyber crime. Cyber crimes pose great difficulty in tracing the source, owing to its ambiguity, hence a popular choice of criminals for the same reason. Jurisdiction lines get hugely blurred in cyberspace violence and the lack of knowledge and familiarity leads to an increase in the number of victims. The majority of cyber crimes are directed towards women and children and other such vulnerable groups of people. Pornography, blackmailing, child grooming, financial exploitation are some common examples. Such crimes are controlled by the IT act of 2000 (Amended 2008). This paper will provide current state of cyber crimes against women and children of Madhya Pradesh with special reference to Sagar district of Madhya Pradesh. The conclusions drawn in this paper are based on a research study on this subject. On the whole, it needs to be investigated as to the mechanics of committing cyber crimes and suggest some concrete measurements to prevent and controlled cyber crime against the women and children in cyber space.

  38. Petronela Maria Merces da Costa Boquifai

    This study discusses the influence of internal auditor competence, and dysfunctional behavior of internal auditors on the quality of internal auditors and their implications for internal auditor performance (study on the State General Inspectorate/ Inspecção Geral do Estado Dili Timor Leste, this study shows that;Auditor competence affects the quality of internal audit, meaning that the more competence of an auditor can improve the quality of the audit carried out by the auditor. Meanwhile, the Auditor's Dysfunctional Behavior does not affect Internal Audit Quality. The results of this study also show a negative and insignificant influence of dysfunctional behavior on audit quality. This means that the auditor at the agency carries out its function as an independent auditor, producing quality audit reports. Auditor competence affects the performance of internal auditors. Auditor competence has a positive and significant effect on auditor performance. This means that if an internal auditor is given full competency with high and independent knowledge, he will be able to improve the auditor's performance. Effect of Dysfunctional Behavior on Auditor Performance. The results of the study show that Dysfunctional Behavior has no positive and insignificant effect on Auditor Performance. This means that if the auditor's behavior shown by an auditor is based on his function and complies with applicable auditing standards and avoids deviant behavior or manipulating audit activities, it will be able to improve the auditor's work performance. Effect of Audit Quality on Auditor Performance. Audit Quality has a positive and significant effect on Auditor Performance. This means that as the increasing quality of the audit carried out by an auditor, the auditor's performance will increase. And also the better the quality achieved by an internal auditor, the better the audit performance. The first path analysis test shows that the intervening variables in this study can strengthen the relationship between Internal Auditor Competence and Internal Auditor Performance. The second path analysis test shows that the intervening variables in this study can strengthen the relationship between Auditor Dysfunctional Behavior and Internal Auditor Performance

  39. Bui Thu Thuy

    This article focuses on trade and tourism along the Sino-Vietnamese borderlands in the Mong Cai-Dongxing region. The trading cities of Mong Cai (Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam) and Dongxing (Guangxi, China) both constitute a cross-border economic cooperation zone, a key strategic element of regional economic development and transnational integration in the Greater Mekong Subregion. In addition, the Mong Cai-Dongxing border cooperation zone not only has a strategic position in bilateral cooperation between Vietnam and China but also is one of the gateways connecting China and Southeast Asia. This is a typical area for the cross-border cooperation model between the two countries, especially in the field of cross-border trade and tourism.

  40. Almutairi Khalid D., Abdurhamn Manwer AL Azzie, Naief Rasheed F, Mohammad Rewashed Almutairi , Majeed Morae Almutairi , Mohammad Dakhel Alazizi , Fahad Dakheel M, Mushary Rasheed F.

    There is significant variation in the knowledge and attitude of health workers relating to the vaccination of HBV infection. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the knowledge and attitude of health workers towards HBV infection and its vaccination in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah. A cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 53 health workers in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah. The data for this study was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, based on Likert scale (Yes, No, Not Sure). The data entry and analysis for this study was carried on using Statistical Package for Social Science. Majority of the health workers (84.9%) were aware that HBV can be acquired from patients. Moreover, 75.5% were aware of HBV vaccine and that it helps in preventing the development of HBV. Majority of the health workers (94.3%) believed that their jobs puts them at risk of contracting HBV infection. The study has concluded that level of knowledge among the health workers was satisfactory and it was significantly associated with positive attitudes toward vaccination.

