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The number and location of the diaphyseal nutrient foramen on human dry long bones of the lower limb in Uttarakhand region

Author: 
Sunita, Nidhi Sharma and Dr. Anurag
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study is to observe and analyze the diaphyseal nutrient foramen on the human dry long bones of the lower limb in Uttarakhand region, India, to know the number and location of the diaphyseal nutrient foramen following its general rule which is directed away from the growing end. Materials and Methods: The present study consists of 75 human dry long bones of lower limb (25 femur, 25 tibiae, 25 fibulae),taken from the department of Anatomy, Sri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Dehradun,Uttarakhand, India. The foraminal indices (by Hughes formula) and mean value were calculated for each bone. Digital calliper was used for the measurements of the nutrient foramen from the higher point of the proximal end of the bone. Results: The neurovascular foramen was present in all 75(100%) observed bones. 42 diaphyseal nutrient foramina in Femur, 27 in tibiae and 28 in fibulae were noticed. The maximum nutrient foramina were located along the middle third of the femur with the foramen index ranging between 28.83 and 66.52% of the bone length. In Tibia 23(85.18%) maximum were in the proximal third (Type-1) and 4(14.81%) were in the middle third (Type-2) with the foramen index ranging between 24.45 and 54.38% of the bone length. There was a variation seen in the tibiae at the middle third of the posterior surface, a nutrient foramina was conducted which directed to the upper end of the tibiae (Photograph-10) whereas all the other foramina observed directed distally. The maximum nutrient foramina of fibulae were situated in the middle third of the bone with a foramen index ranging between 32.23 and 63.86% of the bone length. There were no foramina in the distal third (Type-3) of any observed bone. There was a variation conducted at the flattened part of the posterior surface showing the double nutrient foramina at the same place near each other at middle 1/3rd of the bone (Photograph-11, Photograph-12) directed distally. Conclusion: This study provides the ethnic data on lower limb long bones of Uttarakhand region to compare with bones of various populations. It is helpful for interpretation of radiological images and various surgical procedures also.

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