  41. Pradhan, D.K.

    The Himalayan Ginseng of Sikkim is the potential plant having the efficacies of treating diseases. This paper deals with the new reporting of Panax in Sikkim Himalaya. Thus, Panax ohbi sp. nov is purposed with the taxonomic characters. It is documented for the scientific purposes which, in turn, benefit to the taxonomy and plant science.

  42. Shuchi Verma, A.K. Ray and Ramakant Goyal

    In India, 69 %-70% population is living in rural areas where cow (Bos indicus) is principal cattle. Total Milk producing Cows in India are about 80 million and non-milk producing cows are on the order of 30 million each generates 9–15 kg dung/day. On an average in India from the non-milk producing cows 8x107 kg per day cow dung is produced. One of the serious social problems is the waste generated from stray cows and gaushalas which is not only source of solid pollutants but also run off liquid along with gaseous emission, some of which are either hazardous, lethal or mutagenic or even poisonous, or pathogenic in nature. The solutions for this major problem due to either pollution or disposal of solid wastes can be overcome by the synthesis of some of the worth-mentioning products which include bio-plastics, or bio-textiles,α-cellulose, pulp, paper and card boards for sustainable packaging,, bio-gas, bio-oils and fermentation products like ethanol, bio-composting and bio-fertilizers (N-P-K), nano-cellulose and MFC, microbial products (bacteria and enzymes), activated carbon, and fillers, bricks, silica, ceramics, and silicon-based semiconductors. In this present paper a review is made on these invaluable products with special emphasis on bio polymers and polymers from the ligno-cellulosic part of the cow dung, which in turn consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and sometimes starch also. It is important to mention that based on recent survey the total amount of lignocellulosic part (sum of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in cow dung in India is reported on the order of 52%.

  43. Varada Gireesh, R., Justin Joseph and Mathew Kanamala

    The prime objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of religion on the desire for women’s social freedomamong the young adults.Religious participation and devotion are often linked to life course events such as marriage, childbirth, childrearing, and death. The formation of a family through procreation is sacralized through religious rituals of marriage, and religiously sanctioned marriage is an aspect and indicator of religiosityand it is widely accepted in society (Sherkat, 2015).Questionnaire method was used to collect data from 327 participants including Females (N=251) and Males (N=76) in the age group of 18-40 from southern Kerala. Convenient sampling method was used by the researcher to select participants. The study revealed that, religion has an influence on the perspective of desire for women’s social freedom. The sample not interested to reveal their religion shows more desire for women’s social freedom than sample belonged to Hindu, Muslim, and Christian communities.

  44. Tsheten Dorji

    The paper attempts to analyze and compare Bhutan’s GNH development philosophy with the UN’s SDG and MDG development strategies. The most common parameters of GNH have been compared through a thorough examination of the conceptual foundation and interrelations of GNH, SGDs, and MDGs to development. Further, the achievements and challenges of implementing GNH, SDGs, and MDGs are reviewed and studied. Data on such variables are collected by desk reviewing of past studies, reports, books, and journal articles on GNH, SDGs, and MDGs by different researchers, authors, and writers to establish the interconnections and distinctions. The paper concludes that GNH may be seen as a gimmick but it is a balanced, holistic and shared development philosophy, which has brought real gains in guiding policy directions to Bhutan’s overarching long-term strategies and five-year development plans. Likewise, MDGs are ambitious, yet it is a touchstone for universal development policy for UN member nations since 2000, and have succeeded in lifting society from extreme poverty, reducing hunger, enabling more girls to attend schools, and protecting our mother earth. Similarly, SDGs, UN’s 2030 strategy for sustainable development is a persuasive and inspiring policy for UN member nations, and executing SDGs is not just about providing a future of harmony and dignity, it is more profound and a moment for each nation to consider what connects it as a peaceful nation, and what drives and defines it as a people.

  45. Alfredo Da Costa

    The problems studied in this study are factors related to waste disposal. The municipality of Baucau has not yet completely overcome the problem of garbage in the city of Baucau. The local government is aware of this problem. But have not found the right long-term solution. Research on factor analysis related to waste disposal in Suco Bahu, Municipio Baucau aims to identify and analyze the relationship or correlation between community knowledge, community leaders' participation, community perceptions, community participation, infrastructure, and waste disposal. This research is a quantitative analytical study with a Cross-Sectional approach. The independent variables in this study are factors related to waste disposal which include: community knowledge, participation of community leaders, community perceptions, community participation, and infrastructure. The population in this study are residents who live around a garbage disposal site (TPS), all residents who live in markets, kiosks, and shops, as well as people living on the side of the highway. The sample in this study was 109. The sampling technique used the Proportionate random sampling method. The research instrument was a questionnaire and an observation sheet. Primary data is obtained through interviews and observations while secondary data is from the Village Hall (Suco) Bahu. Data analysis using chi-square test P value 0.05. The results of the study show that; "There is a significant relationship between people's perceptions of waste disposal, with a Prevalence Ratio ( RP ) of 8.83 and 95% CI: lower 1.492 and upper 38.666, there is a significant relationship between community participation and waste disposal, with a Ratio Prevalence (RP) 1.296 and 95% CI: lower 1.484 and upper 4.980. There are also results of research that show no relationship between community knowledge with the waste disposal with a Ratio Prevalence (RP) of 0.869 and 95% CI: lower 0.409 and upper 1.857, participation of community leaders with garbage disposal with 1.136 Ratio Prevalence (RP) and 95% CI: lower 0.410 and upper 3.880, infrastructure with garbage disposal with 0.051 Ratio Prevalence (RP) and 95% CI: lower 0.73 and upper 2.557,

  46. Hazeena M Ameen

    Background: A marine angiosperm named Enhalus acoroides inhabits shallow, soft substrates like muddy or sandy areas. It flourishes above the average low water springs and is generally found in mixed meadows with Thallassia species. The Western Pacific Ocean and tropical Indian coastlines are home to this largest seagrass species. Over the past ten years, Enhalus acoroides has received a lot of attention from marine bioprospecting researchers. Objective: This review provides information on the phytochemical components, and therapeutic properties of Enhalus acoroides. Enhalus acoroides extract yields a variety of compounds when it is dissolved in various solvents, including sugars, terpenoids, coumarins, xanthoproteins, and carboxylic acid. Numerous studies have shown that it has bioactive potentials, including antibacterial, antifungal, and antifouling abilities. This review's goal is to orient readers with Enhalus acoroides' phytochemical makeup and current bioprospecting scenario. Conclusion: Since many epidemics and pandemics are spreading throughout the globe, the demand for alternative sources for drug discovery is an inevitable research area, and seagrass is a reliable natural source, this is an ideal time to conduct additional research on it and discover various pharmacological activities without side effects. This review brings together a thorough collection of phytochemical, and biomedical applications of seagrass Enhalus acoroides from all over the world over the last two decades. The future works that need to be done for identifying biomedical applications of seagrass resources is also highlighted in this review.

  47. Kashinath Boral and Dr. Swapan Kumar Dutta

    NEP-2020 has prepared an educational vision for the country. It wants India to become a global knowledge superpower (Vishwa guru) from a vibrant knowledge society. Therefore, NEP-2020 has emphasized on making education more holistic and effective, linking vocational education with general education, and strengthening the fundamental pillars of education i.e., access, equity, quality, affordability, and accountability. Achieving the goals requires certain pathways, and the Curriculum Framework is one of those pathways that move the nation's education system forward.UGC has developed a Curriculum and Credit Framework for Undergraduate Programmes to make a good, creative, thoughtful, and skillful person in this knowledge-based society and to fulfill various recommendations of NEP 2020. This paper highlights the proposed Curriculum, it's Credit Framework for Undergraduate Programmes and its various silent features. Also, the challenges that may arise in its implementation at the ground level have been discussed in detail. Appropriate suggestions have been given on how to overcome the various challenges.

  48. Akshitha D Ajay, Gini C Johns, Mareena Mathew, Athira.S and Cijo George

    The development of hyperkalemia is thought to be significantly associated with the use of ACE inhibitors andARBs. A retrospective observational cohort study conducted was conducted with200 in patients among the study subjects of the age group of 18 years and above. Majority of the cases were males (50.5%) than females (49.5%). Average serum potassium of non-exposed group was found to be 3.9±0.36 mEq/L and exposed group was found to be 4.1±0.5 mEq/L. Average baseline creatinine(mg/dL) of non-exposed group was 1±0.82 mg/dL and exposed group was 0.96 ±0.2 mg/dL. ACEIs were administrated to 1% of the patients (1/100) and ARBs to 99% (99/100). Incidences of hyperkalemia were the highest with the use of losartan (0.92%,2/13), olmesartan (0.85%, 2/14) followed by telmisartan (0.64%, 7/65 persons). The causality assessment of reported ADRs as per the Naranjo scale revealed that 67% were probable, 33% were definite, 0% were possible and unlikely. The Hartwig severity scale showed that all were of mild type and according to the modified Schumock and Thornton scale all were probably preventable there was a significant association between Hyperkalemia and administration of ARBS/ACE –inhibitors (χ2= 11.640, df= 2, p<0.01).

  49. Pema Yangchen Bhutia, Shashirani Pangambam and Ashalata Devi, W.

    Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a lung infection that develops in a person who is on a ventilator. A ventilator is a machine that provides oxygen to a patient via a tube inserted in the patient's mouth or nose, or through a hole in the front of the neck. If microorganisms reach the patient's lungs through the tube, an illness may result. When a patient is critically ill, or during and after surgery, he or she may require a ventilator. Ventilators can save a patient's life, but they also raise the risk of pneumonia by making it easier for germs to enter the patient's lungs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and practise of ICU nurses. Method: A descriptive study was conducted in ICUs of CRH and New STNM hospital, Gangtok, Sikkim. The sample consisted of 66 staff nurses, who fulfilled inclusion criteria of the study. Non probability purposive sampling technique was used. The data collection tool used for the study was 20 structured knowledge questionnaires on VAP Bundle and 20 practice observational checklist. Result: Out of 66 ICU staff nurse 89.4% had a good knowledge, 7.6% had average knowledge and 3% of the staff nurses had poor knowledge on VAP bundle care. Majority 98.48% had good knowledge regarding VAP treatment, 39.39% had poor knowledge on VAP bundle care components. 69.7% of the staff nurses had good practice, 23.3% had average practice and 3% had poor practice. 100% of the staff nurses wore PPE for protection of the airway and 42.42% of staff nurses did not practice standard hand washing technique appropriately. The present study revealed that there was moderately positive correlation between knowledge and practice of VAP bundle care (r= 0.148). There was no association between nurse knowledge score with the demographic variables, also there was no association between practice score with demographic variables. Conclusion: The study found that the majority of the ICU nurses had good knowledge and practice on VAP prevention, there is still need for continuous training on evidenced based practices so as to prevent infection and complication.

  50. Wei, Su and Mantuhac, Pamela

    In recent years, China's medical and health industry is in a period of rapid development. With the continuous progress of technology and knowledge in the medical field, the requirements for medical education are becoming stricter.This descriptive study used an adopted questionnaire to survey 436 medical college students of Qilu College of Medicine in Zibo City, Shandong, China, about their mental toughness, academic self-efficacy and learning burnout of the status quo, and to explore the correlation between the three. It also utilized an interview of 10 instructorsfor supplementary data. Results revealed that burnout exists among the student-respondents, although it remains in an unalarming rate. Despite having minor observable issues in their practice, which limit their education under an optimum level, students were also seen as resilient and contented of themselves and their current education. Considering such findings, intervention strategies were proposed to further alleviate academic burnout and promote the finest learning among medical students.

  51. Dr. Jaffer Sadik and Dr. Akhil Shetty

    Orthodontic tooth movement necessitates a considerable amount of periodontal tissue remodelling. During orthodontic therapy, teeth are moved via the processes of osteoclast bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. Hormones, cytokines, growth factors and elements of the bone matrix are some of the significant elements that are involved in the process of osteo-clastogenesis. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) has been revealed to include the biomarkers responsible for both bone remodelling and alveolar degradation. As a result, research has indicated that GCF may be a good indicator of the immunological and inflammatory responses brought on by both periodontitis and the use of orthodontic treatment. Examination of GCF is a reliable way to show the biochemical alterations that takes place during orthodontic tooth movement. Damage to the periodontal tissues during the course of orthodontic therapy, leads a variety of physiologically active substances which represent bone deposition and breakdown processes. For the current narrative review, a bibliographic search was done in PubMed and other databases for English articles that were published since last decade. Clinically relevant knowledge of the biomarkers of GCF enables better mechanical force selection for better orthodontic therapy with fewer side effects and shorter treatment periods. The main aim of the present narrative review is to provide a better understanding of the underlying bio-mechanisms of orthodontic tooth movement which are accomplished by various markers




    We are going to launch Volume 15 Issue 02 February 2023 of the peer-reviewed online journal entitled “International Journal of Current Research” publishing original research articles. Publish original research work of a multidisciplinary field of science. The Journal welcomes original Research Articles, Book Reviews, Commentaries, Reviewed Articles, Technical Notes, Snippets, Case Studies, Books, Theses and Dissertations relevant to the fields of all subjects and scheduled monthly.

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    When we talk about subjects, we have an unending list, whose journals, papers and lists are published. Though we do include multidisciplinary range like Current science journal, medical science journal, engineering and technology journal, education and research journal, social science journal and any other journals are given equal important on the IJCR

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    • Your papers are safe with us; Neither we accept copy paste material from any source and nor we let others take the credit from your papers. Thus, we keep them safe.
    • The certification of the paper publishing can be easily taken into account, with the help of digital certificates that can be easily availed from the site.
    • Submission of work, papers, thesis and journals on the site of IJCR: scientific research Journal, make it a standard set that your paper is originally written, thus discriminating against the very often practice of Plagiarism.
    • Benefits of Writing a scientific research Journal IJCR
    • When one decides to prepare a Current science journal, the idea is to make the truth take on the board in deeper detail.
    • When one writes about new or potential research history related to a medical science journal, the general public remains notified of the new developments and the possible reasons with potential casual reasons of the disease.
    • Heights of development in the technological field and the advancement are necessarily brought in light with the help of engineering and technology journal and the computer science journal
    • Bringing ideas about various topics and new findings in the education field could be easily taken into consideration, if all details are well mentioned in the education and research journal.

    Article submission:

    Important Information:

    • Last Date of article submission: 25th of Every month
    • Acceptance Notification: within a Week.
    • publication online: within 48 hours after submit all necessary documentation for publication

    If any queries please contact:  publisher.team.ijcr@gmail.com (or) If any Clarification Contact WhatsApp number:              + 918072208995


    For all communication regarding how to publish a paper, the status of the paper, and other general information.


    For communication regarding submission acceptance of the papers. For all communication related to payment-related and clarification.






Advantages of IJCR

  • Rapid Publishing
  • Professional publishing practices
  • Indexing in leading database
  • High level of citation
  • High Qualitiy reader base
  • High level author suport

Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.



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